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Year 2021 , Volume  53, Issue 6
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1

Na+ and K+ homeostasis is important for salinity and drought tolerance of Calligonum mongolicum


Jing Hu, Xiaoke Hu, Huirong Duan, Huiwen Zhang and Qiushi Yu

Na+ and K+ homeostasis is important for salinity and drought tolerance of Calligonum mongolicum


ABSTRACT:

Calligonum mongolicum is a typical pioneer xerophyte for sand fixation. To unravel the drought and salt tolerance of C. mongolicum, salt and drought stress were simulated by NaCl and sorbitol treatments respectively, and the accumulation and distribution of Na+, K+ in C. mongolicum were analyzed. The results showed that the fresh weight, dry weight and relative growth rate of C. mongolicum were increased significantly under the treatment of 25 mM NaCl, suggesting that 25 mM NaCl could promote plant growth. The addition of 50-300 mM NaCl increased sharply Na+ concentration in roots and shoots, while K+ concentrations remained stable; further study found that the 25-100 NaCl treatment significantly increased the net K+ uptake rate. Moreover, compared with moderate salt stress (25 mM NaCl), as the degree of stress intensified (50 and 100 mM NaCl), the ST value improved evidently. Therefore, it is suggested that C. mongolicum is able to maintain K+ homeostasis, thus refrain from K+ insufficiency brought by the external Na+ competition to resist salt stress. Under -0.25 – -1.0 MPa treatments, net Na+, K+ uptake rate was increased significantly, but Na+/K+ ratio, ST value and Na+, K+ relative distribution in tissues of C. mongolicum remained stable, implying that maintaining Na+, K+ homeostasis may be especially significant for C. mongolicum to deal with drought.

1927-1934 Download
2

Effect of sodium salt stress on the growth of Elymus repens


Muhammad Junaid Yousaf, Fawad Ali and Farhad Ali

Effect of sodium salt stress on the growth of Elymus repens


ABSTRACT:

Plants are sensitive to the external environment that may either be in form of biological stress such as any pathogenic effect or abiological stress such as salt stress. Among the salt stresses, the most prominent stress is known as sodium salt stress, because sodium is involved in a wide range of plant metabolic activities preceded by calcium. To investigate the effect of sodium ion on plant, seeds of E. repens are first imbibed in distilled water for 2 hours, surface sterilized with 70% ethanol and then grown in sodium nitrate, sodium bisphosphate monobasic, trisodium citrate, sodium bromide, sodium carbonate, and sodium dichromate for 7 days in the concentration of 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, 1% of salts compared with distilled water as control for each. At 8th day of germination, root and shoot length were noted using scale and fresh weight of root and shoot was noted using digital balance while dry weight of root and shoot was noted after drying them in incubator for 72 hours. Noted data elucidated that seedlings showed high growth in sodium nitrate while low growth in trisodium citrate, sodium carbonate and sodium dichromate. Growth in sodium bisphosphate and sodium bromide was slightly higher with increasing concentration of salt but still lower when compared to control. Moreover data for each salt was also used to find out the vigour index, stem weight ratio, root weight ratio, root stem ratio and relative water content to analyse the effect of salts on different aspects of plant growth.

1935-1942 Download
3

Deciphering physio-biochemical characteristics of ZnSO4 primed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown under salt stress


Sara Zafar, Zuhair Hasnain, Shagufta Perveen, Naeem Iqbal and M. Amir Zafar

Deciphering physio-biochemical characteristics of ZnSO4 primed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown under salt stress


ABSTRACT:

Zinc dearth is an imperative soil constraint facing agriculture, particularly cereals. Zinc is a critical micronutrient involved in many physiological processes including carbohydrate metabolism and maintain high yields in plants. The study evaluated the role of Zn grain priming in alleviating the detrimental effects of salt stress. Salt stress (100 mM) negatively influenced plant parts that ultimately perturbed physiology and biochemistry of wheat varieties Faisalabad-2008 and Galaxy -2013. Preconditioning of Triticum aestivum L., wheat grains with ZnSO4 (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 mM) increased growth, chlorophyll, K and Zn contents in root and shoot of both wheat varieties. Correlation analysis, dendrogram and PCA analysis clearly indicated that root and shoot Na are positively correlated with each other and negatively regulate photosynthetic pigments, ionic contents and growth of plants. Overall, results suggested that 5 mM ZnSO4 priming was effective in attenuating salt stress in both wheat genotypes

1943-1952 Download
4

Potential of priming in improving germination, seedling growth and nutrient status of Calotropis procera under salinity


Umbreen Aziz, Ihsan Qadir, Ghulam Yasin, Muhammad Farooq Azhar, Atif Javed and Azeem Akhtar

Potential of priming in improving germination, seedling growth and nutrient status of Calotropis procera under salinity


ABSTRACT:

In the present study, various priming methods were applied to assess the germination response, growth and nutritional value of C. procera under different salinity levels. In screening phase, seeds were primed with distilled water, ascorbic acid (50 mg L-1), NaCl (0.3%) and thiourea (0.3%), grown under salinity levels: 40, 80, 120, 160, 300, 340, 380 and 420 mM NaCl. No germination was observed above 160 mM of NaCl and salinity up to this level was selected for further experiment. In the second phase, primed seeds were germinated in pots under controlled conditions to study the growth and nutritional value of C. procera. The results indicated that ascorbic acid (50 mgL-1) at 120 mM salinity level was the most effective treatment for growth attributes: shoot and root length (15.10 cm, 16.30cm), shoot fresh and dry weight (8.05 g, 1.61 g), root fresh and dry weight (6.06 g, 1.73 g), respectively. Chlorophyll content was higher at 120 mM salinity level with 0.3% of thiourea. Nutrients like potassium (K+), cadmium (Cd2+) and zinc (Zn2+) were greater at 120 mM salinity level with ascorbic acid while Na+ concentration was highest at 160 mM salinity level in both shoot and root (9118 ppm, 2657 ppm) with 0.3% of NaCl priming as compared to other nutrients. It was concluded that under high salt stress, priming with ascorbic acid could enhance seed germination, growth behavior, and nutritional value compared to other treatments by triggering antioxidant defense mechanisms in the seed of C. procera.

1953-1958 Download
5

Enhancement in growth, nutrient uptake and yield in salt stressed maize by foliar application of methionine


Sadia Shahid, Abida Kausar, Muhammad Yasin Ashraf, Noreen Akhtar and Zill-I-Huma Nazli

Enhancement in growth, nutrient uptake and yield in salt stressed maize by foliar application of methionine


ABSTRACT:

Maize is leading cereal crop, having good quantity of vitamins, nutrients and minerals. It is cultivated all over the world for nourishment of human beings. Salinity is topmost problem of agricultural lands worldwide. Among numerous techniques being used in developing countries, use of organic compounds like amino acids is a cost effective technology. Amino acids have a valuable role in crop production and to reduce the changes produced due to abiotic stresses. In present experiment, four maize genotypes (FH1275, FH 936, FH 1231 and FH 1227) were used for two methionine levels (5 and 10 mg /L) under 80mM NaCl stress. After 120 days of propagating, four maize genotypes were evaluated for the measurements of various morphological and nutrient uptakes. Plants were uprooted and washed well. Yield parameters were examined at plant maturity, the methionine level 10 mg/ L showed better results as compared to 5 mg/ L both under saline and non-saline environments. Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three factor factorial plan was used to assess the efficacy of amino acid on maize, under saline stress. Data was analyzed using suitable statistical analysis.

1959-1968 Download
6

Modulation of morpho-physiological and biochemical attributes of Solanum melongena L. (brinjal) by exogenous application of thiourea under salinity stress


Tahira Perveen and Khalid Nawaz

Modulation of morpho-physiological and biochemical attributes of Solanum melongena L. (brinjal) by exogenous application of thiourea under salinity stress


ABSTRACT:

Salinity is a major stress that lowers the plant production globally. The main purpose of present study was to overcome the adverse effects of salinity stress by foliar application of Thiourea. In this experiment Thiourea (0, 500, 1000 mM) was applied on four varieties (Bemissal, Verab, Black Round and Purple Pearl Long) of Brinjal as foliar spray to alleviate the inhibitory effects of salt stress (0mM, 200 mM). There were three replicates for each treatment. Completely Randomized Desig (CRD) was used for this experiment.The morphological and biochemical attributes of Brinjal were noted. The salinity stress caused reduction in plants fresh and dry biomass, photosynthetic pigments, total free amino acids. However, foliar spray of thiourea impoved these growth attributes and activities of antioxidant enzymes i.e POD, SOD& CAT under salt stress

1969-1978 Download
7

Gene action of yield related characters under normal and drought stress conditions in Brassica napus L.


