Online Submission



Register | Forgot password?

Recent Issues

Uploaded: 03/01/2024 Uploaded: 18/07/2023
Uploaded: 23/05/2023 Uploaded: 13/04/2023
Uploaded: 15/03/2023

Latest News
Monday, February 05, 2024
Upcoming conference 2023 Details
Thursday, March 30, 2017

ISI Impact Factor 1.1

Details
Year 2023 , Volume  55, Issue 4
Move your mouse curser on the title to view the abstract of the paper
S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1

Evaluation of salt and drought tolerances of Populus talassica × Populus euphratica seedlings using leaf anatomical structures and physiological processes


Yang Sun, Ying Liu, Meng Xu Su, Zhan Jiang Han and Jian Yin Shi

Evaluation of salt and drought tolerances of Populus talassica × Populus euphratica seedlings using leaf anatomical structures and physiological processes


ABSTRACT:

The salt- and drought-tolerance levels of potted Populus talassica × Populus euphratica seedlings were studied under different NaCl concentrations and simulated natural drought conditions, with P. euphratica (male parent) and Populus pruinosa seedlings as controls. Compared with those of the controls, the leaves of P. talassica × P. euphratica began to thicken at low and medium NaCl concentrations (200–300 mmol/L), the relative conductivity and of malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased less, the cell membrane damage to P. talassica× P. euphratica was less, and the soluble substance (free proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein) contents increased significantly. The reactive oxygen species free radicals were removed by increasing the superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase activities. At high NaCl concentrations (350–450 mmol/L) compared with lower NaCl concentrations, the leaves of P. talassica × P. euphratica were small and thick, the relative conductivity and MDA content increased significantly, the cell membrane damage was more serious, and the three antioxidant enzyme activity levels decreased significantly. The osmotic regulatory capability was improved by increasing the contents of three soluble substances. Under drought conditions compared with normal conditions, the leaf thickness of P. talassica × P. euphratica was basically unchanged, and the relative conductivity and MDA content increased significantly. The seedlings adapted to and resisted the drought environment by increasing the superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase activities, as well as the osmotic regulator, such as proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein, contents. In the control experiment, the leaf anatomical results for the three tree species were basically consistent with the changes in physiological and biochemical indexes caused by a high saline or arid environment. A comprehensive evaluation of the salt and drought tolerance levels of P. talassica × P. euphratica, P. euphratica and P. pruinosa was performed using the fuzzy mathematics membership function method, which revealed that the salt and drought tolerance levels of the species were both: P. euphratica > P. talassica × P. euphratica > P. pruinosa. The P. talassica × P. euphratica seedlings showed strong salt and drought tolerance levels, making them suitable for planting in the saline and arid lands of the Tarim Basin

1205-1214 Download
2

Identification of potential plant material and genetic analysis for drought tolerance in upland cotton based on physiological indicators


Musab Imtiaz, Amir Shakeel, Azeem Iqbal Khan and Muhammad Shah Nawaz Ul Rehman

Identification of potential plant material and genetic analysis for drought tolerance in upland cotton based on physiological indicators


ABSTRACT:

Climate change has drastically reduced the water availability which negatively impacted the cotton production. Cotton crop is sensitive to drought as it may affect its growth and development. For this purpose, hydroponic culture was used to evaluate 37 cotton genotypes under both control and drought-imposed (PEG-6000) conditions to identify drought tolerant (MNH-886 and MNH-988) and sensitive genotypes (FH-114 and FH-Kehkshan) based on reliable physiological indicators i.e., relative water content, excised leaf water loss and cell membrane stability using k-means cluster analysis and biplot analysis. These genotypes were hybridized to develop F1 populations (MNH-886 × FH-114 and MNH-988 × FH-Kehkshan) and segregating populations (F2, BC1 and BC2). Both cross combinations along with their generations were planted in field area using Randomized Complete Block Design under normal and drought conditions. Results reflected complex quantitative type of inheritance. Larger influence of non-additive effects along with epistatic interactions of aforementioned traits and seed cotton yield showed significant importance for suggesting delayed selection in segregating populations. Additionally, presence of low to moderate narrow sense heritability and undesirable association of physiological indicators with seed cotton yield suggested the same i.e., selection in later segregating generations to improve drought tolerance in further breeding programs

1215-1227 Download
3

Osmoregulation mediated by structural and functional features in Cenchrus ciliaris L. under saline conditions


Shameem Kausar, Farooq Ahmad and Mansoor Hameed

Osmoregulation mediated by structural and functional features in Cenchrus ciliaris L. under saline conditions


ABSTRACT:

Cenchrus ciliaris L. (buffel grass) is a forage grass widely distributed in saline and arid regions of Pakistan. Populations of C. ciliaris were collected from ten diverse habitats to evaluate their response to salinity stress. Three populations, Lal Suhanra (LS), Ladamsar (LD) and Derawar Fort (DF), were collected from highly saline habitats. The populations collected from low saline habitats were Qila Nawab Din (QN), Darbar Anayat Shah (DA), Nathia Galli (NG) and Kanhatti Garden (KG), while non-saline were Jaba (JB), Chok Azam (CA) and Khanewal (KH). Morpo-anatomical and physiological traits varied greatly in differently adapted populations. Population collected from the highest salinity (Lal Suhanra) showed the lowest root dry weight. Concentration of proline content and shoot K+ was the highest. Endodermal thickness in roots was the maximum, while size of bulliform cells, leaf sheath thickness and size of metaxylem vessels were the minimum in Lal Suhanra population. Plants collected from highly saline Ladamsar were the shortest in height with minimum root and shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight. Root Na+ was the maximum in this population, while the largest endodermal cells and broadest xylem vessels were observed in Ladamsar population. Stem anatomical features like epidermal thickness, metaxylem area and vascular bundle area, leaf traits like lamina thickness and cortical cell area, and leaf sheath parameters like leaf sheath thickness, epidermal thickness and cortical cell area were the maximum in Ladamsar population. Plasticity is exceptionally high in all C. ciliaris populations, which might be the reason for its wide distributional range in a variety of habitats. Because of its heterogenic nature, C. ciliaris is among the most suitable species for re-vegetation of saline arid, disturbed and Narran lands

1229-1243 Download
4

Foliar application of sorbitol is a shotgun approach to alleviate the adverse effects of salinity stress on two varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)


Maida Khaliq, Khalid Nawaz, Khalid Hussain, Mehreen Javeria, Iqra Iqbal, Noshia Arshad, Ayesha Attique, Rida Zainab, Waqar-Un-Nisa and Mohammad Qurban

Foliar application of sorbitol is a shotgun approach to alleviate the adverse effects of salinity stress on two varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)


ABSTRACT:

The current experiment was designed to alleviate the detrimental effects of salt stress on two varieties of Wheat i.e. Johar 2016 (V1) and Anaj 2017 (V2). Sorbitol was used by foliar application method to bring under control the negative impacts of NaCl stress on plants. Salt was applied at concentration of 150mM and Sorbitol was used in three concentrations (50, 75 and 100mM). Sorbitol application was done three times on plants with the interval of one week. All the morphological, physiological and yield parameters were recorded. The experimental design was completely randomized and for the statistical analysis, CoStat software was used. The findings of the experiment concluded that the application of sorbitol on plants proved beneficial in salt stress as well as under normal conditions. Foliar application of sorbitol helped to ameliorate the negative impacts of NaCl stress on plants. It was noticed that sorbitol caused a significant increase in the growth of plants in salt stress and normal conditions. Almost all the growth parameters were increased after sorbitol’s application. The results concluded that the 50mM and 75mM concentration of sorbitol gave the best results to overcome the effects of NaCl stress. All the treatments of sorbitol improved the growth parameters of plants under normal conditions but the best results were observed at 50mM and 75mM.

