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Year 2024 , Volume  56, Issue 1
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1

Antioxidative parameters in the seedlings of Hordeum vulgare in response to priming seeds with diatomite solution under salt stress

 


Saltanat Nayekova, Sholpan Arystanova, Marat Tynykulov, Karlygash Aubakirova and Zerekbay Alikulov

Antioxidative parameters in the seedlings of Hordeum vulgare in response to priming seeds with diatomite solution under salt stress

 


ABSTRACT:

In modern agriculture, salt stress is one of the major problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of priming seeds of Hordeum Vulgaris with diatomite on physiological, photosynthetic and stress related aspects in laboratory conditions. The sterilized seeds were primed with three concentrations of diatomite suspensions: 1) 5g DTM/100 ml, 2)10 g DTM / 100 ml H2O, 3) 20 g DTM /100 ml. If the concentration of salt is high in the soil it will give the high osmotic potential of soil as a result and water deficit will be in plants. Moreover, a high concentration of salt could cause nutritional disequilibrium and, as a result, the production of reactive oxygen species was increased and plant growth and biomass were decreased as a stress condition was 200 mM of NaCl solution and after that their biochemical contents were determined. Diatomite may act to alleviate salt stress in the plant. This is achieved by decreasing the permeability of plasma membranes and maintenance of cell form and structure due to the increasing of antioxidative enzymes SOD and CAT. Diatomite offset the negative impacts of NaCl stress due to the increased tolerance of plants to NaCl salinity by enhancement of chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity

1-8 Download
2

Enhancing maize growth and mitigating salinity stress through foliar application of proline and glycine betaine


Inam Irshad, Muhammad Anwar-Ul-Haq, Javaid Akhtar and Muhammad Maqsood

Enhancing maize growth and mitigating salinity stress through foliar application of proline and glycine betaine


ABSTRACT:

Salinity stress is a major problem for crop productivity worldwide. It reduces crop growth and yield by disrupting the plant's physiological and metabolic processes. However, osmolytes usage as foliar is suggested to overcome this issue to some extent in plants. These osmolytes have the potential to decrease the uptake of toxicity-generating ions, thus playing a vital role in the regulation of plant growth. However, regarding use of their best application rate still needs scientific attention. That’s why the current study was conducted with the objective of determining the effectiveness of osmolytes, i.e., proline (Pro) and glycine betaine (GB) usage, on maize under salinity stress. For that hybrid maize variety (Monsanto DK-6789) was sown on soils having EC2 (control), 5, and 10 dSm-1. Osmolytes proline and glycine betaine were applied as foliar at concentrations of 20mM, 40mM, and 60mM. The results showed that osmolytes foliar application, i.e., proline 60mM and glycine betaine 60mM performed significantly best for improving maize growth, chlorophyll contents, and potassium uptake. At the highest salinity level of 10 dS/m, the Pro20 treatment showed a 6.0% reduction in electrolyte leakage compared to the control group, while the Pro40 and Pro60 treatments demonstrated significant reductions of 24.1% and 30.0%, respectively. Likewise, the GB20, GB40, and GB60 treatments exhibited reductions of 17.4%, 32.1%, and 40.2%, respectively, compared to the control group. In conclusion, the foliar proline 60mM and glycine betaine 60mM application is an effective strategy for mitigating the negative impact of salinity stress on maize growth and productivity

9-17 Download
3

Potential effects of nanochitosan on rice under salinity


Nguyen Phuong Thuy, Vo Thi Thu Ngan, Nguyen Ngoc Trai, Vuong Tuan Phong, Trinh Ngoc Ai, Quach Van Cao Thi and Do Tan Khang

Potential effects of nanochitosan on rice under salinity


ABSTRACT:

Chitosan has been widely used in agriculture to reduce harmful effects on plants during unfavorable conditions and promote plant growth. Nanotechnology is one of the most potent tools in modern agriculture for improving crop productivity. The study was conducted to (i) determine the salt tolerance of rice cultivars including ST24, ST25, and OM18, (ii) determine the effects of nanochitosan in reducing the harmful effects of salinity on rice cultivars, and (iii) analyze the influences of various nanochitosan concentrations on the photosynthetic activity and antioxidant enzymes of the three rice cultivars at the seedling stage. The results of screening the salt tolerance in a medium of NaCl (2‰, 4‰, 6‰, 8‰, 10‰) showed that salinity stress affected the development of the three rice cultivars, ST24, ST25, and OM18. The salt concentrations and rate reductions for plant height and root length were positively correlated. The results showed that all forms of chitosan nanoparticle treatment enhanced the photosynthesis of rice cultivars by increasing the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and proline content. The addition of 0.5% nanochitosan in the 6‰ NaCl treatment increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes compared with the control treatment. The catalase activity reached the highest value in rice cultivar OM18, with 0.5% nanochitosan and an enzyme content of 0.049 U/min/g. The peroxidase activity was highest in rice cultivar ST24, with 0.5% nanochitosan (0.098 U/min/g). The ascorbate peroxidase activity was the highest in rice cultivar ST25, with 0.5% nanochitosan (0.084 U/min/g). Treatment with nanochitosan 0.5% enhanced the gene expression level of all tested enzymes. This suggests that the chitosan nanoparticle treatment promoted the self-protection mechanism by raising the antioxidant enzyme activity to reduce the amount of H2O2 and O2that accumulated in the leaf cells

19-26 Download
4

Expression profile of PdpapHB12 gene in response to stress for Populus davidana × P. alba var. pyramidlis


Yue Zhang, Jiamin Lie, Kuo Cui, Jiankun Yang, Abdul Majeed Baloch, Surui Liu, Yuejia Zhang, Abdul Wahid Baloch and Rongshu Zhang

Expression profile of PdpapHB12 gene in response to stress for Populus davidana × P. alba var. pyramidlis


ABSTRACT:

In this study, biotic and abiotic stress response gene was investigated in poplar. PdPapHB12, the specific response gene in Shanxin poplar, was cloned by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. PdPapHB12 encoded a non-transmembrane and hydrophilic protein, and also was a transcription factor of HD-Zip I subfamily. The tissue-specific expression profile of PdPapHB12 in poplar was achieved with and without various stresses and inductions. It was verified that PdPapHB12 was expressed in the shoot tip (ST), leaves (L), stems (S), and roots (R) for poplar plantlets, and the highest expression was obtained in L3. The effects of abiotic stress (NaCl, Na2CO3, and polyethylene glycol 6000), biotic stress (inoculating the roots of poplar by pathogenic fungus), and phytohormone induction on the PdPapHB12 expression was further investigated. It was found that the PdPapHB12 expression was the most evident changes by polyethylene glycol 6000 in all tissues. Moreover, the expression was obviously increased by F. oxysporum (p<0.05), and significantly decreased by C. chrysosperma induction in all tissues. The expression was significantly increased by inducting jasmonic acid and abscisic acid in all component, while the increased expression was obtained only in L2 and R under salicylic acid induction. However, the PdPapHB12 expression was down-regulated under the SA induction in ST

27-34 Download
5

A C2H2 zinc finger protein GhZFP8 from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is involved in salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis


Zhi-Hui Yuan, Ying Li, Bin Zhang, Wen-Han Cheng and Yong-Chang Liu

A C2H2 zinc finger protein GhZFP8 from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is involved in salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis


ABSTRACT:

C2H2-type zinc finger proteins (ZFP) function in many biological processes. In this study, GhZFP8 encoding a C2H2 ZFP was cloned from cotton. Results of qPCR indicated that the transcripts of GhZFP8 were detected in the leaves and fibers of 3, 6, and 30 days post anthesis, but not in the roots, stems, and flowers. The transcriptional level of GhZFP8 was regulated by cold, salt, PEG, and ABA. Sub-cellular localization analysis showed that GhZFP8 was distributed in the nucleus of tobacco leaves. GhZFP8 transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited improved tolerance to high salinity but less sensitivity to ABA. Meanwhile, overexpression of GhZFP8 elevated the rate of water loss in leaves compared to that in wild types. All results suggested that GhZFP8 may function in the response of Arabidopsis to salt and ABA in cotton.

 

35-41 Download
6

Salicylic acid application improves growth and alleviates the adverse effects of heat stress in pea (Pisum sativum L.)


Imran Habib Khan and Imran Ahmad

Salicylic acid application improves growth and alleviates the adverse effects of heat stress in pea (Pisum sativum L.)