Wajiha Ijaz, Shamsa Kanwal, M. Hammad Nadeem Tahir and Humera Razzaq

Gene action of yield related characters under normal and drought stress conditions in Brassica napus L.


ABSTRACT:

Climate change is threat multiplier of existing problems. It is causing many more stresses including abiotic and biotic. Among the abiotic stresses, drought is the big challenge for researchers and farmers. The easiest and cost-effective approach for various stresses due to climate change is adaptive genes deployment. For this purpose, information related to gene action is very much necessary for developing climate resilient crops. The purpose of this study was to determine the gene action of various yields and yield related characters of Brassica napus under drought stress. Three drought sensitive and eight drought tolerant varieties were collected and hybridized by following the Line × Tester fashion. Developed breeding material and their parents were assessed at maturity stage. RCBD with split plot arrangement was used, in this experiment. Two drought stress and a normal treatment were applied. Data were recorded for different yield and its associated characters. Observation of genetic variability was done amongst the developed breeding material for most of the traits. Highest genetic variation suggested that selection will be more fruitful under drought stress and normal treatments. Potential parents were chosen from the results of Line × Tester analysis i.e. ZmR-4 and ZmR-10. Among all the crosses Zmm-5 × Rainbow exhibited better performance for yield and yield associated characters under both conditions. Yield/plant showed non-additive gene action under drought stress and normal condition that might be exploited in next generation

1979-1985 Download
8

The effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and salicylic acid on growth and biodiesel production potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under water stress


Adnan Khattak, Faizan Ullah, Zabta Khan Shinwari and Sultan Mehmood

The effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and salicylic acid on growth and biodiesel production potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under water stress


ABSTRACT:

Biodiesel is a green fuel derived from vegetable oil and animal fats. In present studies we evaluated effects of salicylic acid (SA) and Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) on growth and biodiesel production potential of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) varieties S-78 and Armoni under water deficit stress. The water deficit stress (50% and 30% field capacity of soil) was imposed during reproductive growth for one month. Salicylic acid (5 and 3 mg/L) and nano-TiO2 (50 and 25 mg/L) was applied to leaves as a spray once before the start of water deficit stress period and next foliar spray 15 days after imposition of water stress. We observed that severe water stress (30% field capacity) significantly decreased plant leaf area, leaf relative water content (LRWC), chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids content, head diameter, width and length of achene, 1000 achene weight, achene oil content and biodiesel yield. Severe water stress (30% field capacity) increased oil acid value and free fatty acids content but decreased oil iodine value and refractive index. The foliar spray of salicylic acid and nano-TiO2 effectively alleviated adverse effect of water deficiency stress on growth, achene quality and biodiesel yield of sunflower varieties. The sunflower variety Armoni performed better and showed better response to applied SA and Nano-TiO2. Moreover, influence of nano-TiO2 and SA on sunflower under water stress was nearly comparable. We concluded that foliar spray of either nano-TiO2 (50 mg/L) or SA (5 mg/L) could be highly effective in the alleviation of adverse effect of water deficit stress on the biodiesel production potential of sunflower.

1987-1995 Download
9

Ecophysiological responses of different ploidy levels (Tetraploid and Hexaploid), of Cenchrus ciliaris to water deficiency conditions


Abdelkader Ahlem, Mnif Lobna and Chaieb Mohamed

Ecophysiological responses of different ploidy levels (Tetraploid and Hexaploid), of Cenchrus ciliaris to water deficiency conditions


ABSTRACT:

Cenchrus ciliaris L. is a perennial grass species that is widely present in Tunisian arid ecosystems. The ability to adapt to water deficiency of two provenances of C. ciliaris with different ploidy levels hexaploid (6x) and tetraploid (4x) was studied. Soil Water Content (SWC), predawn leaf water potential (Ψp) and midday leaf water potential (Ψm), number of leaves (NL), and shoot phytomass production were measured. Experiments were carried out under semi-controlled conditions of Sfax region (South of Tunisia). The factors studied were:  ploidy level and irrigation treatments. Three irrigation treatments were applied: control T200 (200 mm year-1), T100 (100 mm year-1) and T50 (50 mm year-1). In our experimental conditions, our results showed that Cenchrus ciliaris species exposed to different irrigation treatments exhibited a decrease in all measured parameters. Different strategies seem to be developed by both provenances under drought conditions. Therefore, as soil water content decreased, tetraploid (4x) plants showed more negative leaf water potential (Ψp and Ψm) compared to hexaploid (6x) ones. More leaf number as well as shoot phytomass production by 6x provenances, in water deficiency conditions, suggests the ability of these provenances to support low water supply.

1997-2002 Download
10

Effects of lead pollution on germination and seedling growth of turfgrass, Cynodon dactylon


Zuoming Xiong, Jiahuan Yang and Keliang Zhang

Effects of lead pollution on germination and seedling growth of turfgrass, Cynodon dactylon


ABSTRACT:

Lead (Pb) pollution in soils often triggers a catastrophic impact on crop growth and creates concerns related to food safety while seriously affecting agricultural production. Turfgrass, which produces a large amount of biomass, has been widely grown as a heavy metal sink. The present study evaluates the germination and seedling growth responses of turfgrass, Cynodon dactylon, to different levels of Pb(NO3)2. The results indicated that 50–300 mg/kg of Pb(NO3)2 did not significantly influence germination. The germination percentage and index gradually decreased with an increase of Pb(NO3)2 from 300–1000 mg/kg. The growth of root, shoot, as well as contents of chlorophyll a and b decreased with increasing Pb concentrations. The contents of soluble sugar, proline, MDA, SOD, and POD activity increased with an increase of Pb(NO3)2. When the concentration of Pb was below 500 mg/kg, the activity of CAT would first increase and then decrease. The high tolerance and accumulation of Pb by C. dactylon make it a useful accumulator of Pb. Therefore, this species will be useful in the phytoremediation and revegetation of Pb contaminated soil.

2003-2009 Download
11

Growth response of Helianthus annuus (sunflower) influenced by foliar spray of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) aqueous leaves extract


Muhammad Asad, Afsheen Khan and Bushreen Jahan

Growth response of Helianthus annuus (sunflower) influenced by foliar spray of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) aqueous leaves extract


ABSTRACT:

The paper explains possible outcomes in physical parameters of sunflower growth when irrigated by foliar spray of different concentrations of lemongrass aqueous leaf extract. Germination period begins from 48th hour and lasts up to 72nd hour in which vigor seems to be highest in 1% samples. The observed average time period employed by seeds to germinate and the vigor of the treated seeds show significantly (p<0.1 and p<0.05 respectively) different pattern in the early period of germination than the later hours. Seedling growth is determined indicating highest growth in 0.5% and 1% samples in all evaluated parameters. After seedling establishment, plants gained maturity where potential of growth is weakly significant (p<0.1), relatively greater in 0.5% and 1% samples as indicated in their growth parameters i.e., root/shoot length, root/shoot dry weight and shoot length/leaf area. Growth correlation slightly declines in 2% and 3% samples. Lemon grass treatment found effective for germination and growth of sunflower plants in lower concentration hence can be utilized for better yield of sunflower crops and capable to minimize the use of other hazardous chemical fertilizers.

2011-2016 Download
12

Effect of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on grain yield and bioeconomic efficiency of coarse rice (Oryza sativa L.)


Iqtidar Hussain, Abdul Aziz Khakwani, Imam Bakhsh, Ejaz Ahmad Khan and Sheheryar

Effect of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on grain yield and bioeconomic efficiency of coarse rice (Oryza sativa L.)


ABSTRACT:

Plant growth regulators (PGRs) play a pivotal role in plant’s life as they coordinate and regulate many physiological processes governing crop growth and yield. Bioeconomic efficiency of a plant growth regulator (NAA 4.5% as sodium salt) on coarse rice (IR-6) was assessed under the agro-ecological conditions of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan over two years. The research was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement, repeated four times. Main plots were considered for assessment of three decisive developmental stages of the paddy rice, S1 (tillering), S2 (panicle initiation), and S3 (grain formation stage), while four levels (0, 60, 90 and 120 ml ha-1) of NAA were applied in four sub-plots. The PGR application at different growth stages increased biomass, straw yield and paddy yield (t ha-1) of the paddy rice. Application of NAA @ 90 ml ha-1 at the panicle initiation stage caused the highest increase in biomass yield (18.90 and 19.10 t ha-1), paddy yield (8.00 and 8.20 t ha-1), straw yield (12.00 and 12.30 t ha-1), harvest index (42.32 and 42.93%), crop growth rate (28.6 & 32.4 g m-2 day-1), photosynthetic efficiency (1.91 and 1.57%), and leaf area index (12.9 and 13.2). Bioeconomic efficiency was also increased (2.09 and 2.16) during both years, respectively. It was concluded from the results so obtained that exogenous application of NAA @ 90 ml ha-1 at panicle initiating and tillering stage had been helpful in attaining higher yields in rice with more net returns.