 

1245-1256 Download
5

Effect of different concentrations of GR24 as seed priming treatment on physio-chemical and yield related attributes of maize (Zea mays) hybrids under drought stress


Muhammad Luqman, Muhammad Shahbaz and Ejaz Ahmad Waraich

Effect of different concentrations of GR24 as seed priming treatment on physio-chemical and yield related attributes of maize (Zea mays) hybrids under drought stress


ABSTRACT:

Climate change increases the intensity of drought stress throughout the world. Drought stress poses serious threat to global food security by effecting the yield of field crops. In current experiment, maize hybrids (HY-1898, FH-1046) were used to analyze the effectiveness of GR24 as seed priming strategy under drought stress (60% field capacity). Two levels of drought stress (control and 60% field capacity) were used in this experiment. Seeds of maize hybrids were soaked for 16 h in four concentrations of GR24 (control, 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mg L-1). After 48 days of sowing data were collected which showed that net CO2 assimilation rate and stomatal conductance were increased by GR24 priming in both maize hybrids while transpiration rate (E), sub-stomatal carbon dioxide concentration (Ci), water use efficiency (A/E) and Ci/Ca ratio remained unresponsive. Chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll ratio and carotenoids concentrations considerably improved by seed priming with GR24 except chlorophyll a. Leaf ascorbic acid and total phenolics were also increased by seed priming with synthetic analogue of strigolactones (GR24). Glycinebetaine (GB) showed significant results while leaf free proline showed non-significant result in both maize hybrids by GR24. Yield parameters of both maize hybrids revealed that GR24 has positive effect on number of seeds per cob and number of seeds per plant under both regimes. In conclusion, seed priming with GR24 improved the drought tolerance in both maize hybrids

1257-1266 Download
6

Effect of zinc and boron on yield, quality attributes and physiological traits of lettuce under hydroponic culture


Farhad Behtash, Hadi Fakhrghazi, Hanifeh Seyed Hajizadeh, Ahmad Aghaee and Alireza Pourmohammad

Effect of zinc and boron on yield, quality attributes and physiological traits of lettuce under hydroponic culture


ABSTRACT:

The micronutrient deficiency during the critical growth period of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by its controlling the plant intake of micronutrients can have a profound impact on yield, especially under hydroponic conditions and controlled environmental systems such as greenhouse. Boron (B) and Zinc (Zn) play a key role in plants as these are essential micronutrients of nutritional solutions for securing the crop quality and yield. The work was designed as a factorial experiment on based randomized complete block design with three replications for two factors of zinc (ZnSO4,7H2O) at three levels (0, 5, and 10mg/l) and boron (H3BO3) at three levels (0, 2 and 4mg/l) on quantitative and qualitative traits of lettuce under hydroponic conditions.  The results demonstrated that as the concentration of zinc increased in the nutrient solution, the fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll index, chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids content, total protein concentration, and leaf zinc concentration significantly increased. Increasing in boron concentration significantly increased the proline content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity levels and also leaf boron concentration. Adding zinc to the solution mitigated the adverse effects of high concentrations of boron on the mentioned parameters. According to the antagonistic relation between Zn and B, under high levels of B in nutrient solutions, supplementing the lettuce with adequate Zn is recommended

1267-1276 Download
7

Comparative analysis of biochemical content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Hypericum perforatum L. species is grown in Türkiye


Volkan Gul, Hatice Cetinkaya, Burcu Seckin Dinler and Firat Sefaoglu

Comparative analysis of biochemical content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Hypericum perforatum L. species is grown in Türkiye


ABSTRACT:

Many external factors, such as climatic conditions, geographical differences, and altitude, directly affect the primary and secondary metabolites and therapeutic use of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), an important plant in alternative medicine. This study was carried out to identify the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the content of proline, malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and total phenolic in the St. John's Wort growing naturally in different regions of Bayburt. The St. John's Wort samples were collected from 11 different locations. As a result of the analyses carried out on the plant samples, it was found that the content of proline was within the range of 4.6-8.2 µmol g-1 DW, the amount of malondialdehyde was within the range of 0.69-1.10 nmol g-1 DW, the amount of hydrogen peroxide was within the range of 79.89-155.49 µmol g-1 DW, the amount of flavonoids was within the range of 91.38%-100.27%, the amount of anthocyanin was within the range of 0.15-1.11 mkmol g-1 DW, the total phenolic content was within the range of 15.82-45.22 mg GAE g-1, and the antioxidant activity was within the range of 6.07-105.60 µg mL-1.

In conclusion, although the biochemical contents and nonenzymatic antioxidant activities showed a wide variety, the antioxidant activity was found to be higher in samples 5, 8, and 11. According to the antimicrobial activity results, some plant extracts were effective on bacteria and fungi, especially samples 5, 6, 8, and 11 showed an effect at the concentration of 200 μg mL-1. This study, the first regional study on this subject, will contribute to future research and clinical trials in the health field.

1277-1285 Download
8

Effect of biostimulants on leaf and stigma properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L.)


Hasan Asil

Effect of biostimulants on leaf and stigma properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L.)


ABSTRACT:

In this study, the effects of biostimulants on the volatile components in the stigma, macro-micro elements and heavy metals in Crocus sativus L. (saffron) leaf were investigated. The amounts of safranal in the stigma were analysed by LC-MS/MS. Following applications of biostimulants to the corms, the highest amount of safranal was obtained in 4684.06 mg kg-1 for the application of BIO1 biostimulants in the first year of application and 9228.77 mg kg-1 for the application of BIO3 biostimulants in the second year of the study. Volatile fatty acids in the saffron stigmas were also determined by GC/MS-MS instrument. The highest fatty acid content (75.50%) in saffron corms was obtained with BIO7 biostimulants applied corms whereas the highest amount of fatty acid (60.07%) in the leaves was observed with the application of BIO5. In addition to these results, application of biostimulants to the both corms and leaves of saffron resulted in an increase in iron (Fe) amount above the heavy metal limits. Obtained results are believed to provide deep knowledge about applications and effects of biostimulants on the saffron quality for the food and pharmaceutical industry

1287-1293 Download
9

Foliar application of boron enhances sugar beet yield and industrial sugar content by promoting indigenous soil-boron uptake


Muhammad Tayyab, Abdul Wakeel, Muhammad Sanaullah, Muhammad Zahir, Muhammad Umair Mubarak, Muhammad Ijaz and Muhammad Ishfaq

Foliar application of boron enhances sugar beet yield and industrial sugar content by promoting indigenous soil-boron uptake


ABSTRACT:

Soil boron (B) deficiency has been identified in different parts of world in alkaline and low organic matter soils. However, B application is very tricky as a very small amount of B is required to be applied. Two pot experiments were conducted to evaluate B effect on sugar beet yield, industrial sugar content and B uptake. In first experiment, five treatments carrying different B application methods were used. After harvesting, results revealed that B application significantly increased beet yield, sugar content and B uptake. Another experiment was conducted with four different treatments to test how foliar B promotes soil-B uptake via roots. Boron uptake was significantly improved owing to foliar B spray (1.14 mg pot-1) in treatment where B was applied as foliar plus soil as compared to (0.08 mg pot-1) where only foliage B was applied after subtracting B value from their respective controls. The amount of B taken up by plant from soil was calculated higher in treatment where foliar B was applied relative to only soil-B applied, which suggests that foliar B application induced indigenous soil-B uptake. It was concluded that foliar B application upregulated B transporters which enhanced B uptake from soil.

 

1295-1303 Download
10

Exogenous application of macro- and micro-nutrients improves plant growth, productivity and quality of ‘pineapple’ sweet orange


Muhammad Farooq, Ahmad Sattar Khan, Tayyaba Shaheen, Munawar Hussain Almas, Aman Ullah Malik, Raheel Anwar, Rana Naveed-Ur-Rehman, Sajid Ali and Mahmood Ul Hassan

Exogenous application of macro- and micro-nutrients improves plant growth, productivity and quality of ‘pineapple’ sweet orange


ABSTRACT:

‘Pineapple’ sweet orange is an important citrus species being grown at commercial scale in Pakistan. Due to inadequate supply of macro along with micronutrients, its productivity and quality is not up to the required standard as compare to other citrus producing countries. Therefore, current study was designed in order to investigate the effect soil application of NPK (2500 g per plant in two splits) compound fertilizer (17:17:17) (T2) or foliar application of boric acid (0.3%) + zinc sulphate (0.6%) (T3) alone or in combination (T4) on growth, productivity and fruit quality of ‘Pineapple’ sweet orange. Untreated trees were kept as control (T1). Analysis of leaf mineral contents revealed that nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), boron (B), and zinc (Zn) were found to increase significantly after macro and micronutrients application. Tree vegetative growth  [Increase in tree height (54 cm) and tree spread (56 cm), stem girth (3.5 cm), length of flush (13.35 cm), leaf number flush-1 (12)], fruit yield [fruit weight (23.35 kg), fruit numbers (110.75), marketable fruit % (89.72%) per tree], fruit quality [ fruit length (69.33 mm), breadth of fruit (70.06 mm), fruit weigth (211 kg), juice TSS (8.62%), TSS/Acid ratio (15.87), ascorbic acid content (31.62 mg 100g-1), total phenolics (423.90 mg 100g-1 FW), antioxidants (92.65%) and carotenoids (1.20 µg 100g-1) were significantly improved by T4 treatment. In conclusion, combine application of 2500 g NPK + boric acid (0.3%) + zinc sulphate (0.6%) significantly enhanced tree growth, production and quality of ‘Pineapple’ sweet orange fruit.