ABSTRACT:

High temperature is a major factor limiting plant growth and productivity. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule that mitigates the adverse effects of heat stress on plants A field experiments entitled “salicylic acid application improves growth and alleviates the adverse effect of heat stress in pea (Pisum sativum L.)” was carried out at The University of Agriculture Peshawar (Amir Mohammad Khan Campus Mardan) in summer 2017. Analysis showed that highest percentage of seedling emergence (73.68 ± SD %), plant height (71.50 ± SD cm), leaves plant-1 (202.31 ± SD), pods plant-1 (37.60 ± SD), seeds pod-1 (7.08 ± SD), 100 seed weight (34.32 ± SD g), yield (5569.48 ± SD kg ha-1), chlorophyll content (50.13 ± SD SPAD), protein content (20.94 ± SD % FW) except total soluble solids (15.27 ± SD 0Brix) were observed in plants which received having both primed seeds and foliar applied SA at 100 ppm. Findings regarding salicylic acid levels revealed that maximum seedling emergence percentage (73.90 %), plant height (71.80 ± SD cm), leaves plant-1 (193.76 ± SD), pods plant-1 (38.70 ± SD), seeds pod-1 (7.58 ± SD), 100 seed weight (37.78 ± SD g), yield (6268.61 ± SD kg ha-1), chlorophyll content (52.03 ± SD SPAD), protein content (21.52 ± SD % FW) except total soluble solids (14.73 ± SD 0Brix) were recorded in plants sprayed with 100 ppm salicylic acid. Interaction between modes of application and 100 ppm salicylic acid was also found significant in most of the studied parameters. So it is concluded that seed priming and again as a foliar application of salicylic acid at 100 ppm improved the physiology of pea and alleviates the heat toxicity in pea plants.

 

43-53 Download
7

Effect of cadmium toxicity on Zn, Mn, Cd, Fe concentration and translocation, bioaccumulation, uptake of Cd in root and shoot of different rice varieties


Muhammad Akram, Saif Ullah, Kamran Ikram, Muhammad Saqlain Zaheer, Muhammad Zeeshan Mansha, Hafiz Haider Ali, Yasir Niaz, Mahmoud Fathy Seleiman and Naeem Khan

Effect of cadmium toxicity on Zn, Mn, Cd, Fe concentration and translocation, bioaccumulation, uptake of Cd in root and shoot of different rice varieties


ABSTRACT:

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is found a paramount contributor (>75%) of Cd contamination in the food chain in many countries of Asia, including Pakistan. In the present study, twenty local rice varieties were selected and the varietal response was investigated against Cd application with four strengths (0, 5, 10, and 15 µM) under hydroponic conditions by following completely randomized design under the factorial arrangements along with three replicates. Results regarding Cd concentration in roots and shoots revealed that the maximum level of Cd was assessed in V20 (IRRI-6) and minimum in V1 (Super Basmati) when Cd was applied at a higher level (15 µM), while higher Cd uptake in roots and shoots was exhibited by V20 (IRRI-6) and V13 (KS-282) respectively and minimum in V1 (Super Basmati) among both ones at Cd application with strength 15 µM. Maximum translocation and bioaccumulation of Cd in roots and shoots were observed in V20 (IRRI-6) and minimum in V1 (Super Basmati). Zinc level in root was higher in V4 (Shaheen Basmati) and minimum in V14 (KSK-133), while, in shoots V7 (Basmati-515) exhibited maximum Zn concentration and minimum by V2 (Kainat Basmati). Maximum Mn level in roots against Cd application were observed in V4 (Shaheen Basmati) and minimum in V2 (Kainat Basmati), whereas its level was higher in shoots of V13 (KS-282) and lower in V8 (Pak Basmati). Iron contents were higher in roots of V5 (Basmati-198) and lower in V20 (IRRI-6), while, in shoots, Fe level was higher in shoots of V8 (Pak Basmati) and minimum in V2 (Kainat Basmati) against Cd application. V1 (Super Basmati) showed a positive response against Cd contaminations. This study enlightens the era for others to assess the impact of heavy metals on various crops.  Increasing the Cd concentration higher the binding to sulfhydryl groups in proteins and enzymes that inactive and disturb the metabolic pathway of rice plant and decrease uptake of essential nutrients. Cd competes with the nutrients and damages the plant nutrients balance and create physiological stress

55-63 Download
8

Physiology of Rosa ‘Gruss-an-teplitz’ following treatment with rhizobacteria (PGPR), salicylic acid (SA) and zinc sulphate


Mian. M. Amanullah and Asghari Bano

Physiology of Rosa ‘Gruss-an-teplitz’ following treatment with rhizobacteria (PGPR), salicylic acid (SA) and zinc sulphate


ABSTRACT:

Fresh cuttings from 2-year-old rose cultivar Rose gruss-an-teplitz was treated with 2 PGPR used as seed soaking treatment and with Zinc sulphate added to the rhizosphere soil or treated with Salicylic acid (SA) as foliar spray was sown both in the field and in pots (under sterilized condition). Physiological parameters were recorded at flowering.

All the treatments promoted growth parameters and improved the quality of rose water. However, greater increase in all growth parameters were recorded in Pseudomonas putida + Salicylic acid treatment. Potted grown plants also showed significant stimulation in growth and reproductive parameters; Bacillus cereus being highly effective. The treatment effects were greater in summer but in winter the % increase was also significantly greater over control. Organoleptic analysis of rose water revealed that treatment with Pseudomonas putida + Salicylic acid (SA) imparted maximum aroma and sweetness in field grown plants while Bacillus cereus inoculation proved most effective in potted plants. Plant was more responsive to treatments in summer than that of winter. Rose petal water from potted plants of winter revealed higher aroma in winter as compared to summer. Similar trend was noted in case of field grown plants.

The incidence of disease was not recorded in treated plants particularly in presence of SA. Both the PGPR and SA act synergistically and can be applied to boost growth, yield and quality of roses.

This is the first report regarding the effect of PGPR, defense hormone SA and Zinc sulphate alone and in combination on roses. The investigation revealed that PGPR can augment the effectivity of Zinc sulphate and SA on growth and reproductivity of rose as well as on its quality e.g., flavor and sweetness of rose water. The combined treatments may be implicated to enhance productivity and quality of roses

65-74 Download
9

Influence of various growth modulators on the rooting, enzymatic activity, and nutrient content of Catalpa bignonioides (Bignoniaceae)


Jiajia Sun, Shuwen Bi, Shanshan Jin, Yange Wang, Hanlei Chen, Ni Ruoyi, Mingyue Ma and Jin’e Quan

Influence of various growth modulators on the rooting, enzymatic activity, and nutrient content of Catalpa bignonioides (Bignoniaceae)


ABSTRACT:

Background: Ecosystem restoration is a major effort to promote sustainable human development. As a green tree species, the role of the American wood bean tree in promoting the industrialization of seedlings and the strength of scientific and technological innovation cannot be ignored, but the introduction of the American wood bean tree propagation and cultivation system is still immature. The goals of this investigation were to improve the survival rate and rooting rate (RR) of Catalpa bignonioides cuttings; to screen out the optimal formula and processing method; and to offer a theoretical basis and technical direction for further improving the prompt reproduction and widespread administration of C. bignonioides. Using fresh softwood of a 3-year-old parent C. bignonioides as material, three-factor orthogonal tests involving three growth regulator types  (indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and rhizogenic powder-1 (ABT-1)), growth regulator concentrations (500, 1000 and 1 500 mg·L-1), and growth regulator action times (10 min, 30 min, and 60 min) were performed to analyze the influence of these three factors on the rooting index during the rooting of cuttings and to determine the MDA content, related enzymatic activity, and changes in soluble sugar (SS) and soluble protein (SP) levels of cutting phloem. The order of influence of the 3 kinds of growth regulators on C. bignonioides was IBA>ABT-1>IAA>contral (CK). Different growth regulator concentrations had significant effects on the RR of C. bignonioides cuttings. Cutting with a processing time of 60 min had the highest RR, callus production rate, and average root number. Among the 3 main factors, growth regulator had the greatest influence on rooting, with each index reaching a significant level. Overall, the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of cutting treatments were drastically reduced, compared to the CK; the peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was markedly elevated, relative to CK, and the SS and SP levels were also elevated, compared to the CK overall. Among the three growth regulators, IBA exposure had the most significant impact on the cutting effect, and the rooting effect of 1000mg · L-1 treatment was the best of 60 min was the best for the indicators of the rooting of cuttings. T5 (IBA+1000 mg·L-1+60 min) was the optimal treatment combination, carrying a RR of 84%. Treatments with different growth regulators can reduce the MDA content and increase the related enzymatic activity and nutrient content in cuttings, thus promoting the rooting of cuttings

75-84 Download
10

Leaf micromorphological traits of legumes from Takkar wildlife sanctuary


Jamil Raza, Mushtaq Ahmad, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Muhammad Zafar, Salman Majeed, Akmaljon Joraev and Khusniddin Bobojanov

Leaf micromorphological traits of legumes from Takkar wildlife sanctuary


ABSTRACT:

This study elucidates the micro-morphology of leaf among wildlife sanctuary inhabited leguminous species adapted to arid environment. The foliar structures that enable its survival in arid conditions are little recognized. The comparative anatomical attributes of 10 leguminous species were analyzed using bio imaging microscopic techniques. Both surfaces of the leaves exhibited differences in their leaf anatomical traits including type of stomata, epidermis, anticlinal wall, and diversity of trichomes. The epidermal cells shape was reported as polygonal, tetragonal to pentagonal and wavy. The largest epidermal cells were examined in Dalbergia sisso (47.5 μm) on adaxial side and Prosopis cineraria (38.5 μm) on abaxial surface. Largest stomatal complex was recorded for Dalbergia sisso (24.9 μm) on abaxial, while the smallest (8.28 μm) for Prosopis juliflora on adaxial side. Unicellular trichomes were observed on both surfaces of Crotalaria burhia while glandular trichomes were located in the coastal zone of Prosopis juliflora. The easy and quick identification of micromorphological markers of leguminous species reflect their adaptations to aridity in a wildlife sanctuary habitats. The current findings of the foliar micromorphological traits are of special interest for plant taxonomists for the correct identification of leguminous species

85-95 Download
11

Leaf macro- and micro- morphological characters as taxonomic tools for some Asteraceae species

 


Dalia Goda Gabr

Leaf macro- and micro- morphological characters as taxonomic tools for some Asteraceae species

 


ABSTRACT:

The morphological and epidermal characters of leaves of 10 Asteraceae species, collected from Dammam city in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia were examined to highlight their significance in identification and classification. Several morphological leaf characters played a crucial role in delimitation of the studied species, including leaf arrangement, type, shape, and the presence or absence of a petiole. Regarding anatomical features, two types of mesophylls were observed, and subsidiary bundles were present in both the petiole and blade. Six types of cuticular ornamentation and 12 different types of trichomes were found. The numerical analysis of the obtained characters demonstrated that the leaf characteristics were taxonomically important for classification and differentiation at the subfamily and generic levels

97-110 Download
12

Demonstrating the breadth of the alien taxa using herbarium


Najla A. Al-Shaye and Walaa A. Hassan

Demonstrating the breadth of the alien taxa using herbarium


ABSTRACT:

The present study examined the PNUH herbarium specimens from the period (2002-2022) to analyze three elements of them: nativeness, habit, and phytogeographical distribution. A total of 6000 specimens with 251 species were examined, they included 44 families and 168 genera. Of which 205 native species and 46 alien ones belong to 18 families and 39 genera. The most represented families were Asteraceae and Poaceae followed by Brassicaceae. The most represented native genus was Convolvulus L. but the most represented alien genus was Amaranthus L. on the other hand the Saharo-Arabian was the most represented monoregional (40 species, 16%) for native taxa, but cosmopolitan followed by Mediterranean and Irano-Turanean were the most represented alien taxa, also it was recorded that most taxa of the phytogeographical region were herbaceous. Also, the number of alien species exceeds especially in the last decade. Our data provide an estimate of the widespread most successful alien species over a very large area of the KSA. This work considered as the first thorough compilation and analysis of all records on alien plant taxa in KSA herbaria, has identified knowledge gaps about the geographic distribution and life form. We believe that our findings will raise environmental awareness about invasive species in Saudi Arabia and, more importantly, that they will spur and direct additional research on this topic in Saudi Arabia, particularly field-oriented studies. No management strategy can be created without a solid understanding of the issue

111-125 Download
13

Identification and characterization of serine proteases from Cuminum cyminum (Apiaceae)


Uzma Zaman, Atiya Abbasi and Saima Mahmood Malhi

Identification and characterization of serine proteases from Cuminum cyminum (Apiaceae)


ABSTRACT:

Cuminum cyminum L. of the family Apiaceae, commonly known as cumin or safaid zeera, has been popularly utilized as common spice around the world. Phytochemical analysis and pharmacological studies proved the presence of several biological active compounds with health beneficial effects. The present work aimed to identify the proteases in the aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum. Total proteins were extracted and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography. Protein fractions were divided in two groups CSP I and CSP II on the basis of protein pattern and the presence of protease activities by SDS-PAGE and zymography, respectively. Additionally, both group showed optimum activity at pH range 5-6 and at 35oC using casein as substrate. Significant inhibition of activity by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, indicated that enzymes of both groups belonged to the family of plant serine proteases. These cumin proteases can be a significant addition in plant proteases family which is in continuous growth due to their wide range of application in industries like food, leather, detergent and pharmaceutical manufacturing, offering substitute to the harmful chemicals

127-133 Download
14

Karyomorphology of genus  Pinanga (Arecaceae) in Java and Bali, Indonesia


Joko Ridho Witono, Izu Andry Fijridiyanto and Katsuhiko Kondo

Karyomorphology of genus  Pinanga (Arecaceae) in Java and Bali, Indonesia


ABSTRACT:

The karyomorphology on palm (Arecaceae) was infrequently reported, including the genus Pinanga. Our research aimed to observe the karyomorphology of Pinanga in Java and Bali, i.e., Pinanga arinasae, P. javana, and P. coronata and their relationships with morphology and molecular characters. Somatic chromosome preparation and observation were carried out using the aceto-orcein squash method. The chromosome number of the three species was 2n=32, however, the following differences were found: (1) karyotype formula of P. arinasae and P. javana is 12m+4sm, whereas P. coronata is 14m + 1sm + 1st; (2) the chromosome length of P. arinasae, P. javana, and P. coronata was 1.39-3.89 µm, 1.36-4.02 µm, and 3.05-6.03 µm, respectively. Our karyomorphological approach showed that P. arinasae was more closely related to P. javana than P. coronata. This is supported by ITS sequence data and ISSR genetic markers. In this paper, the karyomorphology of Pinanga arinasae and P. javana is reported for the first time

135-140 Download
15

Elicitation of secondary metabolites and physiological changes in Ipomea turbinata and Convolvulus arvensis plantlets exposed to green synthesized silver nanoparticles


Timour Shah Zafar, Asfandyar Durrani, Syed Salman Hashmi, Nisar Ahmad, Waqar Ahmad, Muhammad Nadeem, Bilal Haider Abbasi and Muhammad Tariq

Elicitation of secondary metabolites and physiological changes in Ipomea turbinata and Convolvulus arvensis plantlets exposed to green synthesized silver nanoparticles


ABSTRACT:

The current study focuses on the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as an elicitor to enhance the secondary metabolite content of Ipomea turbinata and Convulvulus arvensis plantlets. Six different concentrations of AgNPs were used to evaluate the effect of AgNPs on the phenology and secondary metabolite content of I. turbinata and C. arvensis. The shoot and root length of I. turbinata was inhibited with increasing AgNPs concentration. In case of C. arvensis, the root length was increased whereas shoot length was inhibited upon treatment with AgNPs. On the other hand, the biochemical analysis showed significant variation in plant phytochemicals especially the total flavonoid content which were increased two folds as a result of AgNPs treatment compared to the control. With such a promising result, it can be concluded that AgNPs is effective in the enhanced production of commercially important secondary metabolites (such as flavonoids and phenolics contents) compared to production in low amounts under normal growth conditions.

 

 

141-147 Download
16

Diversity in wild olive (Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata) communities along elevational gradient


Faakeha Islam, Mansoor Hameed, Muhammad Shahbaz and Muhammad Ashfaq Wahid

Diversity in wild olive (Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata) communities along elevational gradient


ABSTRACT:

The Potohar Plateau and Salt Range are considered the lower hills of the Himalayan region. The Potohar region is extraordinarily rich in habitat and floral diversity that is included in the sub-tropical open scrub forests. Olea europaea (wild olive, locally known as kao) is an important stress tolerant fuel and fodder species. Different ecozones were selected to evaluate ecological traits of ecotypes of these species. Objective of the current study was to investigate factors that affect distribution range of wild olive plants in the Punjab. The maximum and the minimum relative densities of O. europaea subsp. cuspidata were in Kanhatti (30.81) and Sodhi (1.4) from Khushab district. The maximum and the minimum relative frequencies were Khabeki (18.18) and Uchala Mor 2 (9.09) from district Khushab. The maximum and the minimum relative cover were in sites Uchala Mor (48.19) and Kanhatti road (14.89) in district Khushab. The maximum and the minimum importance values were of Kanhatti (72.42), in district Khushab and Domeli (31.8) in district Jhelum respectively. It was concluded that distributional range varied greatly along elevation gradient. Higher elevation suited distribution of wild olive

149-160 Download
17

Ameliorating the quantitative traits in rice through physical mutagenesis


Talha Azhar, Iftikhar Ali Odhano and Hafeez Ur Rahman Bughio

Ameliorating the quantitative traits in rice through physical mutagenesis


ABSTRACT:

The study was aimed at determining the genetic variability present in promising mutant rice lines at NIA and to investigate the relationship between yield and yield contributing traits through correlation and path analysis. Experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design. Analysis of variance showed significant (p<0.05) variation among genotypes. Seven mutant lines along with IR6 parent and two check varieties Shandar and NIA Mehran were evaluated for yield and yield attributing traits. The genotype OD-16B/2 was found to be the highest yielding mutant line. Correlation and path analysis revealed that yield contributing traits viz number of tillers per plant, thousand grain weight and fertile grains had positive direct effect on yield. Therefore selection for these traits could bring improvement in final grain yield

161-165 Download
18

Biomass composting combined with a biological nitrification inhibitor influences greenhouse gas emission and microbial community in rice paddy


Clevie Thertully Balongana Mayassi, Cece Qiao, Yachun Wang, Xingghen Huang, Hongzhi Min, Yuning Zou, Bing Hao, Lantian Ren and Wenge Wu

Biomass composting combined with a biological nitrification inhibitor influences greenhouse gas emission and microbial community in rice paddy


ABSTRACT:

Characterizing the composition of the microbial community in the rhizosphere associated with higher crop yields and (or) greenhouse gases is an important first step in understanding the role of microbiota in paddy fields. The aim of these studies was to decipher the effects of straw tea composting in combination with the addition of biological nitrification inhibitors on greenhouse gas emissions and the microbial community in paddy fields. Quan 9 you 063 varieties of rice in Fengyang, Anhui Province were used as the study object, the amount of conventional fertilizer as the control CK. The results showed that the addition of biological nitrification inhibitors could reduce gas emissions and significantly increase rice yield by 41.70%, as well as improve root system growth and development. In addition, compost products can reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, the biological nitrification inhibitor affected communities of nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Proteobacteria), nitrogen-eating bacteria (Nitrospirae) and Verrucomicrobia, which is known to be one of the most common and diverse species in soil habitats. As with bacteria, different community structures and distribution patterns of archaea have been observed in soil; The Thaumarchaeota type was the most important of all treatments.