2017-2023 Download
13

Exogenous salicylic acid improves chilling tolerance of edible lily bulbs in cold-storage


Lizi Zhao, Yingjie Zhang, Wenjiao Guo, Meixia Liang, Hongxia Zhang and Xiaohua Liu

Exogenous salicylic acid improves chilling tolerance of edible lily bulbs in cold-storage


ABSTRACT:

In the experiment, we examined the effects of SA on post-harvest physiology and storage quality of edible Lily (Lilium lancifolium Thunb). The bulbs were stored under cold temperature (0°C /-1°C) after being treated with SA (0.1 mmol/L, 0.5 mmol/L and 1.0 mmol/L) for 30 min, respectively. During storage, we measured the SOD activity, POD activity, CAT activity, PPO activity soluble protein content, soluble sugar content and other indicators of lilies at a 30-day interval. The results showed that 0.5 mmol/L SA pretreatment could significantly inhibit the lily bulbs SOD, POD, CAT activity of metabolic rate, and inhibit the osmotic regulation substances, such as soluble sugar, soluble protein decomposition speed to improve the low temperature adaptability of lily bulbs. In conclusion, SA liquid could effectively inhibit the post-harvest physiology of lily bulbs and maintain their storage quality.

2025-2031 Download
14

Moringa leaf extract and ascorbic acid evoke potentially beneficial antioxidants especially phenolics in wheat grown under cadmium stress


Fozia Farhat, Muhammad Arfan, Arneeb Tariq, Razia Riaz, Hafiza Naila Tabassum and Muhammad Mahran Aslam

Moringa leaf extract and ascorbic acid evoke potentially beneficial antioxidants especially phenolics in wheat grown under cadmium stress


ABSTRACT:

Moringa oleifera (Sohanjna) is considered as a miraculous plant for pertaining a handsome blend of growth promoting substances. The glistening effects of moringa leaf extract (MLE) and ascorbic acid (AsA) were investigated at two stages of wheat grown under cadmium (Cd) stress. The cadmium chloride (CdCl2.5H2O) was used to induce Cd stress (0, 500 μmol/L, 1000 μmol/L) at three leaf seedlings stage along with foliar spray of moringa leaves extract (3%) and ascorbic acid (50 mmol/L). Data was collected at two stages (Tillering and Boot) of wheat. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and total soluble protein (TSP) increased significantly with foliar spray of MLE and AsA at boot stage of wheat under Cd (500 μmol/L) stress, while elevated level of Cd irreversibly damage antioxidant response by accumulating higher amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. Furthermore, quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, chlorogenic acid and coumeric acid confers tolerance with MLE and AsA under stressful conditions at both stages while syringic and sinapic acid were the least expressed phenolic compounds in wheat. MLE is an effective remedy to mitigate oxidative damage caused by Cd and enhanced enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant response in wheat particularly at boot stage

2033-2040 Download
15

The synergistic effect of Scolymus maculatus L. plant extracts and hot water dipping on the postharvest storability of Valencia oranges


Jian Gao, Ibrahim Kahramanoglu, Serhat Usanmaz, Volkan Okatan and Chunpeng Wan

The synergistic effect of Scolymus maculatus L. plant extracts and hot water dipping on the postharvest storability of Valencia oranges


ABSTRACT:

Present research was carried out with an objective to test the synergism effect of Scolymus maculatus L. plant extracts and hot water dipping (HWD) on the storability of Valencia oranges. Experiments were conducted with four different treatments and five replications in each. Each of these replications consisted of five fruits and studies were scheduled to keep on for 150 days. Quality parameters were measured with 30-days interval. The treatments of current study are: a) immersing in pure water at 25°C for 5 min. (control); b) HWD at 50°C for 5 min.; c) immersing in pure water at 25°C for 5 min. with 1.0% S. maculatus L. plant extracts (Sm extract); and d) immersing in HWD at 50°C for 5 min. with 1.0% S. maculatus L. plant extracts (HWD + Sm extract). Results made it possible to understand that the HWD treatment is successful in slowing respiration rate and prevention of weight loss, controlling postharvest pathogens and preserving visual quality of the orange fruits. Additional to these expected results, findings of current work made it possible to conclude that the S. maculatus L. plant extracts have also significant influence on these quality parameters and the combination of both treatments provides highest efficacy for increasing the storability of orange fruits. Postharvest application of hot water dipping with 1.0% S. maculatus plant extracts to the Valencia oranges was found to maintain acceptability of the fruits for 150 days of storage at 6.0±1.0°C and 90-95% relative humidity. 

2041-2046 Download
16

Effects of biochar and zeolite integrated with nitrogen on soil characteristics, yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.)


Muhammad Azeem Aslam, Irfan Aziz, Sabir Hussain Shah, Sher Muhammad, Muhammad Latif and Azeem Khalid

Effects of biochar and zeolite integrated with nitrogen on soil characteristics, yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.)


ABSTRACT:

World population is increasing with massive rate and to achieve the goal of feeding 8.6 billion people by 2030, development of Good Agricultural practices (GAP) is imperative. The subject study was executed to appraise the impact of zeolite for improving soil property and quality which will ultimately enhance crop yields. For this purpose, zeolite (at rate of 1, 3 & 05 tons ha-1) blended with nitrogen (at rate of 0 & 140 kg -1) was administered in the soil and its residual effects were evaluated for 3 consecutive years. All treatments were applied with equal amount of phosphorus and potassium. The treatment with the highest rate of zeolite (Z3 = 05 tons ha-1) gave promising results and improved the soil electrical conductivity (EC) by 24%, bulk density by 2.5%, soil water holding capacity by 20.6% and total carbon by 22% as compared to control. Zeolite addition has also increased total nitrogen in soil up to 1.1 times, available phosphorus by 1.3 times and extractable potassium by 2.4% over the control. Zeolite performance was almost persistent through all 3 years. In all 3 years zeolite showed no significant effect over pH of the soil. Treatments of zeolite blended with nitrogen depicted similar results as of sole zeolite treatments, except total nitrogen which is because of more nitrogen supply into soil in some treatments. Zeolite application improved soil properties due to its porous structure which conserves moisture and also increased the fertilizer use efficiency. Increase in total nitrogen may be the result of increased microbial activity in the soil.

2047-2057 Download
17

Potassium and zinc co-fertilization provides new insights to improve maize (Zea mays L.) physiology and productivity


Hafiz Muhammad Ali Raza, Muhammad Amjad Bashir, Abdur Rehim, Muhammad Jan, Qurat-Ul-Ain Raza and Graeme P Berlyn

Potassium and zinc co-fertilization provides new insights to improve maize (Zea mays L.) physiology and productivity


ABSTRACT:

Potassium (K) and Zinc (Zn) are essential nutrients, and play key role in many physiological processes. The current study aims to identify their interactive impacts (i) in soil and plant body, (ii) on maize physiology and (iii) on production. A field experiment was conducted to assess the potassium co-fertilization with zinc sources and doses. The treatments were (kg ha-1) as: K0 +Zn0, K0 + Zn16, K0 + Zn24, K60 +Zn0, K60 +Zn16, K60 +Zn24, K100 + Zn0, K100 + Zn16 and K100 + Zn24. Murate of potash (MOP) for K, Chelated Zinc (Zn-EDTA; S1) and Zinc Sulphate (ZnSO4; S2) were the sources of Zn fertilization. Results revealed that co-fertilization have significantly improved maize productivity, and physiological traits. Plant height was significantly increased (27%), cob length (50%), 1000-grain weight (25%), dry weight (203%), membrane stability (191%), relative water content (170%), photosynthesis rate (237%), transpiration rate (353%), stomatal conductance (254%), internal CO2 (105%) and chlorophyll contents (185%) with MOP + Zn-EDTA fertilization at K60 + Zn16 treatment as compared to control. Moreover, straw K and grain K contents were also improved with combined K and Zn fertilization, while straw and grain Zn was higher with sole Zn application. It is concluded that co-fertilization of MOP + Zn-EDTA at K60 + Zn16 (kg ha-1) is beneficial for productivity, and physiological traits of maize in calcareous soils

2059-2065 Download
18

Exploring optimization of water and nitrogen fertilizer management for potted maize based on PCA


Yingying Xing, Zhuoyuan Li, Yi Wang, Yishu Wang, Teng Zhang, Feiyao Mi and Xiukang Wang

Exploring optimization of water and nitrogen fertilizer management for potted maize based on PCA