1305-1312 Download
11

Effect of different selenium fertilizer concentrations on pear yield and quality


Lei Wang, Liang Jin, Jiajun Wu, Yan Li, Zhizhuang An, Linna Suo, Jianli Ding, Yehui Han, Chao Zhou, Jianzhi Xie and Dan Wei

Effect of different selenium fertilizer concentrations on pear yield and quality


ABSTRACT:

Excessive and deficit foliar fertilization adversely affects pear fruit yield and its qualitative characteristics. In the present study, we investigated the impact of higher to a lower foliar spray of amino acid selenium fertilizer concentrations on the Huangtukan pear variety. Foliar fertilizer treatments were 50.0 mg plant–1, 60.0 mg plant–1, 75.0 mg plant–1, 100 mg plant–1, 150.0 mg plant–1and 0.0 mg plant–1(Control check, CK), which were sprayed on the interval of every 15 days since the full-bloom period (8 times in total) and stopped before the maturity stage. The results demonstrated that the pear's yield, quality, and absorption of nutrient elements first increased and then decreased with the increase of the selenium fertilizer concentration. In contrast, the absorption of the selenium was constantly increasing. When the mass concentration of the selenium fertilizer was 75 mg plant–1, the pear yield, the soluble solids, and the vitamin-C content increased by 19.07%, 21.69%, and 85.2%, respectively, and titratable acid content decreased by 52.45%; content of major elements such as phosphorus and potassium increased by 42.48% and 89.18% respectively; sodium, magnesium, and sulfur increased by 191.53%, 78.68%, and 157.84% respectively; trace elements including selenium, boron, manganese, zinc, iron, and copper increased by 52.39%, 179.02%, 72.11%, 26.8%, 100.33%, and 55.94% respectively. Thus, based on the comprehensive analysis of different yield and quality attributes, it is concluded that the optimum foliar spraying mass concentration of the selenium fertilizer for the Huangtukan pear is 75 mg plant–1.

 

1313-1320 Download
12

Sulfur: A macronutrient having potential to improve salinity tolerance in plants


Alia Riffat, Nauman Ahmad, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad and Ambreen Khadija Alvi

Sulfur: A macronutrient having potential to improve salinity tolerance in plants


ABSTRACT:

Salinity causes disturbance in osmotic potential, imbalance in nutritional composition, and reduction in photosynthesis that reduces whole-plant growth and development. Amongst different strategies to overcome salt-induced toxicity, external application of mineral nutrients is a cost-effective and smart method. Sulfur (S) has substantial significance in relieving the toxic impacts of salt stress by increasing plant nutrients, water uptake, protein contents, and plant productivity. It is an essential constituent of different coenzymes, vitamins, and plant hormones. Various S metabolites are involved in developing salt tolerance by modulating various physiological and biochemical processes in plants. In the case of saline conditions, S helps in ionic homeostasis, optimizing water stress, regulation of mineral uptake, protection of photosynthetic apparatus, activating antioxidant machinery, reduction of electrolytic leakage and membrane stabilization. This review focuses on the significance of S in improving salt tolerance potential of plants by modulating various growth, physiological and biochemical processes. Moreover, the significance of various S metabolites and S salts with respect to salt tolerance has also been described.

 

1321-1333 Download
13

Impact of gamma irradiated pollen on sexual compatibility, seed setting, and fruit attributes in guava (Psidium guajava L.) cultivars


Muhammad Muzammal Aslam, Muhammad Usman, Bilquees Fatima, Muhammad Awais Rana and Muhammad Shahid

Impact of gamma irradiated pollen on sexual compatibility, seed setting, and fruit attributes in guava (Psidium guajava L.) cultivars


ABSTRACT:

Pollen irradiation technique has emerged as a novel tool to induce parthenogenesis. Round shaped guava cultivars including white flesh ‘Gola’, pink flesh ‘Surkha’ and pyriform shaped cultivar white flesh ‘Surahi’ were self-pollinated by 60Co gamma irradiated pollen at variable gamma irradiation doses viz. 100, 200, 350, 500, 700 and 900 Gy to observe metaxenial impact and induce parthenogenesis. Fruit setting and harvesting were reduced to 10% and 8% at 900 Gy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Seed setting was also reduced to half in crosses of all cultivars with irradiated pollen (102-144 seeds/fruit) compared with non-irradiated control pollen (220-250 seeds/fruit). Seeds produced in irradiated crosses were 45% lighter compared with seeds of control fruit. Round cultivars ‘Gola’ and ‘Surkha’ showed better self-compatibility compared with pyriform cultivar ‘Surahi’. Pollination by irradiated pollen at higher doses improved average fruit length (12%), FL: FD (15%) and TSS: TA (50%) whereas, it decreased fruit weight (30%), TSS (20%), TA (60%), total sugars (63%) and ascorbic acid (63%) compared with fruit attributes of control fruit. Number of seeds and seed weight were positively correlated with total sugars and ascorbic acid whereas fruit weight was positively correlated with seed cavity weight and TSS. Principle component analysis (PCA) revealed greater variation in fruit biochemical traits compared with physical traits. In cluster analysis of chemical traits, higher doses of gamma irradiation were grouped separately compared with control and other treatments indicating their greater contribution to enhance variability. The irradiated pollen reduced fruit and seed setting and also influenced most of the physico-chemical traits indicating the presence of a robust metaxenial effect. The developed mutant plant populations were characterized for morphogenetic diversity. Mutation breeding could further contribute towards haploidization using induced parthenogenesis and to enhance seedlessness

1335-1345 Download
14

Variation in growth, physiological characteristics of tomato seedlings exposed to different LEDs light quality


Huimin Li, Xiaomin Lu, Jun Chen and Rongrong Jiang

Variation in growth, physiological characteristics of tomato seedlings exposed to different LEDs light quality


ABSTRACT:

The present study was to evaluate variation in growth, physiological characteristics of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) exposed to different LEDs. Seedlings of the cultivar ‘Baolai 303’ were cultured under FL, B, BR1:1, R and Y LEDs, at a PPFD of 120 μ mol m-2·s-1 for 12· d-1 photoperiod for about 30 days. The fresh and dry mass, stem width, root and stem length, pigment content, sucrose, soluble sugar levels, leaf thickness, spongy tissue, palisade tissue, photosynthetic rate, and the area and frequency of stomata were higher than FL. The palisade tissue arranged compactly under BR1:1. The palisade tissue also arranged tidy under B in comparison to FL. Starch contents in leaves and stems were the highest under R. BR1:1, promoted the tomato growth, and it can use for cultivation of tomato under the controlled conditions.

 

1347-1352 Download
15

Determination of energy utilisation efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for forage pea production  at Muş province in Turkey


Nizamettin Turan, Seyithan Seydosoglu, Mehmet Firat Baran and Cihan Demir

Determination of energy utilisation efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for forage pea production  at Muş province in Turkey


ABSTRACT:

The study's goal is to assess the energy balance of fodder pea crop production.and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission under Muş conditions, Turkey in 2020. Basic information such as the economic life of the instruments and machines utilized in the study, work success, fuel-oil consumption, machine weights and the amount of used fertilizer and seed were obtained by current measurements, from other studies, various sources and catalogs. The evaluations resulted in the determined energy output/input ratio, the specific energy value, and energy productivity. and the net energy efficiency values for feed pea crop production were 5.10, 3.65 MJ kg-1, 0.27 kg MJ-1 and 35636.85 MJ ha-1, respectively. The fertilizer energy had the highest energy utilization rate of the overall energy inputs for feed pea production, with 31.35%.. This was followed by seed energy with 25.77%, fuel energy with 21.40%, machine energy with 14.93% and human energy with 6.55%, respectively. Total GHG emission for forage pea crop production was calculated as 1533.81 kgCO2-eqha-1. The highest share in total GHG emissions was at seedconsumption (59.69%). The seed was followed by human labor (13.23%), nitrogen fertilizer consumption (9.12%), phosphate fertilizer consumption (6.02%), machinery use (6.0%) and diesel fuel consumption (5.94%). Furthermore, the GHG ratio in the production of fodder pea crops was calculated to be 0.65 kgCO2-eqkg-1. As a result, fertilizer energy had the biggest share of production inputs, followed by seed, fuel, machinery, and human labor energies, respectively. Total GHG emission and the GHG ratio was calculated as 1533.81 kgCO2-eqha–1 and 0.65 kgCO2-eqkg–1, respectively