 

167-177 Download
19

Breeding of elite local sunflower hybrids with high genetic yield potential and wide adaptability


Ihsan Ullah, M. Ayub Khan, Nazakat Nawaz, Hussain Shah, Ashiq Saleem, M.A. Khan, Haris Khurshid, Fazal Yazdan, M. Asim and Khalid Khan

Breeding of elite local sunflower hybrids with high genetic yield potential and wide adaptability


ABSTRACT:

This research, which consisted of inbred lines development, making of cross combinations and preliminary agronomic evaluation of the hybrids, was carried out at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) over a period of eight years (2013-2020). Heterogeneous sunflower material available with Oilseeds Program (NARC) was used as base material for inbred lines development. The base material used were Shams-37 and NDMTC (OPVs) and RHA-439 and Hyolic-41R (heterogeneous multi-headed restorer lines). Initially, 100 single plants were selected in each of the above mentioned material based on their agro-morphological traits like desirable phenotype, yield superiority and disease resistance in the selection of B lines (maintainer lines) from OPVs while in case of restorer lines selection and development, phenotypes like desirable plant type, pyramid like branching pattern with flowering starting from the top going down to the bottom ensuring long time availability of pollen and disease resistance etc. were the basis of selection. The selfing process continued for six to seven generations after that the selection process was narrowed down retaining only the best single plant progenies with no segregation and highest level of stability. The best lines selected from OPVs were then put into the CMS background by backcrossing them to CMS sources. This process continued for six to seven generations and ultimately only six A & B lines were selected for use in making cross combinations because of their best uniformity with highest level of stability and other desirable morphological characters. Similarly, six restorer lines (R) were also selected from the progenies of the single plants originally selected from heterogeneous R lines after twelve generations of selfing based on their desirable morphologies and uniformity. These six A and six R lines were crossed in all possible ways during Spring-2018 and 24 crosses produced enough seed which were tested in a non-replicated trial for their yield potential assessment during Autumn 2018 using Hysun-33 as a standard check. All the hybrids out-yielded the standard check except four combinations where the seed yield remained non-significantly lower than the check. Ten hybrid combinations recorded > 20% yield increase over the check.  Similarly, in the agronomic evaluation during Spring-2019 replicated trials, all ten elite local sunflower hybrids out-yielded the check hybrid (NKS-278) where seven crosses recorded > 20% genetic gain in terms of seed yield over the standard check. Again in Spring-2020, all the 18 locally developed elite sunflower hybrids out-performed the standard check (Hysun-33) in yield. Overall, 11 hybrids exhibited > 30% yield gain over the check hybrid

179-184 Download
20

A review of threatened plant species utilization, conservation status and distribution in the Vhembe biosphere reserve, Limpopo province, South Africa


Luambo Jeffrey Ramarumo, Alfred Maroyi, Milingoni Peter Tshisikhawe and Wilfred Otang-Mbeng

A review of threatened plant species utilization, conservation status and distribution in the Vhembe biosphere reserve, Limpopo province, South Africa


ABSTRACT:

Scientific evidence suggests that threatened plants are disappearing at an alarming rate. Over the last decades, governments spending on the fight against species extinction have immensely increased and therefore it is estimated to exceed US$7.1 billion per annum. However, the rate of species extinction worldwide is increasing rapidly, with no indications of slowing down soon. Scientific scholars, including botanists, ethnobotanists, economic-botanists, conservationists, and anthropologists, share common interest about the use of indigenous knowledge for livelihoods, scientific and economic growth. As a result, there is a growing interest on indigenous knowledge research, particularly involving utilization and conservation of plant species. Given the fact that recent scientific evidence suggests that such studies are lacking in South African Biosphere Reserves, there is a burning need to critically review literature about threatened plant species utilization, conservation status and distribution in the Vhembe Biosphere Reserve. A literature search was conducted using various keywords in various electronic databases. The review findings demonstrate that Brackenridgea zanguebarica, Prunus africana, Rhychosia vendae and Warbugia salutaris are known to be utilized for medicinal purpose in the Vhembe Biosphere Reserve, and their conservation status range from Vulnerable to Critical Endangered. So far, none of the literature study conducted in the Vhembe Biosphere Reserve has specified the ailments that P. africana, R. vendae and W. salutaris treat. Literature studies reported information about the distribution of threatened plant species, either in the Vhembe Region, at the national level or elsewhere. However, none of these studies have documented spatial information related to the exact locality of the above-mentioned species, except for B. zanguebarica. This was the first review to provide insights above utilized threatened plant species, their conservation status and distribution, since the establishment of the Vhembe Biosphere Reserve in 2009

185-196 Download
21

High-throughput transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the endangered anticancer medicinal plant Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T. S. Ying


Haona Gao, Zheng Zhang, Lu Li, Xiufang Zhao and Wei Liu

High-throughput transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the endangered anticancer medicinal plant Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T. S. Ying


ABSTRACT:

Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T. S. Ying is a traditional medicinal plant in China. Podophyllotoxin, a chemical compound contained in its rhizomes, has important anticancer medicinal value for the treatment of cervical cancer, metrocarcinoma, leukemia, and rheumatism. To obtain the information characteristics of the transcriptome of S. hexandrum, the Illumina HiSeqTM2000 sequencing system was used as the library sequencing platform. The non-reference transcriptome sequencing analysis of the roots, stems and leaves of S. hexandrum was carried out by double-end sequencing method, and 74026 unigenes with high reliability of annotation were obtained. The COG and GO functional classification of unigenes in the transcriptome of S. hexandrum showed that the proportion of unigenes associated with metabolic process, catalytic reaction function, and binding function accounted for a larger proportion. The results of the KEGG analysis showed that S. hexandrum transcriptome unigenes were annotated for 125 metabolic pathways. The number of unigenes annotated to the metabolic pathway was the highest, up to 2921 (24.96%), and the pathway ID of this pathway was ko01100; followed by the biosynthetic pathway controlling secondary metabolites, with 1425 (12.18%) annotated genes, corresponding to the pathway ID of ko01110; in third place was the pathway controlling ribosome metabolism, with 889 (7.6%) annotated genes, corresponding to the pathway ID of ko03010. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing is the sequencing method selected in this study. Subsequently, the overall transcription of S. hexandrum was explored by bioinformatics methods such as COG, GO, and KEGG. These results provide theoretical support for the analysis of the S. hexandrum biosynthesis pathway, the mining of key regulatory genes of podophyllotoxin, and the innovative development and utilization of S. hexandrum resources

197-205 Download
22

Plants used in traditional therapy in Pazar (Tokat-Türkiye) and their ethnobotanical properties


Sibel Ulcay and Gulcan Senel

Plants used in traditional therapy in Pazar (Tokat-Türkiye) and their ethnobotanical properties


ABSTRACT:

The aim was to identify the plants with their local names growing in Pazar (Tokat, Türkiye) and its surroundings, used in local therapies and their usage patterns. Field study was carried out over a period of approximately two years (2015-2017). A total of 311 people participated in this study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with the participants. As a result of the study, demographic characteristics of the participants, types of medicinal plant used by the people of the region, preparation techniques, usage patterns and frequency were determined. In addition, the use values (UV) of the plants were also reported. Local people benefit from 132 plants belonging to 49 families. The most commonly encountered medicinal plant families were Asteraceae (16 taxa) and Rosaceae (16 taxa) and the most common preparations were infusion and decoction. Fifteen disease categories were identified in which traditional medicinal plants were used. Two endemic species namely Sempervivum gillianiae and Astragalus tokatensis were also used by the local people. The highest UV was found for Urtica dioica and Urtica urens. These plants, locally called nettle, are used for joint pain, sore throat, asthma, sprain and bruise treatment, cancer treatment, as blood enhancer, expectorant and for hair loss.