ABSTRACT:

Deficit irrigation has been widely used in crop production, but there is not enough information about how and whether water stress and nitrogen (N) fertilizer interact with maize (Zea mays L.) growth and nitrogen uptake in pot experiments. In this study, the effects of deficit irrigation and N fertilizer application rate at different growth stages on physiological and morphological parameters of potted maize were studied to determine whether the jointing stage was the key period of maize water demand. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with two factors (5 irrifation levels × 4 N fertilizer application rates) and replicatesd three times. Leaf area, plant height, root length, root activity, dry matter accumulation, and N uptake decreased with the increase of N fertilizer application rates. The plant height in deficit irrigation at mature stage (Dm) was the highest, which was 9.4% ~ 20.5% higher than that of deficit irrigation at other growth stages. Deficit irrigation at filling stage (Df) had the highest chlorophyll content, which was 3.6% ~ 9.4% higher than that of other irrigation treatments on averaging N fertilizer application rates. The root number increases first and then decreases with the increase of N fertilizer application rate on averaging irrigation treatments. The mean water use efficiency (WUE) order from high to low was Ds (deficit irrigation at seedling stage) > Dm > Fi (full irrigation) > Df > Dj (deficit irrigation at jointing stage) on averaging N fertilizer application rates. WUE was only significant correlated with plant height. The NUE was significantly correlated with leaf area, chlorophyll content, root activity, dry matter accumulation and nitrogen uptake. The results showed that the jointing stage was sensitive to water and nitrogen requirements. The FiN1 (full irrigation, and 0.1 g N kg-1 soil) treatment ranked first after analyses in the combinational evaluation, which provides a reference for evaluating and selecting better field crop management methods

2067-2083 Download
19

Influence of soil and water physico-chemical properties on vegetation structure of artificial ponds established within bamboo plantations


Safura Bibi, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad, Mansoor Hameed, Ambreen Khadija Alvi and Farooq Ahmad

Influence of soil and water physico-chemical properties on vegetation structure of artificial ponds established within bamboo plantations


ABSTRACT:

The distribution of aquatic plants in artificially established aquatic ponds was studied. Four ponds were selected based on variations in water and soil composition, and, vegetation type. A soil and water analysis of these ponds were carried out for the determination of macro-nutrients (Na+, K+, Ca+), pH, ECe and soil texture. Relative density, relative frequency, relative cover and importance value was recorded for the vegetation growing in these aquatic ponds. The results regarding plants association with different levels of salinity showed significant relationships between soil, water and plant species. Phragmites karka (Pk), Phalaris minor (Pm), Cynodon dactylon (Cd), Cyperus rotundus (Cr), Cenchrus ciliaris (Cc), Sonchus arvensis (Sa), Phyla nodiflora (Pn) and Fumaria indica (Fi) were found on relatively higher salinity levels (Na, ECe and pH) and low potassium and calcium content. Typha domingensis (Ty), Tamarix dioica (Td), Azolla pinnata (Az), Eclipta alba (Ea) and Imperata cylindrica (Ic) were recorded in ponds with slightly higher ionic content and low salinities (ECe=1.8 dS m-1) indicating these species can tolerate both low salinity and pH. Species growing in other ponds did not show any significant link to soil or water physico-chemical properties. It was concluded that the distribution of plant species was significantly affected by salinity levels (ECe), pH and ionic concentration of aquatic ponds.

2085-2092 Download
20

QTL mapping of five forage quality traits in sorghum × sudangrass


Jian Zheng, Lihua Wang, Wenjie Zhao, Peng Jin, Yanlong Liu, Ruirui Meng, Jichao Dai, Lei Zhou and Jieqin Li

QTL mapping of five forage quality traits in sorghum × sudangrass


ABSTRACT:

The quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for quality traits will improve the breeding of sorghum-sudangrass. In this research, we characterized the phenotype of 126 RILs and their parents –Tx623A (sorghum) and Sa(Sudangrass) for two successive years ( 2018 and 2019). The phenotypes included five forage quality traits which were crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL) and the content of hemicellulose (HC). We also mapped 19 QTLs controlling these traits in a RIL population between sorghum Tx623A and sudangrass Sa. A high density genetic map was constructed by RAD-seq. There were 1065 markers and the total length was 1191.7 cM in the genetic map. Consequently, a total of 19 QTLs were detected for the five traits, which included one QTL for CP, five QTLs for NDF, three QTLs for ADF, two QTLs for ADL and eight QTLs for HC. Four overlapping QTLs were detected for NDF, ADF, ADL and HC. The research results will supply very meaningful information to make better the forage quality breeding in sorghum-sudangrass hybrids.

2093-2098 Download
21

Selection and evaluation of reference genes by RT-qPCR analysis in aconitum vilmorinianum Kom.


Yiguo Li, Fengjuan Mou and Kunzhi Li

Selection and evaluation of reference genes by RT-qPCR analysis in aconitum vilmorinianum Kom.


ABSTRACT:

Aconitum vilmorinianum Kom. is one of the most important traditional Chinese medicine. However, there are few reports on the molecular biology of A. vilmorinianum. Fluorescence quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is widely used detection method for target gene expression analysis, but the selection of the best reference gene is very important for the accuracy of the method. In this study, based on transcriptome data six candidate internal reference genes were selected for the first time and their expression stability in root, stem, leaf and flower of A. vilmorinianum was systematically evaluated by geNorm, Normfinder and BestKeeper. The results showed that MDH, GAPDH and 18S RNA could be used as reference genes in root; MDH and18S RNA can be used as reference genes in stem; MDH, GAPDH and β-TUB could be used as reference genes in leaf, and GAPDH, 18S RNA and ACT could be used as reference genes in flower. In addition, the applicability of the selected reference genes was verified by detecting two functional genes related to alkaloid metabolism, namely hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) and phosphomevalonate kinase (PMK). The expression profiles of the HMGCR and PMK genes were similar after standardization to the stably expressed reference genes MDH, GADPH, 18S RNA and ACT. However, when UBQ was used as the reference gene, the expression profiles of HMGCR and PMK genes were different. These results provide useful information for obtaining reliable RT-qPCR standardized data in genetic research on A. vilmorinianum

2099-2109 Download
22

Correlation among antidiabetic potential, biochemical parameters and GC-MS analysis of the crude extracts of Justicia adhatoda L.


Muhammad Rifaqat Ameer, Zafar Mahmood Khalid, Muhammad Ibrar Shinwari and Hussain Ali

Correlation among antidiabetic potential, biochemical parameters and GC-MS analysis of the crude extracts of Justicia adhatoda L.


ABSTRACT:

In Pakistan, the number of people with diabetes is steadily growing and adverse side effects are frequently reported for current antidiabetic therapies. Justicia adhatoda L. belongs to Acanthaceae family. Several biological activities are known to occur in different parts of this plant. The effects of Justicia adhatoda leaves on diabetes are very little known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of different extracts on diabetic mice and to use gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) to evaluate the chemical constituents present in the Justicia adhatoda extract.Air dried leaves of Justicia adhatoda (JA) were separately extracted with methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate. The antidiabetic effect of JA-ME, JA-EE and JA-EAE was assessed separately on diabetic mice at the concentration of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Fasting mean levels of blood glucose in normal, untreated diabetic and diabetic mice treated with JA-ME, JA-EE and JA-EAE was performed before and after treatment for four weeks. The results indicate thatusing the extracts for 28 days, blood glucose level reduced in all extracts. All extracts reduced high cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, bilirubin, ALT, ALP, AST, urea, creatinine and uric acid levels and increased HDL levels. At 400 mg/kg, the JA-ME shows the highest percentage reduction in blood glucose levels. All major components that GC-MS confirms are molecules that are biologically active indicating that certain medicinal properties may be present in the plant

2111-2125 Download
23

Evaluation of the conservation status of Ulmus wallichiana and U. vilosa in Pakistan


Rafiullah Khan, Niaz Ali, Manzoor Hussain, Inayat Ur Rahman, Abdul Majid, Muhammad Romman, Tanveer Ahmed and Azhar H. Shah

Evaluation of the conservation status of Ulmus wallichiana and U. vilosa in Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

In the present study, conservation status of Ulmus wallichiana and U. villosa have been evaluated according to IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria 2001. In Pakistan, the genus is represented by three species i.e., Ulmus wallichiana Planch.,U. villosa Brandis ex Gamble and U. chumlia Melville & Heybroek, endemic to Hindu Kush and Himalayas within a small geographical range. During the field surveys from 2017 to 2019, Ulmus wallichiana was recorded in 52 localities and U. villosa in 66 localities. All these localities collectively encompass an area of 1632 km2 for Ulmus wallichiana and 2544 km2 for Ulmus villosa as extent of occurrence. The estimated area of occupancy in the observed localities was 68 km2 and 156 km2 for Ulmus wallichiana and U. villosa, respectively. Moreover, the population size of U. wallichiana comprised of 70 individuals and 283 individuals of U. villosa. Based upon the aforementioned estimations and IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria 2001, U. wallichiana has been evaluated as Critically Endangered (CR) and U. villosa as Endangered (EN). For effective conservation of these species, immediate in-situ and ex-situ conservation efforts are proposed.