1353-1358 Download
16

A study of photo-biological reactions under TiO2 nanoparticle accumulation in Spinacia oleracea L


Rafia Azmat, Iqbal Altaf, Sumeira Moin, Waseem Ahmed, Abdulwahed Fahad Alrefaei and Sajid Ali

A study of photo-biological reactions under TiO2 nanoparticle accumulation in Spinacia oleracea L


ABSTRACT:

The titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in several fields of Science and Technology, trailed to increase concentration in soil with their subsequent accumulation in Spinacia oleracea. This article discusses the accumulation of TiO2 in plants, released in soil resources after its prime use. The pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse under a natural environmental condition in triplicates where TiO2 was mixed with the soil for growth monitoring of S. oleracea as treated plants. The uptake of NPs from soil to plants was observed through Scan Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques. The reflection of TiO2 NPs in the leaves and roots of plants through these techniques provides evidence of the accumulation of NPs for the first time. SEM results showed the translocation of TiO2 into roots and shoot and their impact on the accumulation of essential micro and micronutrients followed by enhanced photosystem II of plants. The increase in Fe contents and Ca followed by healthy growth of plants reflects the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. Compared to the control treatment, the concentration of Mn, Cu, Al, and Si significantly increased with the application of TiO2 nanoparticles. Consequently, TiO2-NP treatments showed the highest photobiological activity due to increased nutrient uptake by S. oleracea. It was established that the accumulation of TiO2 NPs in the plant was supportive in photosystem II operation due to their photoactive electron at a given dose

1359-1364 Download
17

Seed priming with zinc ion on growth performance and nutrient acquisition of maize in aridisols


Ali Raza, Mukkram Ali Tahir, Noor-Us-Sabah, Sabir Hussain Shah, Ghulam Sarwar and Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor

Seed priming with zinc ion on growth performance and nutrient acquisition of maize in aridisols


ABSTRACT:

Worldwide, maize is a common cereal crop and likewise in Pakistan. Zinc is essentially vital for optimum growth and development of crops. Deficiency of Zn is prevalent in Pakistan. In order to determine growth and yield response of maize as a result of seed priming with Zn, a field experiment was conducted under arid climatic conditions. Priming of maize seeds was done with Zn metal using different solutions. Total 7 treatments with 4 replications were applied using randomized complete block design (RCBD), T1= untreated seeds with recommended dose of NPK (control), T2= Priming with 1% solution of ZnSO4 + NPK, T3= Priming with 2% solution of ZnSO4 + NPK, T4= Priming with 3% solution of ZnSO4 + NPK, T5= Priming with 0.5% solution of Zn-EDTA + NPK, T6= Priming with 1.5% solution of Zn-EDTA + NPK, T7= Priming with 3% solution of Zn-EDTA + NPK. Standard procedures were employed for recording observations regarding plant growth parameters. Statistical software statistics 8.1 was employed for analysis of compiled data and least significant difference was adopted for comparison of means. Priming of maize seeds with 4% of ZnSO4 solution resulted in maximum plant growth and grain yield. However, maximum concentration of Zn was observed in grain where priming was done with Zn-EDTA solution. Mineral content of maize seeds significantly upgraded with priming of seeds with Zn containing solutions. Further, growth and yield parameters of maize were also improved significantly by this approach

1365-1374 Download
18

Sustainable plantlet regeneration from hypocotyl segments and zygotic embryo of Securidaca longipedunculata Fresen. (Polygalaceae) - an endangered medicinal plant


Uche Cyprian Okafor, Adaugo Ozioma Nwakuche, Nneka Sheily Egonu, Felix Ifeanyi Nwafor, Chinelo Chinyere Onyekwuluje, Hyacinth Chikwado Obayi, Hannah Ifunanya Iwuoha, Chinedum Raphael Anajemba and Nwanneka Maryann Okafor

Sustainable plantlet regeneration from hypocotyl segments and zygotic embryo of Securidaca longipedunculata Fresen. (Polygalaceae) - an endangered medicinal plant


ABSTRACT:

Plant regeneration was achieved by culturing sterile hypocotyl segments, and mature zygotic embryos (MZE) of S. longipedunculata Fresen excised from sterile seeds. In this study, de-coated and sterilized seeds were first grown into seedlings In vitro, disjointed into root, hypocotyl, and leaf, segments. The hypocotyl segments (0.5cm) were cultured in root induction media containing MS basal medium + sucrose (30 g l-1) fortified with 0-5 mg l-1 NAA and 0-5 mg l-1 IBA either alone or in combination to produce roots. Rooted hypocotyl segments were cultured in shoot induction media containing 0-1mg l-1 IAA, 0-1 mg l-1 KIN, and 0-1 mg l-1 GA for shoot induction. Second, mature zygotic embryos (MZEs) excised from seeds were cultured based on 3×4×5 factorial – Control, MS and B5 basal media, three carbon sources (sucrose, glucose, and fructose), and control at five concentrations (0-4%) in a completely randomized design at p≤0.05 and repeated two independent times for reproducibility of results. Results of the observed parameters revealed that after 45 days, the highest number of roots (11.66±0.23), most increased root length (3.43±0.23), and highest percent root generation (86.66±3.33) were produced in hypocotyl explants in 0 mg l-1 NAA+5.0 mg l-1 IBA. More so, the earliest induction (35.66±0.66) was seen in 0.5 mg l-1 NAA+0.5 mg l-1 IBA. After 72 days of culture, the highest number of new shoots (2.0 per explant), the highest number of leaves (5.0±1.00), the highest number of shoots (3.80±0.11), highest percent regeneration (88.33±1.60), and highest leaf area (2.06±0.23) were produced in rooted hypocotyl explants at 1mg l-1 each for IAA, KIN, and GA relative to other treatments. In MZE culture, 3% sucrose in MS medium was the most preferred for zygotic embryo culture and differed significantly from other treatments at p≤0.05. These young plantlets, In vitro, were hardened and raised in the field. These regenerated plantlets would ensure the conservation of this endangered plant as a primary source of medicine

1375-1382 Download
19

Cloning and expression analysis of Delay of Germination 1 gene in buffalobur (Solanum rostratum Dunal)


Zhaoxia Chen, Xinguo Wang, Hongjuan Huang, Zhaofeng Huang, Longlong Li, Muhammad Saeed and Shouhui Wei

Cloning and expression analysis of Delay of Germination 1 gene in buffalobur (Solanum rostratum Dunal)


ABSTRACT:

DOG1 (DELAY OF GERMINATION 1) is a specific gene related to seed dormancy and the expression level determines the depth of seed dormancy. However, the site and dynamics of DOG1 expression in Solanum rostratum Dunal (buffalobur), a highly dangerous exotic weed, is still largely unknown. Buffalobur has strong competitiveness and adaptability, it can only be propagated by seed and strong seed dormancy is the main constraint for its control and eradication. In this paper, DOG1 gene was cloned and the expression characteristics were analyzed at different developmental stages of buffalobur. The results showed that SrDOG1 transcription is seed specific, and the embryo is the main expression site. Low temperature can significantly promote SrDOG1 transcription level in seeds, while seed imbibition can decrease the expression. In the process of plant growth, SrDOG1 was expressed in all the reproductive organs as well as in roots, stems and leaves, although the expression is relatively low. Knowledge obtained here could help to elucidate the expression characteristics of SrDOG1 and provide a basis for revealing the role of DOG1 in regulating seed dormancy in buffalobur

1383-1388 Download
20

Identification and analysis of differentially expressed miRNAS related to seedling development in the arabidopsis thaliana CYP71 mutant


Wencai Jie, Shenglin Ma, Ting Fu, Yonghui Liao, Shoucheng Huang, Minkai Yang, Xuan Wang, Zhongling Wen, Tongming Yin, Wenzhi Lan, Guihua Lu, Jinliang Qi and Yonghua Yang