In this study, edible plants such as. Capsella bursa-pastoris Arum orientale, Bellis sylvestris, Taraxacum buttleri, Tragopogon dubius Sinapsis arvensis, Sisymbrium loeselii, Malva neglecta, Veronica persica, Polygonum cognatum, and Rumex crispus were also identified.

As a result, with this study, edible plants and plants used in folk medicine in Pazar (Tokat-Türkiye) were determined. All the information here is based on the direct statements of local people. It should not be forgotten that plants can cause irreversible damage if not used carefully. Therefore, more detailed studies are required about the medicinal and pharmacological properties of the plants in question.

207-217 Download
23

Evaluation of parameters affecting the genetic engineering of recalcitrant switchgrass (Panicum virgatum Roxb. ex Steud.) using GUS reporter gene system


Saima Shafique, Nyla Jabeen and Samra Irum

Evaluation of parameters affecting the genetic engineering of recalcitrant switchgrass (Panicum virgatum Roxb. ex Steud.) using GUS reporter gene system


ABSTRACT:

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is used as a fodder for livestock due to its high nutritional value; it has potential to grow in cool and warm conditions as well as in low fertile soil. Switchgrass breeding is difficult due to its high degree of self-incompatibility; hence, grass production can be increased through cell and tissue culture. The present research focused on developing protocols for the regeneration and gene transformation of the forage grass to enhance the callus and regeneration efficiency through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The switchgrass callus was transformed with the pCAMBIA1302 vector carrying beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene, and 42% transformation efficiency was attained. To ensure a successful transformation, explants were infected with Agrobacterium for five minutes, following co-cultivation for two days. To enhance the process, 100 µM acetosyringone was added in co-cultivation media. Pre-selection of transformed callus was carried out for seven days with 150 mg/L of cefixime. The switchgrass transgenic callus was shifted to a selection medium containing hygromycin (50 mg/L). Histochemical staining was used to evaluate the presence of the GUS gene in the hygromycin-resistant transgenic plants. The successful transformation of switchgrass opens opportunities for gene function analysis and germplasm improvement through the application of advanced biotechnological tools.

219-225 Download
24

Magnesium and nitrogen co-doped carbon dots alleviate UV-B radiation damage in wheat seedlings


Ting Mu and Rong Han

Magnesium and nitrogen co-doped carbon dots alleviate UV-B radiation damage in wheat seedlings


ABSTRACT:

Ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) has a negative effect on crops seedling vigor and germination. Magnesium and nitrogen co-doped carbon dots (Mg-N-CDs) are the major molecules participated in various physiological events of seedlings. The effects of various concentrations of exogenous Mg-N-CDs on the wheat seed germination together with the features of early seedling growth under a stress of UV-B were studied. The UV-B stress (10.08 KJ m-2 d-1) significantly suppressed the germination index, seed germination potential, the growth of germs and roots and vigor index. The pretreatment of Mg-N-CDs attenuated the effect of UV-B stress with a dose-dependent mode, as exhibited by increasing the features of early seedling growth parameters and seed germination, the mitigation effect of 0.04 mg ml-1 Mg-N-CDs was the most significant. Mg-N-CDs pretreatment activated the effective antioxidant systems and then effectively enhanced the peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in roots and germs, so as to prevent the oxidative damage caused by UV-B stress. In addition, Mg-N-CDs pre-treatment significantly increased the increase the expression of other related genes to improve the antioxidant capacity of roots and germs, leading to the up-regulated ATPS, CS, and GS level. The results demonstrated that applying Mg-N-CDs to the wheat seeds probably is an excellent choice. It can enhance the seed germination together with seedling growth under a stress of UV-B by regulating physiological response, so as to improve the seed germination along with seedling growth

227-237 Download
25

Phytochemical screening of three traditional medicinal plants: Taraxacum officinale, Geranium wallichianum, and Elaeagnus parvifolia


Fahad Said Khan, Muhammad Akram, Abid Rashid, Syed Muhammad Ali Shah and Sultan Ayaz

Phytochemical screening of three traditional medicinal plants: Taraxacum officinale, Geranium wallichianum, and Elaeagnus parvifolia


ABSTRACT:

The purpose of this research is to determine the phytochemical analysis of traditional medicinal plants: Taraxacum officinale, Geranium wallichianum, and Elaeagnus parvifolia. Phytochemical screening of plants is an essential step in discovering bioactive components of medicinal plants, which might contribute to the formulation of novel medicines and improve the medications. The presence of important bioactive components in these three traditional medicinal plants commonly used in Asia has been identified to correlate with their ethnomedicinal importance. These plants include Taraxacum officinale, Geranium wallichianum, and Elaeagnus parvifolia. We used standard techniques to reveal the existence of secondary metabolites that include tannins, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, sterols, cardiac glycosides, and alkaloids. All the three species of plants showed different results. Tannins and saponins were mostly present in Taraxacum officinale. Geranium wallichianum contains most of terpenoids. Phytosterol, glycosides and carbohydrates were found in Taraxacum officinale and Geranium wallichianum. Alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids are present in all the three species therefore all of these plants have antioxidants properties and are of great medicinal use as well

239-246 Download
26

Comparative anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, and chromatographic screening of bioactive compounds in selected medicinal plants: extraction system effects


Zehra Kazmi, Naila Safdar, Zehra Batool, Saima Shakil Malik, Azra Yasmin, Zaid Abdul Razzak and Shabana U Simjee

Comparative anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, and chromatographic screening of bioactive compounds in selected medicinal plants: extraction system effects


ABSTRACT:

Adiantum incisum, Alternanthera pungens and Trichodesma indicum are well-known for usage in traditional folklore medicine. Therapeutic variability was assessed by In vitro and In vivo anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory capacities. Higher yield (p<0.05) was observed for macerated samples (A. pungens 20.3% and T. indicum 54.9%) as compared to their decoction analogues (11.8% and 36.2%) with non-significant (p˃0.05) yield in A. incisum. Macerated samples of extracts showed effective potencies with highest a-amylase inhibition (IC50 101.02µg/ml) and In vitro anti-inflammatory capacity (IC5075.89µg/ml) revealed by A. pungens. Pearson’s correlation showed a positive association between various phenolic compounds and bioactivities. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity (22% inhibition compared to 31% by indomethacin) was shown by macerated A. pungens. Bioactive constituents and polyphenols in plant extracts were characterized by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. GC-MS identified eleven different bioactive compounds in macerated samples of A. pungens and twelve in decocted sample of A. incisum. HPLC quantified significant (p<0.05) amount of caffeic acid (26.30µg/mg), catechins (898.3µg/mg), rutin (2193.92µg/mg), kaempferol (4678.1µg/mg), gallic acid (327.04µg/mg) and quercetin (8700µg/mg) in macerated samples of A. pungens with significant quantity in decocted extract of A. incisum. Significant correlation (p<0.05) between the extraction type, phytoconstituents and their bioactivities is observed with the bioactive strength of decocted or macerated extract guided by the selection of plant choice.

247-258 Download
27

Genetic evolution analysis and SNP development of Taxus spp. by SLAF-SEQ


Bihua Chen, Yong Li, Jiangmin Li, Huihua Fan, Xinghao Tang, Guibin Zhou and Shengliang Huang

Genetic evolution analysis and SNP development of Taxus spp. by SLAF-SEQ


ABSTRACT:

The molecular markers within whole genome were obtained, evolutionary tree was constructed, and the genetic structure, PCA (principal co-ordinates analysis) and genetic diversity analysis were carried out to understand the genetic evolutionary relationship and specific SNP markers of Taxus species or provenances, The protocol was predicted by using the genome of Taxus chinensis var. mairei and digested with the Hpy166II restriction enzyme, the SLAF (specific-locus amplified fragment) tags of length 314-364 bp read length 126 bp×2 used for subsequent data assessment and analysis, a total of 148.78 Mb reads data were obtained from 62 Taxus spp. Samples including 7 species, with 94.46% of an average Q30 and 37.99% of an average GC content. 140,405 SLAF tags were developed with an average sequencing depth of 7.54×. SNPs were developed by genome analysis toolkits GATK and Sam Tools, and the intersection of SNPs acquired using the two methods was applied as the reliable SNP marker dataset, and a total of 7,795,093 population SNPs were obtained. The phylogenetic tree showed that the 62 Taxus spp. could be divided into two clades, T. yunnanensis was the first clade, and the others clustered as the second clade. The data amount obtained could be used for the verification and development of specific SNP markers and reveal the genetic relationship for the 7 Taxus species

259-275 Download
28

Assessment of antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of silver nanoparticles from Nepeta laevigata (D.Don) Hand. -Mazz. and Nepeta kurramensis Rech. f.


Memoona Almas, Sameen Jan and Zabta Khan Shinwari

Assessment of antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of silver nanoparticles from Nepeta laevigata (D.Don) Hand. -Mazz. and Nepeta kurramensis Rech. f.