2127-2134 Download
24

In situ germplasm conservation of Gossypium raimondii Ulbricht (“Algodoncillo”) in the Lambayeque region (Peru)


Guillermo E. Delgado-Paredes, Cecilia Vásquez-Díaz, Boris Esquerre-Ibañez, Ernesto E. Hashimoto-Moncayo, Pilar Bazán-Sernaqué and Consuelo Rojas-Idrogo

In situ germplasm conservation of Gossypium raimondii Ulbricht (“Algodoncillo”) in the Lambayeque region (Peru)


ABSTRACT:

Cotton belonging to the genus Gossypium, Malvaceae family, is a natural source for the textile industry. It is an economically important crop that is grown worldwide but can also be used as an ideal model system for several physiological studies in cell elongation and differentiation. Gossypium raimondii is a diploid species from the Peruvian flora and is a progenitor of allotetraploid cottons. However, this species is considered to be critically endangered and therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the population of "algodoncillo" (G. raimondii) across an area of 2.3 ha in La Colmena (Chongoyape-Lambayeque). One hundred and 53 adult plants were registered and a population of 342.28 plants was estimated by natural regeneration. A large number of plants were recorded in El Potrero with around 85 individual shrubs; otherwise, in El Alto plants were recorded with the highest relative height and largest diameter with around 5.06 and 8.73 cm, respectively. In addition, plants with the highest branching rate (3.65 branches) and consequently the largest number of green and ripe fruits in dehiscence (621.38 / plant) were recorded in La Quebrada which has also been the only place where an estimated 348.20 naturally regenerated plants were found. La Colmena is the only place in the Lambayeque region where G. raimondii can be found, making it the only natural place of in situ conservation. Based on what is indicated in “El Libro Rojo de las Plantas Endémicas del Perú/Red Book of Endemic Plants of Peru” and the criteria of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), G. raimondii would fall under the category of Endangered species (EN), hence the need for its in situ conservation and to test other methods for germplasm conservation is high

2135-2142 Download
25

Assessment of potential functional use of floristic compositions in landscape restoration of habitats in arid regions


Abdullah M. Farid Ghazal

Assessment of potential functional use of floristic compositions in landscape restoration of habitats in arid regions


ABSTRACT:

Plant diversity has been rapidly disappearing in arid and semiarid regions as a result of climate change and human activities. Nevertheless, the use of plants for various purposes is still widespread. One of the most urgent applications of plant diversity is the use of native plants in the restoration of landscape habitats on account of their extreme importance in supporting wildlife in natural and urban landscapes and their contributions to the process of transformation to sustainability. In fact, the arid and semiarid regions require greater focus insofar as the use of their native species is concerned; plant diversity needs to be adopted in planting projects to improve the vegetal list so that it becomes more compatible with the harsh conditions there. The present work, therefore, aims to assess the plant diversity of the main habitats by studying and analysing floristic compositions, life form, and chorological characteristics in order to select the materials of new plants, which are to be used in different landscapes under arid and semiarid conditions. This study covers 63 samples in all habitats in Wadi Al-Ahsibah in Al-Baha province in the southwest part of Saudi Arabia. Plant species were classified and arranged in accordance with their plant families, life form, chorology, and habitats, and, finally, with the aim to assess the functional use of landscape restoration. The results recorded a total of 202 plant species belonging to 142 genera and 62 families. This list provided 111 species as the materials for new plants for landscape architecture in accordance with visual appeal, functions, and potential environmental benefits like landscape restoration, hydrological applications, soil conservation, afforestation, and support of wildlife. Finally, the arid and semiarid regions have great potential for biodiversity and floristic composition, which could form a wide resource for several kinds of environmental and urban projects

2143-2155 Download
26

Pollen analysis: using melissopalynology to determine the bee-foraged sources from Tando Allah Yar and Tando Muhammad Khan, two agriculturally important districts of Sindh, Pakistan


Jamal Uddin Mangi, Noor Ul Ain Soomro, Nabila Shah Jilani, Saima Amin Ghoto Mahjabeen Panhwar And Abdul Rauf Jamali

Pollen analysis: using melissopalynology to determine the bee-foraged sources from Tando Allah Yar and Tando Muhammad Khan, two agriculturally important districts of Sindh, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Present work involved the pollen investigation of 16 honey samples collected from different localities of district Tando Allah Yar and Tando Muhammad Khan, Sindh-Pakistan. Out of the total samples analyzed, 06 (37%) samples were graded as unifloral, which contained Ziziphus jujuba, Brassica campestris, Azadirachta indica, Mangifera indica and Terminalia catapa as predominant pollen. The remaining 10 (63%) samples were graded as multifloral, consisting of two or more than two (mixed) pollen types. With respect to the frequency distribution classes, pollen taxa were graded as very frequent (> 50%), frequent (20–50%), infrequent (10–20%) and rare (< 10%). The chief source of pollen as revealed by the current study were found to be Mangifera indica, Ziziphus jujuba, Brassica campestris, Azadirachta indica, Delonix regia, Brassica nigra, Terminalia catapa, Syzygium cumini, Moringa oleifera and Raphanus sativus. Pollenomorphic analysis revealed that 45 different plant species were source of pollen. The amount of pollen from each of the honey samples varied from 15000 to 75000. Out of total 24 recognized families, Caesalpiniaceae, Brassicaceae and Fabaceae were graded as the most leading families of the area. Identification of 45 plant species from 24 different families from the sampled area is an open indication that the area is richly covered with dense vegetation, eventually that will support the apiaries and bee keeping practice in the locality. This information is also very valued and meaningful for the beekeepers, in the selection of suitable sites for apiaries, in order to promote the apiculture industries and the yield of natural honey production in area.

2157-2169 Download
27

Anatomical and palynological characteristics of endemic Onosma polyantha DC. and Onosma mitis Boiss. & Heldr. from Turkey


Huseyin Suna, Macide Burcu Timur, Sertan Cevik and Riza Binzet

Anatomical and palynological characteristics of endemic Onosma polyantha DC. and Onosma mitis Boiss. & Heldr. from Turkey


ABSTRACT:

In this study, the anatomical and palynological characters of Onosma polyantha DC. and Onosma mitis Boiss. & Heldr. endemic to Turkey was investigated. To determine the anatomical characteristics, transverse sections of the root, stem and leaves, as well as adaxial and abaxial sections were taken from the leaves. It was determined that both species had a thick periderm tissue at the outermost part of the root. The endodermis was clearly observed and the pith was composed of tracheal elements. In the cross-section of the stem, only setose hairs were observed in O. polyantha, whereas in O. mitis, both setose hairs and rarely glandular hairs were present. The stomata were found to be at the same level as the epidermis in the O. mitis, while they were ± the upper level of the epidermis in O. polyantha. Two types of stomata (anomocytic and anisocytic) were seen on the lower and upper surfaces of the leaves, the density of the stomata was also higher on the lower surface of leaves in both species. In contrast, the stoma index was higher on the upper leaf surfaces than that of the lower side. The leaves were dorsiventral (=bifacial) in O. mitis and equifacial (=izobilateral) in O. polyantha. The pollen of both taxa were heteropolar, O. polyantha pollen grains were trisyncolporate at the distal pole, while in O. mitis pollen grains were trisyncolporate and tetrasyncolporate. Apocolpium was observed in the proximal poles of the trisyncolporate pollen, whereas it was not observed in the tetracolporate pollen of O. mitis. The pollen shape was spheroidal P/E=1.12 in O. polyantha and subprolata P/E=1.15 in O. mitis. In both species, the sculpture was scabrate (=granulate) and scabras were distributed on the surface of the pollen homogenously. The nutlet morphology of O. polyantha and O. mitis were also examined the nutlet ornamentations were reticulate, rugose, and reticulate-rugose, respectively; and epidermal cells were seen in different sizes. The aim of this study is to determine the anatomical and palynological characteristics of O. mitis and O. polyantha and to provide a more reliable diagnosis with the help of these characters.