Identification and analysis of differentially expressed miRNAS related to seedling development in the arabidopsis thaliana CYP71 mutant


ABSTRACT:

CYCLOPHILIN71 (AtCYP71), a multidomain cyclophilin, has been demonstrated to participate in many aspects of development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss of AtCYP71 function results in pleiotropic developmental phenotypes including defects in shoot apical meristem (SAM), root apical meristem (RAM), leaf morphology as well as floral development. Previous studies have reported that microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in plant development. However, to date, development-related miRNAs associated with AtCYP71 have rarely been reported. In our study, by employing small RNA (sRNA) and degradome sequencing, we surveyed development-related miRNAs and their targets in the wild type and cyp71 mutant. We identified 253 known miRNAs in total through high-throughput sequencing of two sRNA libraries and degradome libraries constructed from 10-day-old seedlings of the wild type and cyp71 mutant. Of these, 38 known miRNAs (16 increased and 22 decreased) were differentially expressed with normalized reads larger than 100. Via degradome analysis, 337 transcripts of 192 target genes targeted by 95 known miRNAs, including miR164, miR393, miR171, miR172 and miR824, were detected. Further functional analysis suggested that several identified targets, such as NAC1, AFB1, SCL6 & SCL23, TOE2 and AGL16, were transcription factors that function in shoot meristem and lateral organ development together with nutrient metabolism. Overall, our results indicated that the disruption of AtCYP71 function contributes to altering the expression of some key miRNAs that target corresponding key genes that play critical roles in seedling development together with nutrient metabolism.

 

1389-1398 Download
21

Modular organization of quantitative signs in vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) genotypes


Viliana Vasileva and Valentin Kosev

Modular organization of quantitative signs in vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) genotypes


ABSTRACT:

The above-ground plant material and root mass of eight winter vetch genotypes (Vicia villosa Roth) varieties were studied. As a method of study and evaluation, the ecological and genetic models for the organization of the quantitative trait and the method of orthogonal regressions were applied. The study was conducted in 2014-2016 in the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria. The highest and most stable seed yield was obtained at BGE001847 (87.69 kg /da), followed by BGE000643 (77.51 kg/da) and BGE004222 (72.42 kg/da). BGE000639 and Asko 1 were characterized by high variability and low seed yield (28.30 kg/da, 54.28 kg/da). The highest yielding and most stable in relation to green mass were varieties BGE000643 (3736.32 kg/da) and BGE001847 (3206.33 kg/da). Strong genes of physiological systems attraction and adaptability by fresh aboveground and root mass weight have been identified as BGE000637, and varieties BGE000639, BGE000643, BGE001383, Asko 1 and BGE004222 had good adaptation by seeds weight per plant and root mass weight. Due to the high productive capacity of seed and green mass, as well as the high root mass weight, these patterns represent a particular interest for the needs of combinatorial breeding

1399-1406 Download
22

Identification of varieties and biomarkers analyses on essential oils from peels of Citrus L. collected in Pakistan


Anwar Ul Haq and Jian Wang

Identification of varieties and biomarkers analyses on essential oils from peels of Citrus L. collected in Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Five kinds of Citrus L. were collected from Sheringal, Dir Upper, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan, and their fruits, branches, and leaves were used to identify their correct nomenclature. In addition, the dried peels were gotten from fruits of C. reticulata var. Kinnow purchased from the bazaar of Sheringal. The essential oils (EOs) were extracted from their peels by hydrodistillation or cold-pressing, and then were detected by GC-MS, respectively. As a result, 2 kinds were both identified as C. karna Raf. (Khatta), 1 kind was deduced as C. jambhiri Lush. (Rough lemon), the other 2 kinds should belong to the varieties of C. medica (citron), C. limon (lemon), or C. aurantifolia (lime), but still needs to be confirmed further. In total, 36 major components were qualified and quantified in 8 prepared samples, accounting from 59.9-99.5%. Thirteen compounds such as limonene (22.8-97.6%), β-pinene (0-2.5%), β-myrcene (0-1.2%), terpinen-4-ol (0-2.1%), α-bergamotene (0-1.4%), β-bisabolene (0-1.6%), E-nerolidol (0-5.3%), γ-eudesmol (0-0.6%), α-cadinol (0-1.3%), nootkatone (0-14.1%), n-hexadecanoic acid (0-8.5%), tricosane (0-0.8%), and squalene (0-0.6%) are prominent. The other important biomarkers in peels EOs of Citrus such as γ-terpinene (0-0.2%) and linalool (0-0.5%) were relatively less. α-bergamotene and β-bisabolene are two important biomarkers for discriminating citron, lemon, and lime from the other species of Citrus. To the best of authors’ knowledge, there is no report on the detection of nine chemicals including β-pinene, terpinen-4-ol, α-bergamotene, δ-elemene, E-nerolidol, γ-eudesmol, α-cadinol, tricosane, and squalene from peels EOs of Citrus produced in Pakistan previously

1407-1418 Download
23

Determination of some phenolics and fatty acid compounds from an endemic Cephalaria species in Anatolia along with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity


Burcin Ergene, Melek Karaaslan, Kamuran Ileri Ozler, Sezen Yilmaz Sarialtin, Necmi Aksoy and Gulcin Saltan Iscan

Determination of some phenolics and fatty acid compounds from an endemic Cephalaria species in Anatolia along with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity


ABSTRACT:

In this study, HPLC analyses of total extract prepared with aqueous methanol, butanol fraction, and water fraction of Cephalaria duzceënsis N.Aksoy & Göktürk (Caprifoliaceae), which is a local endemic species in Turkey, were conducted and contents of chlorogenic acid were calculated. The total antioxidant capacity, ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the total extract were determined to evaluate its antioxidant activity. Assessment of anti-inflammatory activity was done using human red blood cell membrane stabilization and protein denaturation inhibition activity tests In vitro, whereas carrageenan-induced hind paw edema test In vivo. Moreover, the fatty acid composition inside the fixed oil extracted from C. duzceënsis seeds was determined by GC-MS. As the result of GC-MS analysis, linoleic and oleic acids were found to be the predominant fatty acids in the fixed oil. The total phenolic contents of the total extract and butanol fraction were determined as 63.4029 and 95.0131 mg GAE/g dry extract, respectively. The chlorogenic acid amounts of the total extract, butanol, and water fractions were calculated as 3.7494%, 3.5335%, and 1.2354% by HPLC analysis. IC50 values of the total extract were calculated as 45.1385 µg/ml against ABTS•+ and 28.6407 µg/ml against DPPH radicals and the total antioxidant capacity was 45.84 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g dry extract. IC50 values of the total extract were calculated as 1.4084 mg/ml for human red blood cell membrane stabilization and 1.8601 mg/ml for protein denaturation inhibition method showing its moderate activity. In vivo tests revealed that total extract caused almost as much inhibition on edema as 10 mg/kg diclofenac sodium

1419-1427 Download
24

Physiological and anatomical modifications of Datura stramonium L. roots collected from dry environments


Zunaira Naeem, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad, Mansoor Hameed and Fahd Rasul

Physiological and anatomical modifications of Datura stramonium L. roots collected from dry environments


ABSTRACT:

The effect of variable availability of soil water in natural ecosystems on structural features of roots in differently adapted populations of Datura stramonium was evaluated. Datura stramonium was collected from eight water deficit habitats. Soil physico-chemical attributes such as moisture content (%), pH, ECe, saturation percentage, organic matter (%), ionic contents i.e., monovalent ions (Na+, K+, and Cl-) and divalent ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+) were analyzed. Root physio-anatomical attributes such as ionic contents in roots (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and P) and structural features of root such as epidermal and endodermal cell area, cortical region thickness, root radii, vessel number, root protoxylem and metaxylem, phloem area and xylem to phloem ratio were measured. The reduced availability of water significantly affected many functional and structural attributes. The most important one were reduced uptake of micronutrients and alteration in dermal, ground and conducting tissues. Population of dry habitats i.e., Jabba (JAB) and Choa Saidan Shah (CSS) tolerated the extremities of adverse environmental constraints by increasing epidermal and endodermal areas, and, cortical region thickness to protect them from mechanical injury. Additionally, decreased vessel number and increased metaxylem and protoxylem areas help to conserve more water in dry environments. In conclusion, roots of Datura stramonium possessed some physiological modifications by increasing uptake of sodium (Na+) and structural changes by changing dermal and vascular tissues of root in population grown in dry habitats i.e., Choa Saidan Shah (CSS) and Jabba (JAB) site