ABSTRACT:

The present work focusses on antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNO3 NPs) from two important medicinal plants Nepeta leavigata and Nepeta kurramensis. The AgNO3 NPs antimicrobial results revealed that both the plants showed good potential against bacterial and fungal pathogens. The AgNO3 NPs from N. leavigata showed 20.5 ± 0.047, 19.8 ± 0.408 and 18.7± 0.037 mm zone of inhibition against Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus terreus respectively at a concentartion of 11 µg/ml while the lowest zone of inhibition 7.93 ± 0.391 mm was given against fungal pathogen Puccinia graminis. Antifungal results given by AgNO3 NPs from N. kurramensis projected that they showed 20.16 ± 0.067, 19.6 ± 0.045 mm inhibition zone at a concentration of 11 µg/ml against Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum respectively while lowest inhibition zones 6.8 ± 0.048 and 6.3 ± 0.037 was given against Puccinia graminis, Geotrichum candidum. Three different concentartion of AgNO3 NPs from our research plants were tested against seven bacterial pathogens. Results revealed that AgNO3 NPs from N. leavigata exhibited 21.8 ± 0.065, 21.1 ± 0.05 and 19.6 ± 0.048 at a concentration of 7 µg/ml against P. aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogens and Salmonella typae respectively. Lowest zone of inhibition 16.7 ± 0.04 was given against Klebsiella pneumonia. The AgNO3 NPs from N. kurramensis showed highest zone of inhibition 21.8 ± 0.045 against P. aeruginosa while the lowest inhibition zone 16.8 ± 0.043 was given against E. coli at a concentration of 7 µg/ml. The antioxidant activities results showed that AgNO3 NPs from N. kurramensis extract had a higher scavenging effect than AgNO3 NPs from N. laevigata. AgNO3 NPs from N. laevigata demonstrated the maximum % of inhibition, measuring 47.17 ± 0.032 at a dose of 9 µg/ml. This was followed by 43.86 ± 0.023 % inhibition at a concentration of 7 µg/ml, whilst the lowest percentage activity was detected at a concentration level of 3 µg/ml, which was measured as 34.56 ± 0.028. The maximum scavenging inhibition given by AgNO3 NPs form N. kurramensis was 50.03 ± 0.073 % at a dose of 9 µg/ml, and it was followed by 46.7 ± 0.043 % inhibition at a concentration of 7 µg/ml

277-282 Download
29

Augmented block design for evaluating round and oblong fruit shape advanced lines of indeterminate tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)


Nausherwan Nobel Nawab, Muhammad Kashif Shahzad Sarwar, Sikander Khan Tanveer and Alamgir Alvi

Augmented block design for evaluating round and oblong fruit shape advanced lines of indeterminate tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)


ABSTRACT:

The availability of productive genetic resources after going through hybridization, could further bridge up the hybrid and line development in tomato. Normally the plant material in F7 attains a good level of homzygosity with respect to the traits on which their selection is made. The evaluation of the best advance lines is relatively a crucial task in view of low seed availability for its testing for basic morphological and yield attributes. 123 round and 116 oblong fruit shape advance lines were evaluated for this purpose in Augmented Block Design with 04 set of check hybrids and 04 set of OPVs. Maximum value of coefficient of variability (CV) was observed for fruit yield in both of round (30.76 %) and oblong (24.98 %) fruited advance lines which indicated the presence of variants in terms of yield. The analysis of variance revealed significant sum of squares of means for all the traits for different sources of variation. The treatment effects both unadjusted and adjusted for both of round and oblong fruited lines were found significant for number of clusters per plant, number of fruits per plant and fruit yield. Similarly, the mean squares due to tests versus checks were found highly significant for all the traits indicating thereby the superiority of tests entries over the checks in both of the trials of round and oblong fruit morphologies. 20 round fruited advance lines yielding from 42.41 to 64.35 t/ha were found at par to the check Saalar-F1 (59.08 t/ha). 03 oblong fruited advance lines yielding from 79.53 to 116.67 t/ha showed significantly maximum fruit yield from the high performing check of Sunder-F1 (60.43 t/ha), while 18 other oblong fruited advance lines yielding from 44.60 to 68.47 t/ha were found at par with the high performing check Sunder-F1 (60.43 t/ha). while 18 other oblong fruited advance lines yielding from 44.60 to 68.47 t/ha were found at par with the high performing check Sunder-F1 (60.43 t/ha). The advance lines either superior or at par to the checks may be brought forward for further testing by increasing their seed for their subsequent screening and evaluation

 

283-292 Download
30

Application of vermicompost to boro rice (BRRI dhan 28) can save phosphate fertilizer with sustaining productivity and soil fertility


Md. Mahedy Alam, Akm Mosharof Hossain, Abdul Hakim, Md. Rafiqul Islam, Walid Soufan, Ayman El Sabagh, Muhammad Adnan and Mohammad Sohidul Islam

Application of vermicompost to boro rice (BRRI dhan 28) can save phosphate fertilizer with sustaining productivity and soil fertility


ABSTRACT:

The study was conducted to investigate the application outcome of vermicompost (VC) and phosphorus (P) on the growth, yield contributing traits, yield, and post-harvest soil fertility status. Six treatment combinations were used and which were T1: VC0% P0% (Control treatment); T2: VC100% P0% (VC @ 6 t ha-1 + P @ 0 kg ha-1); T3: VC75%P25% (VC@ 4.5 t ha-1 + P @ 22.5 kg ha-1); T4: VC50% P50% (VC @ 3 t ha-1 + P @ 45 kg ha-1); T5: VC25% P75% (VC @ 1.5 t ha-1 + P @ 67.5 kg ha-1) and T6: VC0%P100% (VC @ 0 t ha-1 + P @ 90 kg ha-1). Recommended doses of VC and P were 6 t ha-1 and 90 kg TSP ha-1, correspondingly. Recommended amount of urea, muriate of potash, gypsum and zinc sulphate was implemented to each study unit, and TSP and VC were applied as per treatments specification. Different growth and yield influencing traits namely the plant height, number of leaf hill-1, number of effective tillers hill-1, number of spikelet panicle-1, number of grains panicle-1, number of filled grains panicle-1, as well as grain yield and biological yield were obtained with the highest values in T3 (VC75% P25%), and almost all the values were statistically analogous to T4 (VC50% P50%) treatment, in some cases with T5 (VC275% P75%) treatment. Contrastingly, the lowest values were found in T1 treatment (control). Addition of VC with P improved soil properties by increasing significantly the soil pH, soil organic matter, total N and available P content as well as by increasing numerically in the content of post-harvest soil regarding exchangeable K and available S. The studied soil properties are positively correlated between each other, in which the relation of grain yields with P, K and S was more significant. In most of the cases, remarkable improvement in the soil fertility status was observed due to the addition of VC (3.0-4.5 t ha-1) with lessened P level (22.5-45.0 kg ha-1). Thus, the results indicate that application of 3.0-4.5 t VC ha-1 reduced the use of phosphatic fertilizer at a substantial level (50-75%) for attainable grain yield with improving soil fertility which ultimately reduced the chemical fertilizer use in rice. So, for long time sustaining yield and soil fertility, VC @ 3.0-4.5 t ha-1 can be employed into the soil that can save inorganic P fertilizer, and it may be an efficient approach for boro rice cultivation

293-304 Download
31

Improving the storage quality of pomegranate fruit by combining modified atmosphere packaging and Origanum syriacum volatile essential oil


Ibrahim Kahramanoglu, Volkan Okatan, Olga Panfilova, Nafiye Unal, Jale Bilgin, Sultan Filiz Guclu, Pelin Bahadirli and Yasin Emre Kitis

Improving the storage quality of pomegranate fruit by combining modified atmosphere packaging and Origanum syriacum volatile essential oil


ABSTRACT:

In the current study, the combined impact of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and Origanum syriacum volatile essential oil (VEO) on the ability of pomegranate fruits to be stored was examined. Control, MAP bags, MAP bags with 0.50 mL VEO, and MAP bags with 1.00 mL VEO were the four treatments that were studied. The weight loss in the MAP application was significantly less than in the control group. Fruit quality is improved and storage life is extended by the use of MAP bags. Due to VEO's antibacterial and antioxidant qualities, weight loss in the MAP bags was further decreased by its administration. The treatments did not have a substantial impact on the ascorbic acid content. The outcomes additionally demonstrated that the application of both MAP and VEO treatments might postpone the decrease of soluble solids concentration and titratable acidity, which is essential for preserving the fruit's flavor. The study also showed that the fruits packed in MAP bags, either with or without VEO, had a considerably lower decay incidence than the control fruits. However, the addition of VEO to the MAP bags further reduced the decay incidence of the fruits, which highlights the importance of the combination of VEO with MAP bags

305-313 Download
32

Influence of different nitrogen levels on the morpho-agronomic and quality traits of some mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] genotypes


Aybegun Ton

Influence of different nitrogen levels on the morpho-agronomic and quality traits of some mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] genotypes


ABSTRACT:

The aim of the present study was to reveal the effects of different nitrogen levels on seed yield, yield components and some quality traits in various mung bean genotypes in Mediterranean climate conditions. The field experiment was conducted in the research area of the Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cukurova in Turkey during two years in the growing seasons of 2019 and 2021. The experiment was arranged as three replications in the split blocks design based on the randomized complete blocks. Two local genotypes (Antalya 07 A 05, Gaziantep 27 S 08) and two registered cultivars (KPS1 and Jade AU) were used as research materials. Four nitrogen levels (0, 40, 80, 120 kg ha-1) were applied. As the mean of the years, the maximum seed yield was obtained by KPS1 at 80 kg N ha-1 with 2492 kg ha-1 followed by KPS1 and Gaziantep at 40 kg N ha-1 with 2083 kg ha-1 and 1844 kg ha-1, respectively. Swelling capacity and cooking time varied depending on genotypes and N doses between 0.070-0.087 ml seed-1 and 16.7-20.0 min., respectively. Mung bean genotypes at different nitrogen doses contained crude protein between 23.4% and 27.9%, moisture content between 9.8% and 12.8%, ash content between 2.83% and 3.89%.