2171-2178 Download
28

Contamination and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in medicinal plants of district Dir Upper, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan


Maria Shahnaz, Bushra Khan, Sardar Khan, Javaid Iqbal, Ishaq Ahmad Mian and Mamoona Wali Muhammad

Contamination and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in medicinal plants of district Dir Upper, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Environmental pollution caused by heavy metals (HMs) has gained more attention in recent decades due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and potentially toxic effects. This study was aimed to determine the heavy metals in soil and medicinal plant species sampled from District Upper Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The concentrations of HMs i.e. Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb), Nickle (Ni) and Zinc (Zn) were measured in the soil (n =31) and medicinal plants (n= 31), by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Levels of HMs were used to estimate bioaccumulation factor (BAF). Mean concentrations of HMs in medicinal plants were 0.05 mg kg-1, 0.88 mg kg-1, 0.30 mg kg-1, 0.43 mg kg-1 and 10.71 mg kg-1 for Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn respectively. The concentration of Cd (24 medicinal plant species) and Cr (6 species medicinal plant species) were above the permissible limits of World Health Organization (WHO) respectively. The highest mean Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) value was found for Mirabilis jalapa, Sagretia thea, Zenthoxylum armantum, Ajuga bracteosa, and Otostegia limbata medicinal plant species. The bioaccumulation of HMs was in the order of root>shoot>leaves. While in the soil the mean concentrations of the selected HMs were in the order of Zn>Pb>Ni>Cr>Cd. In the conclusion the contamination in medicinal plants may contribute significantly to the exposure and health risks of the population. From the current study it is recommended that the medicinal plants should be tested for toxic heavy metals before use

2179-2186 Download
29

Allelopathic effect of Parthenium hysterophorus extract on seed germination and seedling growth of selected plants


Muhammad Imad, Muhammad Idrees, Fazal Hadi, Nazakat Hussain Memon and Zhiyong Zhang

Allelopathic effect of Parthenium hysterophorus extract on seed germination and seedling growth of selected plants


ABSTRACT:

The present study was performed to investigate the allelopathic effect of Parthenium hysterophorus aqueous extract on seed germination and seedling growth of selected eight plants viz. Allium sativum L. (Garlic), Brassica campestris L. (Mustard), Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander), Cucumis sativus L. (Cucumber), Eruca sativa Mill. (Taramira), Solanum lycopersicum L. (Tomato), Trifolium pratense L. (Clover), and Triticum aestivum L. (Wheat). Leaf aqueous extracts of P. hysterophorus at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% were applied to examine their effects under pot culture. The experiment was laid down in a completely randomized design using two replicates. The result revealed that the aqueous leaf extract of P. hysterophorus significantly reduced the germination and suppresses the growth parameters of tested species.  The highest inhibitory effects of leaf extracts were observed in T. repens, E. sativa and A. sativum (except 25%), while a maximum deleterious effects were recorded at higher concentration. The seed germination of B. campestris, C. sativus, C. sativum, and S. lycopersicum was less inhibited at 50% and 75%, while an this concentration, a stimulatory effect was recorded in T. aestivum. It was concluded that P. hysterophorus aqueous leaf extract had allelopathic effects on seed germination and seedling growth of the tested crops.

2187-2197 Download
30

Chemical, nutritional, and biological composition of three seed morphotypes of Bixa orellana L. Bixaceae (Achiote) in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico


Addy L. Zarza-García, Víctor M. Moo-Huchín, Víctor M. Toledo-López, Gregorio Godoy-Hernández, Fernando Rivera-Cabrera, Rayn Clarenc Aarland, Enrique Sauri-Duch and José Alberto Mendoza-Espinoza

Chemical, nutritional, and biological composition of three seed morphotypes of Bixa orellana L. Bixaceae (Achiote) in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico


ABSTRACT:

Bixa orellana L. is endemic to the tropical zone of the Americas. In a previous study, our research group detected anti-inflammatory properties in the leaves of three accessions of Bixa orellana L. in the Maya area. Our next objective was to perform a morphological analysis of the seeds and determine their chemical and nutrient composition, and the results are described herein. The morphological characterization was based on 8 quantitative and 14 qualitative characters, and some important similarities and differences were found in the length and shape of leaves and seeds, ramifications, dehiscence of fruits, and number of seeds per fruit. Regarding the chemical composition, accession 3 had the highest values for bixin (40.83 ± 1.27 mg/g), phenolic compounds (9.65 ± 0.18 mg GAE /g milligrams gallic acid equivalents per gram of seeds, carbohydrates (43.3 ± 0.24%), and functional dietary fiber, while accession 1 had the highest values for proteins (13.83 ± 0.04%) and ash (4.53 ± 0.2%). The plants of accession 3 whose seeds had the highest phenolic compounds and bixin content also had the leaves with the greatest anti-inflammatory effect. Thus, the plants of accession 3 are an ideal candidate for the propagation and integral use of their biological material. The next challenges are the study of the annatto plant’s reproduction and the chemical composition of its fruits

2199-2205 Download
31

Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) yields as affected by allelopathic and self-toxic effects under monocropping conditions


Ijaz Ahmed Qureshi, Alia Abbas, Iram Us Salam and Fahad Bashir

Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) yields as affected by allelopathic and self-toxic effects under monocropping conditions


ABSTRACT:

Pennisetum glaucum L., a member of the Poaceae family usually grown under monocropping conditions due to which its subsequent yield in the same field sternly affected as a consequence of selftoxicity. Therefore, the present study investigates the self-toxic effect of P. glaucum on its growth rate using seeds and whole plant extracts. The outcomes of the study revealed that the growth of pearl millet was improved by 5% of its aqueous extract but affected significantly at higher concentrations. Pearson’s correlation analysis showed a positive linear association at 5%, while a negative linear correlation was perceived at 10% and 15% of both seeds and whole plant extracts (p<0.01). It was seen that the root length of the Bajra possessed the highest inhibitory effect by the action of the seeds and whole plant extracts in comparison to shoot length. On comparison of both extracts, seed extract was found to be more potent than that of the entire plant extract. From the current studies, it was revealed that Bajra is an allelopathic plant and can induce an inhibitory effect on the other growing plants as well as, it can induce autotoxic effects.

2207-2211 Download
32

Effects of vermicompost application on soil properties and root physiological  characteristics  of flue-cured  tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) – a potential animal feed additive


Chenxi Zhang, Ziguang Huang, Bensheng Li, Yaohui Mu, Pingping Wang, Suilong Ai, Nabil S. Mustafad, Sikandar Hayat and Shuhai Bo

Effects of vermicompost application on soil properties and root physiological  characteristics  of flue-cured  tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) – a potential animal feed additive


ABSTRACT:

Flue-cured tobacco is not only a kind of economic crop, but it can also be used as a special unconventional functional feed additive, which plays an important role in animal health care. In the current study, we examined how vermicompost could promote root growth of flue-cured tobacco plants by regulating soil physical-chemical characteristics. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different proportions of vermicompos (CK: 0%, T1: 5%, T2:10%, T3: 20%, T4: 50%, T5: 100%) on soil chemical and physical properties, root growth and physiological characteristics of flue-cured tobacco. Results showed that with increase in vermicompost dose, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic matter  (SOM) content, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) content, microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) content, and contents of glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) including total glomalin-related soil protein (T-GRSP) and easily extractable glomalin-related soil protein (EE-GRSP) increased in the tobacco planting soil, which resulted in increases in root length, fresh weight and volume of flue-cured tobacco plants. With increase in vermicompost does in soil, the root activity and nicotine content first showed an increasing trend and then a decreasing trend. All vermicompost treatments increased the plant hormonal balance i.e. ratio of indoleacetic acid (IAA) to abscisic acid (ABA) in flue-cured tobacco roots. High IAA/ABA ratio was found in the tobacco plants supplied with 5% vermicompost (T1), followed by T5 (100%) treatment. The findings showed that CEC and contents of SOM, MBC, MBN and GRSP could better reflect the effect of vermicompost on soil quality as appraised with the principal component analysis. The vermicompost treatment, i.e.T5 (100%), was the best treatment, followed by T4 (50%), T3 (20%), and T2(10%) treatments. Such improvements by applying appropriate amount of vermicompost were associated with improvement in soil fertility and structure as well as IAA/ABA hormonal regulation, cellular activity, nitrogen and carbon metabolisms in the roots of flue-cured tobacco

2213-2219 Download
33

Two new species of Kaempferia L. (Zingiberaceae) from northern Thailand


Penjun Meechonkit and Chayan Picheansoonthon

Two new species of Kaempferia L. (Zingiberaceae) from northern Thailand


ABSTRACT:

Two new species, Kaempferia uttaraditensis Picheans. & Meechonk. and K. kamthornii Picheans. & Meechonk. (Zingiberaceae) from northern Thailand are reported. Detailed descriptions with full illustration of both the new species are included. Taxonomic differences of each new species with its closely related taxon are discussed