1429-1438 Download
25

Floristic composition of gardens with reference to economic value and species status according to IUCN


Walaa A. Hassan and Najla A. Al Shaye

Floristic composition of gardens with reference to economic value and species status according to IUCN


ABSTRACT:

This work amid to estimate the garden flora's composition and richness, and to determine to what extent they provide habitat for alien species, in addition to focusing on threatened species. For this evaluation, life forms, duration, geographical distribution, medicinal, economic, and environmental uses, and conservation categories are given, using literatures. Field trips during 2018-2019 were conducted to cover seven gardens in the studied area. 57 species were recorded belonging to 51 genera and 20 families, where the richest garden was S7 (29 species). Poaceae and Asteraceae had almost half the number of the recorded species (19 and 9 species respectively), and Euphorbia (four species) was the most represented genus. 43 species were native to Egypt, while 14 species were alien. The life form spectrum showed that the majority of species were therophytes (40 species), moreover, based on the duration and phytogeographical categories, annual species (41) and monoregional species (22 species) and Mediterranean one (34 species) were the most represented species in the study area. Medicinal plants had the most uses, while phytoremediation had the most represented environmental benefits. Furthermore, 22 species were categorized as IUCN threatened species. Our study revealed the unlimited role of the public garden in the Nile region.

 

1439-1448 Download
26

Spatio-temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emissions from soil in forest ecosystems of Pakistan


Sabeeqa Usman Malik, Muhammad Irfan Ashraf and Muhammad Arif Goheer

Spatio-temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emissions from soil in forest ecosystems of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its sixth assessment report (AR-6) has documented that the atmosphere, ocean, and land have been warmed at an unprecedented rate as per history of last 2000 years. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture and forest soils account for 24% of the total global emissions. Soil processes directly contribute to climate change through the production and consumption of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous Oxide (N2O). Because of huge spatial and temporal variability in the soil-atmosphere exchange of GHGs, the measurement of prevailing concentrations and prediction are still difficult. Under different forest types, soil responds in a dissimilar fashion under varying climatic conditions. This research endeavor was pursued to estimate GHG accumulations from soil under scrub, subtropical pine and moist temperate forests. This study is of unique scientific efforts and features in which empirical data of the soil GHG emissions was gathered based on field observations. The present study apprehended forest diversity and temporal variations using a static chamber and photoacoustic spectroscopy to estimate GHG accumulations from soil. Seasonal variations strongly influenced CO2 emissions in three forest types, while N2O accumulation was not influenced by seasonal variations. In the winter season, the GHG accumulation decreased due to reduced microbial and root respiration. Methane was not detected in any of the forest types investigated in this study. Our results showed that soil under moist temperate forests produced more CO2 in summer as compared to that in the other forest types. The subtropical chir pine forest has the highest N2O accumulation in both summer and winter seasons. The outcomes of the research will be useful for developing national GHG inventory as well as Forest Reference Emission Levels (FREL) for REDD+ implementation under the Paris Agreement. Further, the data produced in this study may be helpful in carbon trading under Kyoto Protocol.  The present approximations of GHGs will aid in predicting the future climate trends

1449-1458 Download
27

Seed heteromorphism and germination in Chenopodium quinoa Willd. related to crop introduction in marginalized environments


Kristina Toderich, Tatyana Kravtsova, Khatira Gasimova, Valida Alizade, Olga Yakovleva and Munir Ozturk

Seed heteromorphism and germination in Chenopodium quinoa Willd. related to crop introduction in marginalized environments


ABSTRACT:

Abiotic stress tolerance and the superior nutritional seed value make Chenopodium quinoa (Amaranthaceae) one of the most important candidates for crop diversification and food use. This article evaluates seed germination behavior, grain yield, pericarp, and seed coat structure of different seed heteromorphs in various quinoa lines, newly introduced on alkaline soils in Caspian lowlands. Introduction into harsh environments induces changes in expression, resulting in increased fruit and seed heterogeneity, expressed as variation in sizes and colors (light and dark), seed coat, and pericarp structure. These changes affect the seed germination, grain yield  and other agronomic parameters. Light seeds predominanted, while the proportion of dark seeds varied from 9 to 17 percent in the quinoa lines examined. Tannins, lignin, and stalactites were detected in the cell walls of the exotesta of phenotypes of quinoa seeds. Early-maturing lines had a lower percentage of dark seeds, high germination rates in the laboratory, and synchronized seedling emergence in the field, followed by fast plant growth, high grain yield, and 1000-kernel weight. Caspian drylands are potential areas for the cultivation of early maturing quinoa genotypes, whose seed structural and functional features are not affected by stress conditions. Seed heteromorphism might represent an expectant seed survival strategy under changing environments

1459-1475 Download
28

Effect of environmental gradients on the natural regeneration of mixed coniferous forest, Swat, Pakistan


Majid Ullah, Saeed Gulzar, Mohammad Irfan Ashraf and Rahmatullah Qureshi

Effect of environmental gradients on the natural regeneration of mixed coniferous forest, Swat, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Forests are the natural resources which produce timber, fuel wood, habitats for wildlife, conserve water and reduce soil erosion. The natural forests of Pakistan are declining at an alarming rate due to anthropogenic pressure and mismanagement. In order to check the status of natural regeneration, this study was conducted in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A total number of 100 plots, measuring 20X20 meter quadrat were undertaken at different ecological zones in mixed coniferous forest of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during 2016-2018. In each plot, the number of seedlings was counted and each seedling was tagged. Seedling percentage was calculated along the altitudinal gradient. The regeneration percentage of Pinus roxburghii, Cedrus deodara and Picea smithiana decreased with the increase of elevation. Among the environmental factors, aspect was positively correlated to the natural regeneration. The increase in slopes resulted in slight increase in the natural regeneration percentage of Pinus wallichiana, Picea smithiana and Abies pindrow. Overall, the percentage of natural regeneration of all the species was higher on the northern aspect. Regeneration assessment is a key to the forest health. This study shall contribute to planning, conserving and decision making in natural forest management and development programs

1477-1481 Download
29

Phytodiversity in relation to ecovariability of Thawr and Eir mountains, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia


Usama K Abdel-Hameed, Wael A. Obaid and Tahar Boutraa

Phytodiversity in relation to ecovariability of Thawr and Eir mountains, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia


ABSTRACT:

Thawr and Eir mountains are two of the main important and historical mountains in the region of Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah. However, floristic studies on these mountains have not been conducted. In this study, human activities and their impacts on the species diversity and soil characteristics of these mountains were considered. The current study aims to investigate: plant species distribution, species richness, life forms of plant species and the impact of soil composition on these parameters across the scanned mountains. A total of 48 species belonging to 44 genera and 23 families are recorded. The largest represented families were Fabaceae and Asteraceae. The spectrum of life-form showed that the most frequent life form was Therophyte. The major chorotypes distribution in the two studied mountains was investigated. Using of A Two-Way Indicator Species (TWINSPAN) technique on the relative importance values (IV) of the recorded species in 20 sampled stands distinguished six vegetation groups: two were representing Thawr mountain communities and four were representing Eir mountain communities, which was visualized through Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). A Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was applied on the six TWINSPAN groups to explore the correlations between the generated vegetation groups and the different environmental parameters; stands of Eir mountain were highly correlated with elevation, longitude, latitude and pH while Thawr mountain stands showed a correlation with Ca++, TDS, EC, Carbonate, Nitrate and Mg++. It was found that Eir mountain gained the highest species richness and dominance according to the Berger-Parker formula while evenness, abundance and diversity reached their maximum values at Thawr mountain. It is concluded that human impacts may have a negative effect on species abundance, evenness and diversity at Eir mountain as compared with those of Thawr mountain. So authors recommend planning an ecological restoration strategy to maintain the diversity level at Eir mountain.