 

315-322 Download
33

Isolation and characterization of the lipoxygenase-3  promoter in Nicotiana tabacum


Minmin Xie, Shanshan Li, Zhiyuan Li, Mingli Chen, Daping Gong and Aurore Richel

Isolation and characterization of the lipoxygenase-3  promoter in Nicotiana tabacum


ABSTRACT:

The jasmonates (JA) play key roles in defending mechanical wounding, herbivore attack and various stresses in plants. Lipoxygenase (LOX) is one of the key enzymes in the biosynthesis of JA which also catalyzes the green leafy volatiles synthesis at the first step. Wounding and herbivore attack can induce the expression of LOXs. To investigate the molecular mechanism regulating the LOX genes in tobacco, we isolated and identified the LOX3 gene promoter from Nicotiana tabacum. Analysis from transgenic plants and GUS activity fluorimetric assay revealed that 1847bp of NtLOX3 promoter sequence was sufficient for wounding and methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) induction. For wounding and MeJA induction, the deletion analysis identified the minimal effective regions which were located in -546bp to -199bp. And this region contained the cis-acting elements of CATG-box (CATG), W-box (C/TTGACY) and a T/G-box (AACGTG), which were thought to play a key role in wounding and MeJA elicitation. These results may provide information for further transcriptional regulation studies of LOX genes.

 

323-330 Download
34

Bioavailability of molybdenum in soil and fodder crops: toxicity analysis and health risk assessment


Kafeel Ahmad, Abid Ejaz, Zafar Iqbal Khan, Aima Iram Batool, Asma Asfaq, Sahar Mansoor, Tasneem Ahmad, Naunain Mehmood, Hafsa Memona, Shahzadi Mahpara, Ijaz Rasool Noorka, Javed Shoukat, Mona S. Alwahibi and Mohammad Ragab Abdelgawwad

Bioavailability of molybdenum in soil and fodder crops: toxicity analysis and health risk assessment


ABSTRACT:

Despite the rarity of molybdenum (Mo) metal in nature, significant quantities of Mo in industrial discharges have the potential to represent a serious threat when municipal sewage sludge is applied to agricultural land. Surprisingly little information is available about Mo uptake from sewage sludge-treated soils, especially in terms of field trials. This research looked at the bio accumulative pattern of molybdenum in plants grown at three different sites [Kahoot (32.3837° N, 72.7082° E), Wazidi (32.3917° N, 72.7260° E), and Jhawarian (32.3563° N, 72.6210° E)] of Sargodha district receiving ground water, canal water and sewage water. Concentration of molybdenum was evaluated in soil and water samples. Additionally, the level of molybdenum was also analyzed in hoof samples of animals raised on forage grown on sludge treated soils. Maximum level of molybdenum (43.263 ± 0.3692 mg/L) was observed in water samples collected from SW-III receiving sewage water. Highest level of molybdenum accumulated in Avena sativa (20.903 mg/kg ± 0.222) grown at site treated with sewage water. The metal detection in the soil samples among all three sites ranged from 15.96 to 35.59 mg/kg whereas same varied from 17.32 to 43.99 mg/L in water samples. Maximum molybdenum accumulation was observed in hair (3.588 mg/kg ± 0.1252) and hoof (4.5429 mg/kg ± 0.0933) samples collected from buffalos raised on forage grown on sewage waste water. Moreover, the soil in which these crops were grown was also evaluated to get pollution load index which ranged from 0.39 to 0.889. Further indices included BCF ranging from 0.30-0.64, EF: 1.25-2.65 and DIM: 0.04-0.009.  Concentration of Mo in plants and soil treated with sewage water and ground water exceeded the international permissible limits

331-338 Download
35

Mechanistic insights into Corona viruses and Covid-19: unravelling the possible treatment strategies with emphasis on plant-derived bioactive compounds


Sania Atta, Anila Sajjad, Humna Sajjad, Humaira Fatima, Muhammad Arslan Ahmad, Mumtaz Cheema and Rabia Javed

Mechanistic insights into Corona viruses and Covid-19: unravelling the possible treatment strategies with emphasis on plant-derived bioactive compounds


ABSTRACT:

Pandemic coronaviruses being zoonotic have been the potential cause of worldwide social, economic, and mortality stress causing certain illnesses like severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-1 (SARS-CoV-1) in 2002, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2013, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019. Because of severity of illness, various types of organs are damaged or even destroyed by these coronaviruses that in turn cause neurological, hepatic, and respiratory issues. Several vaccines are now either licensed or through phase III studies. Majority of vaccines use a recombinant spike glycoprotein, either based on mRNA (the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines), via adenovirus vector (the Oxford-AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson vaccines), via whole inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus (Sinovac Biotech vaccines), or by injection of the protein itself (the Novavax vaccine). Moreover, nano vaccines and nano antiviral drugs could be prepared for targeted and sustained delivery. In the current scenario, there is a need to analyze the bestowing role of non-pharmacological mediators like nutraceuticals along with dietary supplements besides nano-biotechnological approaches to minimize the risk of SAR-CoV-2 infection by moderating the signs and symptoms related with COVID -19. A good dietary pattern is essential for individuals in preventing them from getting immunocompromised due to weakened immune system resulting from poor nutritional status. Phytochemicals biosynthesized by plants have potent antiviral activities to fight against SAR-CoV-2 by disrupting virus life cycle. Evidently, this development driven a concentration on phytochemicals from therapeutic plants to search new lead molecules, with an emphasis specifically on antiviral drugs. Such natural products inspire community efforts to raise funds that help researchers to investigate more phytochemicals for COVID-19 antiviral drug development. Most importantly, inclusion of plant-derived bioactive compounds along with the contemporary allopathic regimens have been anticipated to improve the evolvement of therapeutics against COVID 19

339-358 Download
36

Screening and identification of antagonistic fungi against tomato early blight and research on its pot-plant control effects


Xilin Sun, Xinyue Ma, Ronglie Gong, Dan Zhang and Xiaomei Wang

Screening and identification of antagonistic fungi against tomato early blight and research on its pot-plant control effects


ABSTRACT:

According to some studies, Alternaria alternata has gradually risen to become the dominant pathogen in tomato early blight, which is one of the most widespread and serious diseases caused by Alternaria spp. In order to enrich the resources of high-quality biocontrol strains, 8 antagonistic fungus strains with evident inhibition zones were first screened from the soil by dual culture assay, and then the effect of their sterile fermentation broth against A. alternata was re-screened by mycelium growth rate method. The results showed that strain L131 functioned well, with a primary screening inhibition zone of 5.54 mm and a re-screening antifungal rate of 66.41%. L131 was identified as Penicillium citrinum after morphological characterisitics and molecular identification. In addition, we discovered that the sterile fermentation broth of L131 could inhibit other tested pathogenic fungi. Among them, the inhibition rates of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani, Exserohilum turcicum and Fusarium graminearum were 100%, 96.42%, 88.01% and 83.66%, respectively. Finally, we used the fermentation broth of strain L131 to conduct a pot control effect test, and the control effect was 85.13%.

 

359-365 Download
37

The influence of nitrogen and rhizobium application on fatty acid composition of soybean [Glycıne max (L.) Merr.]


Aynur Bilmez Özçinar

The influence of nitrogen and rhizobium application on fatty acid composition of soybean [Glycıne max (L.) Merr.]