2221-2227 Download
34

Characterization of soil inhabiting fungi Mortierella capitata in Pakistan


Nasir Ahmed Rajput, Muhammad Atiq, Abdul Mubeen Lodhi, Rehana Naz Syed, Akhtar Hameed, Owais Iqbal and Babar Khan

Characterization of soil inhabiting fungi Mortierella capitata in Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Mortierella capitata was isolated from chilli filed soil by the survey of microbial pathogens in the chilli field from different places of Hyderabad, Pakistan. M. capitata was identified based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1 and ITS-4) sequence results. These results indicated that the species of Mortierella has not previously been reported from Pakistan

2229-2232 Download
35

Physiological and ecological responses of an alpine plant Picea likiangensis at different altitudinal gradients


Yonglei Jiang, Xiaomao Cheng, Haiyun Zi and Xiaoxia Huang

Physiological and ecological responses of an alpine plant Picea likiangensis at different altitudinal gradients


ABSTRACT:

Picea likiangensis (Franch.) Pritz., an evergreen alpine conifer woody plant species is endemic to Yulong snow mountains, Northwest China. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the succession and stability of an ecosystem. In this study, a multitude of physiological indices, such as chlorophyll, malondialdehyde, soluble sugar, proline, soluble protein, antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), nutrient content (carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus), C/N ratio, N/P ratio and δ13C, were measured in the needles of P. likiangensis current-year sunny branches grown at four different altitudes (ranging from 2900 to 3350 m). Our results revealed significant changes in the leaf physiological and ecological traits of P. likiangensis along altitudinal gradients. The contents of chlorophyll (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll), total phosphorus and total nitrogen of P. likiangensis reached the maximum values at 3200 m altitude, indicating that P. likiangensis has the highest photosynthetic capacity at this zone. In addition, the concentrations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein were increased along altitudinal gradients, suggesting that P. likiangensis exhibits high tolerance to abiotic stress via osmotic adjustment. Furthermore, the activities of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and peroxidase were remarkably increased from 3200 to 3350 m altitude, implying that P. likiangensis had suffered from heavy abiotic stress in high-altitude area. Altogether, our findings revealed that 3200 m altitude might be the optimum zone for the growth of P. likiangensis in Yulong Snow Mountain, Northwest China. Nevertheless, the expansion of P. likiangensis population was limited by harsh environment at altitudes above 3350 m

2233-2240 Download
36

Identification and quantification of biochemical composition and antioxidant activity of walnut pollens


Volkan Okatan, Ibrahim Bulduk, BariÅŸ Kaki, Muhammet Ali Gundesli, Serhat Usanmaz, Turgut Alas, Murat Helvaci, Ibrahim Kahramanoglu and Hanifeh Seyed Hajizadeh

Identification and quantification of biochemical composition and antioxidant activity of walnut pollens


ABSTRACT:

The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical composition and antioxidant activity in pollens collected from ten different walnut cultivars. Pollen samples of walnut cultivars (‘Aslan’, ‘Chandler’, ‘Fernette’, ‘Fernor’, ‘Franquet’, ‘Kaman’, ‘Oguzlar’, ‘Pedro’, ‘Sebin’and‘Yalova’)were collected during flowering of catkins in UÅŸak Province of Turkey. Identification and quantification of total phenolic contents, total flavonoids, antioxidant activity, pH, organic acids and phenolic compounds (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanilic acid, caffeic acid and syringic acid) were individually analyzed for each cultivar. The results of observed parameters are significantly varying among the cultivars (p<0.05) and wide range of biochemical compounds were identified from the walnut pollens. Results showed that total phenolic contents varied from 5.050 to 11.030 mg GAE/g and total flavonoids content ranged from 1.530 to 4.123 mgQE/g. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of pollen extracts was found to range from 1.510 to 2.003 mg AAE g–1. Among the identified phenolic compounds, gallic acid (10.610-13.410 mg/100g-1) and protocatechuic acid (1.410-3.623 mg/100g-1) were found in highest amounts. Moreover, oxalic acid and citric acid were identified as the dominant organic acids for all cultivars. Results of present study showed that the walnut pollens have high antioxidant capacity which is very beneficial for human health.

2241-2250 Download
37

Phytoplankton community associated with marine sponge Liosina Paradoxa Thiele, 1899 at Sandspit, Karachi

 


Hina Jabeen, Seema Shafique, Zaib-Un-Nisa Burhan, Munawwer Rasheed and Pirzada Jamal Ahmed Siddiqui

Phytoplankton community associated with marine sponge Liosina Paradoxa Thiele, 1899 at Sandspit, Karachi

 


ABSTRACT:

The phytoplankton community associated with marine sponges was studied seasonally at Sandspit backwater during January to December 2013. The sponge samples were collected from pneumatophores of Avicennia marina and thoroughly washed with seawater. The samples were retained in 200 ml plastic bottles and 4% formalin was added as a preservative. The phytoplankton communities were sorted from the samples and their members were identified using light microscopy. Twenty species, representing three classes were recorded. Ammong them Bacillariophyceae was observeved with highest diversity (14 species) while four species were belonged to Cyanophyceae and two to Chlorophyceae. The highest number of individuals were also recorded for Bacillariophyceae (157 individuals) which indicated that Pinnularia spp. (20%) was the most dominant genus followed by Surirella ovata (17%) and Nitzschia palea (13%) whereas minimum abundance recorded for Chlorophyceae (6 individuals). Highest numerical abundance was observed in summer and lowest during winter season.  Physicochemical parameters of water recorded were temperature (27-35 ± 4.6°C), salinity (35-39 ± 1.47 PSU), dissolved oxygen (0.11-3.44 ± 1.15mgL-1) and pH (7.04-7.69 ± 0.19). The results indicated that phytoplankton diversity is greatly influenced by environmental factors. This is the first study of the phytoplankton community associated with marine sponges in Pakistan. Further study is needed to determine the communities associated with Liosina paradoxa in mangrove area and other sponge species from different regions to understand the interaction between host-sponge and its inhabitants from coastal waters of Pakistan

2251-2258 Download
38

Antibacterial, antitumor activity and phytochemical studies of methanolic extract of (Catharnthus roseus) (Linn.) G. Don.


Komal Riaz, Zarrin Fatima Rizvi, Sajjad Hyder and Robina Rashed

Antibacterial, antitumor activity and phytochemical studies of methanolic extract of (Catharnthus roseus) (Linn.) G. Don.


ABSTRACT:

The therapeutic role of plant materials is getting more attention due to fewer or no side effects as compared to synthetic chemical based medicines. Catharanthus roseus (L.) G Don is an important medicinal plant belonging to apocynaceae family, which serves as a reservoir of various important phytochemicals. We have investigated the antibacterial, antitumor activity, and phytochemical study of methanol-based leaf extracts of C. roseus. The qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, anthraquinone, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, and alkaloids in the methanol based leaf extract of C. roseus. Extract of C. roseus also displayed DPPH radical scavenging activity at all the tested concentrations. Antibacterial potential of C. roseus was evaluated against a few selected human pathogens viz., M. luteus, S. aureus, and E. coli in replicated experiments. The methanolic extract of C. roseus displayed maximum inhibition (17.7 ± 0.88mm) and (17.3 ± 0.67mm) against M. luteus and E. coli and minimum inhibition (13 ± 1.15mm) against S. aureus. Methanolic leaf extract of C. roseus also displayed antitumor activity In vitro. The results have revealed that methanolic extract of C. roseus can be used as a source of potential antibacterial products

2259-2266 Download
39

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus modulates vulnerability to xylem cavitation of Populus × canadensis ‘Neva’ under drought stress


Haoqiang Zhang, Li Li, Ming Tang and Hui Chen

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus modulates vulnerability to xylem cavitation of Populus × canadensis ‘Neva’ under drought stress


ABSTRACT:

To avoid xylem cavitation, plants adopt water manage behaviors from water-conserving to risk-taking to regulate stomatal conductance under drought stress, and the behaviors may shift due to sink demand. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbioses with plants, generate sink demand and promote stomatal conductance, which would increase water loss and vulnerability to xylem cavitation. However, the effect of AM fungi on plant water manage behavior and vulnerability to xylem cavitation was rarely reported. The impact of an AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis) on growth, gas exchange, photosynthesis, and vulnerability to xylem cavitation of Populus × canadensis ‘Neva’ was evaluated under three water status (70%-75%, 50%-55%, 30%-35% of field capacity). After 250 days, R. irregularis colonized more than 70% roots, increased biomass accumulation, improved gas exchange, photosynthesis, leaf relative water content, and specific leaf area of poplar plants. Drought stress limited R. irregularis colonization rate, plant biomass accumulation, and parameters of gas exchange and photosynthesis. Inoculation of R. irregularis seemingly shifted water manage behavior from water-conserving toward risk-taking and modulated the vulnerability to xylem cavitation. Results of current study suggested that plant genes involved in water management and traits for xylem cavitation may be regulated by AM symbiosis and require further study.