 

1483-1495 Download
30

The pollination biology of Heliotropium curassavicum L. (Boraginaceae) from Pakistan


Rubina Abid, Rida Fatima Nayani, Sana Riaz and Huma Fatima

The pollination biology of Heliotropium curassavicum L. (Boraginaceae) from Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Heliotropium curassavicum L., of the family Boraginaceae is the only glabrous species from Pakistan. The species exhibits autogamous mode of reproduction while, the value of pollen–ovule ratio indicates the mixed pattern of pollination i.e., facultative xenogamy. A variety of insects frequently visit the flower as it simultaneously offers food and visual as well as olfactory attractions thus the plant enjoys both, direct as well as insect mediated selfing

1497-1501 Download
31

The taxonomic significance of leaf epidermal micromorphological characters of some Brassicaceae species in Turkey


Ayse Erden and Yusuf Menemen

The taxonomic significance of leaf epidermal micromorphological characters of some Brassicaceae species in Turkey


ABSTRACT:

Leaf epidermal micromorphological characters were examined using light and scanning electron microscopes in 43 taxa belonging to 30 genera of Brassicaceae. The cell curvature of the periclinal wall has an important influence on the surface roughness and stands out as an important character in the separation of some closely related species. The course of the anticlinal cell wall can be straight or uneven. Uneven anticlines could be further divided into arched, straight to arched, repand, sinuous, and undulate. Undulations of anticlinal cell walls could increase the mechanical stability of the epidermis tissue. Epicuticular surface ornamentation comprised 4 types: smooth, striate, wrinkled, and ridged. In general, wrinkled and ridged were the most common types. Different types of wax layers were found in different taxa growing in the same climatic conditions. Therefore, wax diversification may be is an important feature at all taxonomic hierarchy from species to tribal level. The stomata were amphistomatic, and anisocytic in all the species, while anomocytic stomata were found in some species too. It was revealed that the low stomatal index values of some species growing on high, stony-rocky areas are directly related to the climatic conditions and habitat that the plant is exposed to. It was also observed that the stomatal index was higher in species growing in lower areas and prefer moist soil. As a result, this study showed that the shape, measurement, surface curvature, anticlinal cell wall, stomata type, stomatal index, epicuticular surface ornamentation and waxy cover of the leaf epidermis cells could be important characters for distinguishing the species, genera and tribes within the familly.

 

1503-1515 Download
32

Chesneya baltistanica (Chesneyinae: Caraganeae: Faboideae: Fabaceae) a new species from Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan


Amir Sultan, Kamran Ishaq, Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi and Muhammad Ayub

Chesneya baltistanica (Chesneyinae: Caraganeae: Faboideae: Fabaceae) a new species from Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Chesneya is a genus in the tribe Caraganeae (Papilionideae: Fabaceae) represented in Pakistan by 7 species. The genus is mainly distributed in Gilgit-Baltistan, Kashmir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan. A new species of Chesneya from section Chesneya, C. baltistanica is described and illustrated from Baltistan, Pakistan. The new species is characterized by axillary one-flowered inflorescence with pedicel smaller than leaves, 10 mm long mauve vexillum, c. 8 mm long calyx and unequal stipules. Chesneya baltistanica is compared with C. depressa (Oliver) Pop., which has shorter calyx, corolla, fruits and longer branches and with C. parviflora Jaub. & Spach which has relatively larger calyx and corolla and bears flowers in peduncled compact racemes

1517-1520 Download
33

Epimedium jinfoshanensis (Berberidaceae), a new species from Chongqing, China


You-Wei Zuo, Shu-Xiang Wang, Xia Wang, Hong-Ping Deng, Xing-Yun Lv and Chang-Ying Xia

Epimedium jinfoshanensis (Berberidaceae), a new species from Chongqing, China


ABSTRACT:

Epimedium jinfoshanensis H.P. Deng & Y.W. Zuo, sp. nov. from Nanchuan, Chongqing, China, is described, illustrated and compared with related species. E. jinfoshanensis appears to be related to E. simplicifolium and E. acuminatum due to the similar petals shape, but it can be easily distinguished by the leaf type and structure, inflorescence types, shape and size of sepals, petal color, structure of rhizome and phenological period.

 

1521-1525 Download
34

Host range and host preferences of Dendrophthoe falcata and Scurrula pulverulenta (Loranthaceae) in the forests of Potohar and adjacent regions


Rifat Ullah Khan, Kirsty V. Milner, David M. Watson, Alastair W. Robertson and Amir Sultan

Host range and host preferences of Dendrophthoe falcata and Scurrula pulverulenta (Loranthaceae) in the forests of Potohar and adjacent regions


ABSTRACT:

Host range and host preferences of Dendrophthoe falcata and Scurrula pulverulenta were studied in the Himalayan foothills region of Potohar plateau, Pakistan. Dendrophthoe falcata and S. pulverulenta were recorded in different areas of Rawalpindi-Islamabad districts and at each site in these areas host range of both the mistletoes were recorded. Both mistletoes parasitise a variety of dicotyledonous trees. Although both mistletoes are generalist species, with S. pulverulenta recorded on 37 different hosts and33 hosts recorded for D. falcata, they are most often found on a subset of these. Based on frequency of occurrence, Senegalia modesta is the primary host for D. falcata, Bombax ceiba is the secondary host and Flacourtia indica is the tertiary host, while Olea ferruginea is the primary host for S. pulverulenta, Punica granatum is secondary host and Senegalia modesta, Ficus palmata and Pyrus pashia are tertiary hosts.

 

1527-1538 Download
35

Molecular identification of Colletotrichum capsici isolates and development of mathematical model for chilli anthracnose dynamics in semi-arid climate of the Punjab, Pakistan


Abid Riaz, Yasin, M. Sheeraz Ahmad, Abdul Sattar and Nasir Mehmood

Molecular identification of Colletotrichum capsici isolates and development of mathematical model for chilli anthracnose dynamics in semi-arid climate of the Punjab, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Anthracnose is one of the major constraints to chilli production globally, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Exact identification of Colletotrichum isolates from Pakistan and anthracnose dependence on weather parameters in semi-arid condition necessitated conducting work on molecular identification of the isolates and epidemiological aspects of the disease. DNA of five representative samples from five districts of the Punjab was extracted, purified and amplified by PCR. The purified PCR products were sequenced and submitted to NCBI GenBank database to obtained the accession numbers viz. MG799567, MG799563, MG799564, MG799565 and MG799566 were obtained for ITS region while MK088521, MK088522, MK088523, MK088524 and MK088525 for Beta tubulin gene. After confirmation of the isolates, sequences were uploaded on NCBI for BLAST to determine the similarity of the sequences of subjected isolates to previously reported sequences. Molecular characteristics of the pathogen resulted in confirmation of Colletotrichum capsici as causal agent of the chilli anthracnose in Punjab, Pakistan. Relationship of weather parameters with disease for two years in the form of mathematical model suggested that all the three factors (mean minimum and maximum temperatures and relative humidity) play significant role in disease dynamics. For most of the time period, weather conditions have been conducive for anthracnose development suggesting that researchers should pay more attention to develop and introduce anthracnose resistant chilli varieties for this zone.

 

1539-1544 Download
36

Efficiency of plant extracts on Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Zea mays


Salim H.S. Al-Warshan, Sara Thamer Hadi and Linh Jaafar Sultan

Efficiency of plant extracts on Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Zea mays


ABSTRACT:

The detection of fungi contaminating maize grain and the effect of four plant extracts Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus globulus Glycyrrhiza glabra and Zingiber officinale on the growth of A. flavus and its ability to produce AflatoxinB1. The results showed that the incidence of Aspergillus spp., was 52.75% of the isolated fungi, of which 29.50% was due to Aspergillus flavus, followed by Penicillium spp., with an incidence of 21.06%, and then Fusarium spp., with a rate of 18.13%. The percentage of toxin-producing A. flavus isolates reached 70.8% out of 24 isolates. The results showed the effect of alcoholic plant extracts at a concentration of 10 mg/ml on the fungal growth activity of A. flavus, the alcoholic extract of neem leaves was superior to the alcoholic extract with an inhibition rate of 92.79% than that of the control treatment, followed by ginger extract with an inhibition of 60.14%, then eucalyptus extract with a medium inhibition rate of 53.88%. While the licorice extract showed a weak inhibition rate of 17.77 %. The lowest inhibitory concentration for the growth of the fungus for neem extract was 24 mg/ml. While the lowest inhibitory concentration of ginger extract was 48 mg/ml, while eucalyptus and licorice extract did not achieve complete inhibition of fungal growth despite using a concentration higher than 48 mg/ml for both types. The results indicated that the neem plant extract inhibited the production of AFB1 toxin in YES media by 100% at a concentration of 12 mg/ml, followed by ginger extract at a concentration of 24 mg/ml, while the eucalyptus extract achieved a complete inhibition of AFB1 production at the last concentration (48 mg/ml). The extract of licorice plant did not show a complete inhibition of toxin production, as the highest percentage of inhibition was 39.98% at a concentration of 48 mg/ml