ABSTRACT:

The content of soybean seeds can vary widely and is influenced by the environment and management techniques. An experiment was conducted in Siirt province of Turkey in 2019 to investigate the influences of Rhizobium japonicum under various fertilizer nitrogen doses on the fatty acid composition of soybean variety Gapsoy-16 soybean. The experimentation was arranged in split plot design with five different nitrogen doses (0 kg/ha, 50 kg/ha, 100 kg/ha, 150 kg/ha, and 200 kg/ha in pure form) as main plots treatments and Rhizobium inoculation (with or without bacteria) as the sub-plot treatments. Results showed that higher nitrogen dosage (200 kg/ha) with and without rhizobium inoculation reduced linoleic and linolenic acids contents but increased oil ratio, oleic, arachidic, stearic and palmitic acids contents of soybean seeds. The determined content of oil ratio, oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20), stearic acid (C18) and palmitic acid (C16) were between 14,8-19,03%; 29,73-31,36%; 31,16-33,06%; 7,32-7,82%; 1,33-1,51%; 3,52-3,86% and 14,91-15,78%, respectively. Rhizobium inoculation increased the oil ratio without nitrogen (N1=0 kg N/ha) and with adding 200 kg N/ha (N5) dosage, whereas it reduced the ratio at other N doses

 

367-370 Download
38

Antifungal efficacy of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) fleming against phytopathogenic fungus macrophomina phaseolina (tassi) gold


Anum Sheikh, Abdul Hakeem Shaikh, Muhammad Abid and Sumera

Antifungal efficacy of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) fleming against phytopathogenic fungus macrophomina phaseolina (tassi) gold


ABSTRACT:

Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) fleming is valuable herb remedial plant. The current work was conducted to evaluate the antifungal properties of C. bonducella In vitro and In vivo against Macrophomina phaseolina (tassi) gold by food poison technique. In vitro, antifungal properties of the leaves extract of C. bonducella in different solvents viz. aqueous, ethanol, and hexane at concentrations of 5, 10, 15, and 20% was analysed. The data disclose that an increased concentration of leaves extract suppressed pathogen growth. Among all the solvents, the highest antifungal activity was obtained in an aqueous extract at 20% concentration followed by ethanol extract at 15 and 20%. In vivo, to evaluate the antifungal activity of C. bonducella, pot experiments were performed. The obtained data showed that aqueous extract of C. bonducella leaves significantly lowered the colonization% of M. phaseolina in artificially infested seeds of the castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) and promoted plant growth as compared to the control. The finding of the present studies evaluated that, the antifungal efficacy of C. bonducella was effective in the management of the phytopathogenic fungus M. phaseolina in both In vitro and In vivo conditions

371-375 Download
39

Population dynamics and aggressiveness of fungal pathogens associated with chilli root rot


Muhammad Usman Ali, Nasir Ahmed Rajput, Muhammad Atiq, Rana Muhammad Atif and Sharifa G. Crandall

Population dynamics and aggressiveness of fungal pathogens associated with chilli root rot


ABSTRACT:

Chilli (Capsicum annum L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide and root rot disease is a significant threat to its production. This study documented the disease prevalence, incidence, and severity of root rot, as well as identified the aggressiveness of fungal and oomycetes microbial communities associated with this disease in chilli growing districts of Punjab, Pakistan. In 2020-21, a field survey was conducted in nine different districts and disease samples were collected from symptomatic chilli fields. Of the 112 fields visited, 73 were found with symptomatic root rot infection. The risk of disease prevalence, severity, and incidence was highest in Lahore 87.5%, 69%, and 64.14% respectively, while the lowest disease prevalence, incidence, and severity were recorded in district Bahawalnagar 16.67%, 14.8%, and 17% respectively. It is concluded that, the disease prevalence, incidence, and severity level of the disease is higher in Lahore compared to other chilli growing areas of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of fifteen fungal colonies were isolated and categorized into two different groups: A=Pathogenic, and B=Non-Pathogenic based on the frequency of detection and pathogenic status. The pathogenicity and aggressiveness of group-A isolates were tested on the highly susceptible chilli variety ‘Desi’, and it was concluded that P. capsici and R. solani cause the highest incidence and severity of root rot. Three different culture media (PDA, MEA, and PARP) were used for isolation, and it was observed that all fungal and oomycetes were easily isolated on PDA media, and the percentage frequency on PDA media was also maximum as compared to MEA and PARP media. However, to our knowledge, this is the first study to explore and measure the aggressiveness of fungal and oomycete pathogens for root rot of chilli in the Punjab region of Pakistan and the first to systematically evaluate various cultural media for detection of pathogens associated with this problem

377-387 Download
40

Fungal incidence and aflatoxins contamination in two major chilli varieties of Sindh, Pakistan


Sumera Omrani, Muhammad Abid, Najmus Sahar and Anum Sheikh

Fungal incidence and aflatoxins contamination in two major chilli varieties of Sindh, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Chilli crop is susceptible to microbial attack, particularly toxigenic fungi that produce aflatoxins. The presence of higher levels of aflatoxin in chillies raises health and economic concerns. Post-harvest management may play an important role in causing physical damage to red chillies in presence of moisture, leading to increased aflatoxins levels. A recent study investigated two chilli varieties viz., Sanam and Longi collected from various areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The level of aflatoxins in chillies dried on net surfaces was found between the range of 2.3-7.1 µg kg-1 whereas samples dried on cemented ground showed aflatoxin contamination from 6.7-14.5 µg kg-1, aflatoxin contamination in most of the samples collected from different areas was less than 20 µg kg-1. The maximum incidence of Aspergillus flavus was found in all 81 chilli samples followed by A. niger, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. candidus, and A. terreus. These findings indicate that 60-80 percent aflatoxins contamination in chilli samples contained aflatoxins within the acceptable range 20 µg kg-1 (ppb) for people utilization as described by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

389-393 Download
41

Biosynthesis of glucoamylase from Candida lipolytica using solid state fermentation


Uzma Hameed, Sardar Junaid Bahadur Khan and Ikram-Ul-Haq

Biosynthesis of glucoamylase from Candida lipolytica using solid state fermentation


ABSTRACT:

The quest for enzymes of industrial importance from novel sources is continuous. Glucoamylase is a commercially important enzyme that has extensive industrial applications. In this project, glucoamylase production by Candida sp. using solid state fermentation (SSF) is reconnoitered. For enzyme production, four different species of Candida, such as C. lipolytica, C. famata, C. tropicalis and C. utilis were explored. Among these, C. lipolytica produced the maximum glucoamylase after 72 h fermentation. Among the eight diluents tested for the glucoamylase biosynthesis by C. lipolytica, the best diluent was found to be D5 containing (%, w/v) soluble starch 0.5, MgSO4 0.05, (NH4)2SO4 0.1, KH2PO4 0.3, yeast extract and 0.4 wheat bran. The optimum glucoamylase production was obtained with inoculum size 1.5 ml, the substrate to the diluent ratio 1:1, and the initial pH of the diluent pH 5. These results showed that C. lipolytica can produce glucoamylase using relatively inexpensive agricultural waste

395-398 Download
42

The influence of various concentrations of essential oils on the growth rate of fibrolytic and amylolytic bacteria isolated from rumen fluid


Zeynep Sahan

The influence of various concentrations of essential oils on the growth rate of fibrolytic and amylolytic bacteria isolated from rumen fluid


ABSTRACT:

The antibacterial capabilities of essential oils (EOs) have been shown to influence the rumen microbial population. On the basis of their antimicrobial properties, six EOs were selected: oleaster, orange peel, laurel, garlic, thyme and cinnamon. Scanning Electron Microscopy pollen morphotypes were identified to reliably identify the plant species from which EOs are extracted. The maximum specific growth rate of bacteria is one of the metrics that are used to quantify the growth rate of bacteria. Dose–response incubations were carried out so that their effect could be determined on the maximum specific growth rate (µmax) of bacteria. Ten different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 5000 ppm) were used for this purpose. In order to measure bacterial growth, the optical density at 650 nm was measured hourly until the reading for bacterial growth decreased. Using Micro Fit, the maximum bacterial growth rate before growth began was calculated (v 1.0). It was determined that the influence of essential oils, dosages, and the relationship between dose and oil had a statistically significant impact on the maximal specific growth rate (p<0001). The EO of thyme was found to have the most potent antibacterial effect on all bacteria examined in the study. Following thyme EO, laurel, oleaster, and cinnamon EOs displayed the strongest antibacterial effect. Based on this study, it could be concluded that the antibacterial effect was generally more pronounced at 400 ppm doses of essantial oils

399-406 Download
43

Molecular mechanism of microRNA-mediated morphogenesis in plant reproductive organs: a review

 


Xi-Ying Sun, Li Tian, Wen-Qing Jia, Lu-Ying Feng, Shu-Lin Zhang and Guang-Xin Ru

Molecular mechanism of microRNA-mediated morphogenesis in plant reproductive organs: a review

 


ABSTRACT:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are widely involved in plant morphogenesis and play an important role, especially in economic crop production. To elucidate the important role of miRNAs in the morphogenesis of plant reproductive organs, the current study evaluated the main miRNA types and their functions that regulate the morphogenesis of plant leaves, flowers, fruit, and seeds. This study also introduced the typical cases of molecular reprogramming of miRNAs through the long-distance transfer of grafting position to regulate the economic traits of grafting hybrids, providing a scientific basis for the formation mechanism and molecular design breeding of important traits, for example, the economic yield of crops regulated by miRNA epigenetic modification

407-417 Download
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