2267-2273 Download
40

Effects of aphid disoperation on photosynthetic performance and agronomic traits of different sorghum varieties


Jun-Li Du, De-Gong Wu, Jie-Qin Li, Qiu-Wen Zhan, Shou-Cheng Huang, Bao-Hong Huang and Xin Wang

Effects of aphid disoperation on photosynthetic performance and agronomic traits of different sorghum varieties


ABSTRACT:

The current study used photosynthetic indexes to investigate the mechanism of aphid resistance in two sorghum varieties with different aphid tolerance. (Pn, Tr, Gs, Ci), chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fo, Fm, Fv/Fm, Y (II), qP, NPQ) as well as some agronomic traits (chlorophyll content, plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, root length, root number) that treated at different aphid densities (0, 10, 20 and 40 aphids/plant) and at different infestation times (4d, 8d, 12d and 16d). The results showed that, as aphid density and infestation time increased, the agronomic traits, the most photosynthetic parameters and the most chlorophyll fluorescence parameters showed a larger decrease in sensitive sorghum variety, whereas a minor decrease was observed correspondingly in the resistant variety. Comprehensive analysis indicated that five indicators, including Pn, Tr, Gs, Y(II), qP and chlorophyll content, were easily disturbed under large density of aphid and long infestation time. Among which three indicators, including chlorophyll content, Pn and Y (II), played a crucial role in promoting crop yield and thus could be considered as the key indicators in studying the aphid resistance in sorghum

2275-2285 Download
41

Co-optimization of Bacillus licheniformis 208 biomass and  alpha amylase synthesis  using response surface methodology


Wajeeha Asad, Tabbassum Kiran, Farah Saleem, Shahla Siddiqui and Sheikh Ajaz Rasool

Co-optimization of Bacillus licheniformis 208 biomass and  alpha amylase synthesis  using response surface methodology


ABSTRACT:

Among the prokaryotic species, amylases from B. lichenformis (BLA) have gained considerable interest pertaining to their broad industrial applications. Although a huge number of studies report the amylase production from B. licheniformis, none addressed the simultaneous optimization of BLA enzyme with biomass using statistical modelling. The main objective of the present study was to co-optimize biomass production together with alpha amylase synthesis from B. licheniformis 208 strain through response surface methodology. In this connection, the effect of 6 independent variables including temperature, pH, incubation time, concentration of peptone, yeast extract, and starch was studied at 5 different levels. According to the results, an optimized set of parameters for alpha-amylase production were found as pH (7.5), temperature (50ËšC), incubation time (72 hrs), 1.5% concentration of substrate (starch) and tested nitrogen sources (peptone and yeast extract). Amylase production was significantly influenced by the interaction of peptone and starch at the concentration of 15g/l. However, biomass production was maximally optimized at a parametric combination of pH 5, temperature 30ËšC, 24 hrs of incubation time, and 1% of the tested carbon and nitrogen sources. Both the biomass and alpha-amylase synthesis models (p<0.05) were found highly significant at 95% confidence interval. Results revealed that RSM mediated optimization enhanced the alpha-amylase production by 26% when compared with one variable at a time optimization. Furthermore, the current data may also provide insights into the potential use of B. licheniformis as a probiotic where RSM-assisted biomass optimization may help in exploring growth-promoting interactions

2287-2297 Download
42

Molecular characterization of Penicillium expansum associated with blue mold disease of apple in Pakistan


Iqra Haider Khan and Arshad Javaid

Molecular characterization of Penicillium expansum associated with blue mold disease of apple in Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The present study was conducted for molecular characterization of the causal agent of blue mold decay in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Penicillium expansum Link is a major post-harvest pathogen responsible for significant yield losses to fruit industry. Specific detection of P. expansum is of prime importance for ensuring the safety and quality of food products. The traditional methods for pathogen identification are labor intensive, less reliable and time consuming, therefore, these are being replaced with molecular techniques. The infected apples with pale yellow to brown lesions were collected from the local market of Lahore, Pakistan. The infected samples were cultured on malt extract agar in order to obtain the pure fungal colonies. Pathogenicity of the isolated fungus was confirmed by inoculating the fungal mycelia on asymptomatic apples. After macroscopic characterization, the isolated pathogen was observed under light and scanning electron microscopes and the fungus was identified as P. expansum. For molecular characterization, the isolated rDNA of the fungus was tested using ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and CF primer pairs and the obtained PCR products were got sequenced and deposited in the GenBank with accession numbers MN752156, MN787826, MN787827 and MN787828, respectively. As per our knowledge, this is the first study regarding molecular characterization of P. expansum, the cause of blue mold disease of apple in Pakistan

2299-2303 Download
43

Antibacterial activities of gold nanoparticles synthesized by Citrus limonum fruit extract


Haroon Mahmood, Syed Babar Hussain, Asia Nosheen, Tariq Mahmood, Muhammad Shafique, Noaman Ul-Haq and Anwar Ul Haq

Antibacterial activities of gold nanoparticles synthesized by Citrus limonum fruit extract


ABSTRACT:

In this study gold nanoparticles were synthesized successfully in a different way by using citrus limon fruit extract and auric chloride. The phytochemistry of the citrus limon fruit extract was performed on GC-MS. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray Powder Diffraction Method (XRD), UV visible spectroscopy, Fourier Transformation Infrared Transformation (FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), coupled with EDX. The UV absorption peak at 550 nm was interpreted as that of gold nanoparticles. The XRD results indicated that gold nanoparticles were crystalline. The X-ray peak broadening showed the crystallite size of the order of ~ 32 ± 8 nm. The FT-IR, SEM, and EDX results also confirmed the formation of gold nanoparticles. The synthesized gold particles were studied with pathogens for antimicrobial activities. They showed large inhibitory zones compared to the standard antibiotic against foodborne pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumonia and Listeria monocytogenes.

2305-2310 Download
44

Morphotaxonomy and ecology of marine red algae from the Makran coast of Pakistan


Muhammad Abbas Sumalani, Mudassir Asrar and Saadullah Khan Leghari

Morphotaxonomy and ecology of marine red algae from the Makran coast of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The Makran coast of Balochistan was thoroughly surveyed for marine algae. The collection was made from six locations along coastline of Pasni, Gwadar, Singhar, Pishukan, Sur Bunder and Jiwani areas. Abundant algal flora was found during this study in 2017-18. Seventeen red seaweeds were identified from the Makran coast  namely i.e., Galaxaura rugosa, Gracilaria foliifera, G. canaliculata, G. pygmaea, Sarconema furcellatum, Solieria robusta, Agardhiella subulata, Meristotheca populosa, Hypnea valentia, Hypnea muciformis, Rhodymenia pseudopalmata, Champia compressa, Ceramium manorensis, Acanthophora spicifera, Polysiphonia fucoides, Laurencia pinnatifida, Sarcodia dichotoma. Three species are recorded for the first time from Pakistan, these include Galaxaura rugosa, Agardhiella subulata, and Rhodymenia pseudopalmata. Ecological distribution and morpho-taxonomic description of these species is given here. Most of the species were found drifted at the shore. However, some red algal species were found attached to stones or rocks during spring season

2311-2319 Download
45

Effect of high-temperature, drought, and nutrient availability on morpho-physiological and molecular mechanisms of rapeseed - an overview


Abuzar Ghafoor, Hassan Karim, Muhammad Ahsan Asghar, Hafiz Hassan Javed, Peng Xiao and Yongcheng Wu

Effect of high-temperature, drought, and nutrient availability on morpho-physiological and molecular mechanisms of rapeseed - an overview


ABSTRACT:

Production of high yielding cereals and oilseed crops is a major challenge for the farming community to meet the increasing global food demands. In many areas, global food production is challenged by abiotic and biotic factors which adversely hamper the growth of plants. Abiotic stresses, for instance, water, temperature, and essential soil nutrients stress affect the plant's growth. Plants have a different mechanism, which enables them to complete their life cycle under stress conditions, for example, some plants use environmental signals to regulate their morpho-physiological and molecular mechanisms. There is a huge gap of knowledge to identify the genetic mechanisms to mitigate the abiotic stresses. Given the current state of understanding; we have consciously focused on the effect of multiple abiotic stress-signals on morpho-physiological and molecular mechanisms of Brassica napus. Further, this review emphasizes the link between different abiotic stresses (high temperature, drought, and low nutrients availability) which ultimately regulate the growth and development of Brassica napus.

2321-2330 Download
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