1545-1550 Download
37

Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant studies on Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal


Navid Baghalpour, Javad Mahroo Bakhtiyari, Zainab M. Almarhoon, Deepak Chandran, Afnan Khan Shinwari, Manoj Kumar, Javad Sharifi-Rad and Zabta Khan Shinwari

Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant studies on Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal


ABSTRACT:

The goal of this study is to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of various leaf extracts (methanolic extract, chloroform fraction (1), chloroform fraction (2), ethyl acetate, butanol, and hydroalcoholic fractions) of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal plant using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Total tannins content (TTC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total phenolic content (TPC) were measured to estimate the polyphenol content. Four different approaches were used to assess the antioxidant potential of the plant. The carrageenan and formalin tests were used to assess anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties in rats respectively. The methanolic extract (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg), all fractions (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg), Diclofenac sodium (25 mg/kg), and normal saline were given to 156 Wistar rats via oral gavage. Also, the acute toxicity of the methanolic extract was analyzed on twenty rats. In comparison to the control group, treatment with the methanolic extract at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, both doses of chloroform fraction (1) (30 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg), and butanol fraction 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the pain score in the formalin test as well as the carrageenan paw edema. At the tested dose, the acute toxicity test revealed that it was non-toxic. Furthermore, in the assessments, there was moderate amounts of flavonoid content in these extracts. In conclusion, the present study revealed the phytochemicals present in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal whole plant has anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and anti-oxidant effects. Further studies are needed to recognize the exact bioactive compounds that possess these properties and the mechanism of these potential effects in the plant

1551-1561 Download
38

Torulaspora delbrueckii: a novel yeast isolate for L- phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) production


Zareena Mushtaq and Hamid Mukhtar

Torulaspora delbrueckii: a novel yeast isolate for L- phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) production


ABSTRACT:

The current study describes the biosynthesis of L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) by Torulaspora delbrueckii using molasses in shake flasks. The yeast isolates were screened for temperature tolerance, solvent stress and carboligase activity. Solvent resistant and thermotolerant Torulaspora delbrueckii yeast was selected which was identified through sequencing of their rDNA R26, R18 and ITs regions. The incubation time of 24hrs, incubation temperature of 30oC, total sugar at 17% and pH of the medium at 5.5 with 10% inoculum size were found to be optimum for maximum production of L-PAC. Urea and Di-amonium Phosphate were selected as the best nitrogen sources for this purpose. The wild strain of T. delbrukii was subjected to random mutagenesis through UV, nitrous acid and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) treatment. Nitrous acid mutant treated for 40 min was selected after quantitative screening for further optimization. After mutagenesis, optimum pH and incubation time of Torulaspora delbrueckii were shifted to 5.0 and 18hrs while other parameters were same as for wild strain. After optimization of process parameters, nitrous acid mutant of T. delbrukei produced 7.99 g/l L-Phenylacetyl carbinol L-PAC as compared to 6.44 g/l of L-PAC from the wild strain. Hence, the yield of this strain was enhanced significantly after mutagenesis so the mutant strain of Torulaspora delbrueckii can be used in the industry for enhanced production of an important pharmaceutical ingredient, L-PAC

1563-1568 Download
39

Ectomycorrhizae of Himalayan alder (Alnus nitida) from the moist temperate forests of Pakistan


Muhammad Hanif and Abdul Nasir Khalid

Ectomycorrhizae of Himalayan alder (Alnus nitida) from the moist temperate forests of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The roots of the Himalayan alder were sampled from the rhizosphere and were investigated for ectomycorrhizal association. We described 11 ectomycorrhizal species viz; Amphinema sp. MHBYS-01, Helvella sp. MHELA-02, Hydnobolites sp. MHCER-02, Inocybe sp. MHNIT-01, Inocybe sp. MHNIT-02, Inocybe sp. MHOBL-01, Peziza michelii, Sebacina sp. MHAFE-01, Tomentella sp. MHSTU-01, Tomentella sp. MHSUB-01 and Tylospora sp. MHTYL-01 based on molecular phylogeny by using the Maximum Likelihood criterion. Some of the ectomycorrhizal morphotypes are also being described here on a morpho-anatomical basis

1569-1577 Download
40

Abundance and diversity of diatom communities in Gadani (Baluchistan coast) and Sandspit (Sindh coast)


Tayyaba Hamid, Nafisa Shoaib and Pirzada Jamal Ahmed Siddiqui

Abundance and diversity of diatom communities in Gadani (Baluchistan coast) and Sandspit (Sindh coast)


ABSTRACT:

The present research aims to study the species diversity, abundance and spatial distribution of diatom from the coastal waters of Sindh coast (Sandspit) and Baluchistan coast (Gadani ship breaking area). The Seawater samples were collected monthly from Gadani ship breaking area and Sandspit for analysis of phytoplankton (Diatom) on board using Niskin bottles. A total of 109 phytoplankton species are identified from two sites. Eight dominant species of Bacillariophyceae observed in all stations on both sites such as Bacillaria paxillifer, Coscinodiscus spp., Cymatosira lorenziana, Guinardia delicatula, Melosira arctica, Nitzschia longissima, Rhizosolenia Setigera and Rhizosolenia imbricata. Diverse species of phytoplankton in Gadani compared to Sandspit were observed. In the Gadani area, 85 species of diatoms and from Sandspit 74 species of diatom were recorded. Thirty-four genera were observed in Gadani, whereas 27 genera were observed in Sandspit. The results showed quite variation in the species composition of phytoplankton in two coastal sites and along with the difference of nearshore and offshore zones. Diatom communities are susceptible to change in their environment; the pollution due to anthropogenic substances in the coastal waters and changing climatic conditions trigger HAB forming species, which is perilous for marine fauna particularly, fishes

1579-1590 Download
41

A review on the dynamics of DNA methylation and its role in plant development


Kainnat Khalid, Madiha Rashid, Shumaila Naz, Nadia Zeeshan and Naheed Malik

A review on the dynamics of DNA methylation and its role in plant development


ABSTRACT:

In plants, the most prevalent and significant phenomenon is DNA methylation. De novo methylation in plant genome is generally lower than in animals. Natural environments controlled by biotic stresses also play a critical evolutionary role in controlling the pathways that regulate responses to stress, gene activity, and plant growth. The present review discusses various features of developmental changes resulting from genetic methylation in plants and particular genes involved in this process. Methylated DNA sequences primarily control changes from the vegetative to the reproductive cycle. In plants, DNA methylation regulates different developmental functions such as the morphology of leaves, flowering time, identity of different floral organs, ability to fertilize, restriction of transposable elements, and activation or blockage of transgenes multiple genes, their receptors, and protein products. For the development of endosperm and planning of the flowering period, also monitor time by this mechanism. DNA methylation genes for plant immunity have defensive functions that address environmental stimuli such as a parasite, pathogen or cold, stress, heat, and drought. These genes describe how complete DNA methylation manages a plant's whole development and progression. This overview provides insight into progress in DNA methylation in regulating developmental pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana and the evolution of other plant species. Our findings suggest that research in proteomic and genomic analysis can empower scientists to understand the methylation patterns and the role of methylation variation in biological processes during evolution. In addition, it provides collective information on molecular mechanisms that underlie various plant functions

1591-1598 Download
About Journal
--------------------------------------
Author's Guideline
--------------------------------------
Submit Online
--------------------------------------
In Press Articles
--------------------------------------
Status of Manuscript
--------------------------------------
Current Impact Factor 1.2
--------------------------------------
5 Years Impact Factor 1.1
Category Quartile:Q3
Indexing

PJB is indexed in following international databases: View all

Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Knowledge


SCOPUS

https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/19983?origin=sbrowse


AGRIS


ASCI-Database


CABI


International Scientific Indexing (ISI)


Cambridge Scientific Abstract


Chemical Abstract Services


E-Journals


ISC (Islamic World Science Citation Center)


Scientific Indexing Services


SCIMAGO


Index Copernicus (IC)


ProQuest


DOAJ


Google Scholar


Contact Us
Pakistan Journal of Botany, Botanical Garden, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

pakjbot@pakbs.org | Facebook
Hit Counter: 1011087, Today's: 778, Yesterday's: 3478, Country Wise Counter

Copyright © 2017-18 - All Rights Reserved - www.pakbs.org