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Year 2021 , Volume  53, Issue 3
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1

Evaluation of bread wheat genotypes for salinity stress tolerance based on seedling traits


Naila Gandahi, Abdul Wahid Baloch, M. Ubaidullah Shirazi, Tauqeer Ahmad Yasir, Wajid Ali Jatoi, Muharam Ali and M. Nawaz Kandhro

Evaluation of bread wheat genotypes for salinity stress tolerance based on seedling traits


ABSTRACT:

The constant salinization of arable land is a warning to the world food security. Salinized soils spreading across the various countries of the world lead to a great loss of cultivated land. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of most important crops worldwide but suffers from a considerable grain yield losses due to soil salinity. The current study was designed to evaluate bread wheat genotypes for salt tolerance based on seedling traits. In this context, a set of 22 bread wheat genotypes were assessed against salinity stresses at early seedling stage (12 and 16 dSm-1) along with control. The obtained mean squares indicated that genotypes, treatments and genotype x treatment interactions differed significantly for all seedling traits, suggesting that genetic resources exploited in the current study were worth to be used in future wheat breeding programs. Based on mean performance under salinity stress conditions, a group of seven wheat genotypes like TD-1, Kiran-95, Hamal, NIA-Sarang, AS-2002, LU-26s and NIA-AS-14 were identified as salinity tolerant; hence these genotypes may be used for further genetic analysis under salinity stress. With respect to cluster analysis based on early seedling performance, all genotypes were classified into four groups. The first group composed of seven wheat genotypes (NIA-Sarang, AS-2002, Kiran-95, LU-26s, NIA-AS-14, TD-1 and Hamal), indeed the genotypes of this group reflected a vigorous growth nevertheless recognized as tolerant against salinity stress, indicating that these bread wheat genotypes may provide useful genetic recombinations for salinity stress hence may be exploited for further breeding programs. However, second group was tagged as moderately tolerant while thrird and fourth group of genotypes were specified as sensitive and highly sensitive to salinity, respectively. 

771-778 Download
2

Effect of salinity (NaCl) and seed priming (CaCl2) on biochemical parameters and biological yield of wheat


Attaullah Khan, Muhammad Shafi, Jehan Bakht, Shazma Anwar and Muhammad Owais Khan

Effect of salinity (NaCl) and seed priming (CaCl2) on biochemical parameters and biological yield of wheat


ABSTRACT:

The experiment was conducted to validate the effect of salinity (NaCl) and seed priming (CaCl2) on biological yield of wheat. The six wheat varieties (Lalma-13, Pirsabak-05, Atta-Habib-10, Pirsabak-08, Inqilab-91 and Saleem-00) were tested at two seed treatments (un-primed and Primed with 50 mM CaCl2) and four salinity regimes (0, 3, 6 and 9 dSm-1) in soil culture. The seed priming and salinity has significantly (p≤0.05) affected physiological, biochemical parameters and biological yield of wheat varieties. Wheat variety (Pirsabak-05) was tolerant in saline environment in term of producing highest shoot chlorophyll a and b content (1.60 and1.03 mg g-1 fresh weight), shoot proline content (118.20 μg g-1 fresh weight), shoot K+ content (1.23 mg g-1 dry weight), shoot and root Ca++ content (0.76 and 0.58 mg g-1 dry weight), biological yield (12.46 g plant-1),  and lowest shoot Na+ (1.11 mg g-1 dry weight) & Na+/K+ ratio (1.03).Saleem-00 and Inqilab-91 varieties were highest accumulator of shoot Na+ (1.26 mg g-1 dry weight) and Na+/K+ ratio(1.55) respectively. Experimental findings suggested that except shoot Na+ and Na+/K+ ratio, all biochemical, physiological parameters and biological yield of wheat varieties could be enhanced with seed priming. The salt tolerant wheat varieties (i.e. Pirsabak-05 and Lalma-13) were more responsive to seed priming than salt sensitive varieties (i.e. Inqilab-91 and Saleem-00).

 

779-789 Download
3

Role of physiological plasticity in adaptability of some native grasses to hyper-saline environments


Ali Kamal, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad, Mumtaz Hussain and Rashid Ahmad

Role of physiological plasticity in adaptability of some native grasses to hyper-saline environments


ABSTRACT:

Six grasses Ochthochloa compressa (Oc), Lasiurus scindicus (Ls), Panicum antidotale (Pa), Cymbopogon jwarancusa (Cj), Leptochloa fusca (Lf), Aeluropus lagopoides (Al) collected from the study range of Kallar Kahar (North Punjab) to Cholistan (South Punjab) were tested for role of plasticity in physioilogical attributes in salt-adaptability. Samples of each species collected from three different sites varying in soil salinity along with their rhizospheric soil. Soil samples collected from depths of 0-5cm, 15-20cm and 25-30cm and packed in polythene zipper bags with proper labeling. Higher Na and K concentrations noted in soil samples in most of the sites (HsP, KKr, KnP, PkA and 87A) building higher soil ECe. Results showed general decreasing trend of ECe and Na with increasing depths of soil in all sites. However, variable results for soil moisture contents (MC), pH, organic matter, K, Ca, Mg, P, NO3-, NH3 and Cl- recorded. Among bio-chemical parameters of shoot, Na, Na/K ratio, Ca and P increased with higher levels of salinity while Mg and Cl behaved variably. Shoot Na, Na/K ratio, Ca, Mg and P contents positively correlated with ECe and Na concentration in soil. In comparison, shoot FW, DW, K and N showed a negative correlation with soil ECe and Na. In conclusion, hyper accumulation of Na, K, organic osmotica, anti-oxidative enzymes (SOD, POD, and CAT) identified as possible adaptability mechanisms for survival of the tolerant grasses under saline environments.

791-804 Download
4

Growth parameters and antioxidant enzymes activities in selected halophytic grass species from Cholistan rangeland, Pakistan under salinity stress


Muhammad Rafay, Muhammad Abid, Muhammad Abdullah, Zaffar Malik, Hussain Ahmed Makki, Zulfiqar Ahmed and Muhammad Umair Riaz

Growth parameters and antioxidant enzymes activities in selected halophytic grass species from Cholistan rangeland, Pakistan under salinity stress


ABSTRACT:

The study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant enzymes activities, chlorophyll contents, growth parameters in four halophytic grasses Khawi (Cymbopogon jwarancusa), Kalarghaa (Aeluropus lagopoides), Morat (Panicum antidotale) and Dhaman (Cenchrus setigerus) from Cholistan Rangeland, Pakistan. The experiment was conducted hydroponically in the research area of department of Forestry, Range and Wildlife Management, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. The results revealed that biomass production in the selected halophytes increased with increasing salinity while under highly saline conditions. Aeluropus lagopoides produced highest number of leaves (19.6 A) at 140 mM NaCl while at 70 mM NaCl Cymbopogon jwarancusa had the maximum number of leaves (24 A). Highest chlorophyll contents were recorded in Aeluropus lagopoides (1.14 A) at 140 mM NaCl while at 70 mM NaCl Cenchrus setigerus produced more chlorophyll contents (0.93 A). Shoot length was recorded (80.23 A) in A. lagopoides under 140 mM NaCl and it reduced its length (27.63 C) at 210 mM NaCl while at 70 mm NaCl C. jwarancusa had the maximum shoot length (72.8 A). Under 70 mM NaCl root length (48.93 A) was measured in P. antidotale and has reduced to (29.06 C) at 210 mM NaCl. At 140 mM NaCl highest root length (43.05 A) was observed in A. lagopoides. Root length in C. jwarancusa was (16.9 D) at 210 mM NaCl while it had root length (47.41 A) at 70 mM NaCl salt level. Antioxidant enzymes activities of SOD enzymes activity was found maximum in A. lagopoides (40.67 A) with the minimum value was in C. setigerus (10.67 D). While the CAT enzyme activity was at highest value at 0 mM NaCl (35.67 A) in A. lagopoides and its value was decreased with the increasing salinity in all four species and it was (8.33 D).

805-811 Download
5

Genetic engineering of sugarcane with the rice tonoplast H+-PPase (OVP2) gene to improve sucrose content and salt tolerance


Mohammad Sayyar Khan, Sayed Usman Ali Shah, Mazhar Ullah, Muhammad Zaheer Ahmad, Waqar Ahmad and Asad Jan

Genetic engineering of sugarcane with the rice tonoplast H+-PPase (OVP2) gene to improve sucrose content and salt tolerance


ABSTRACT:

The present study describes successful transformation of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), CP-77/400 variety with the rice vacuolar H+-PPase (OVP2) gene. Transgenic and control plants were then tested for biochemical and salt tolerance evaluation. First, sugarcane calli of the selected variety were induced on callus induction media as optimized previously. Various concentrations of acetosyringone and cefatoxime were used along with different co-cultivation periods to obtain maximum transformation efficiency. Maximum transformation efficiency (25 %) was achieved with 60 µM. Different concentrations of cefatoxime were used for washing the calli after co-cultivation to remove excess bacteria. Out of several concentrations, 400 mg/l resulted in higher transformation frequency (26%). Highest transformation frequency of 21 % was achieved when co-cultivation period was extended to four days. Selection of transformants was achieved with various levels of hygromycine as selective antibiotic. The hygromycine concentration of 50 mg/l resulted in higher transformation frequency of 20%. The transgenic shoots were then confirmed through PCR and RT-PCR analysis. It was anticipated that constitutive expression of the OVP2 gene might accelerate the function of the vacuole localized sucrose antiporters resulting higher sucrose accumulation in the vacuole. No significant differences were found for soluble sugar contents between the non-transgenic control and the transgenic lines except T5 line that showed high sucrose content than that of the control. Transgenic and control plants were subjected to salt stress (NaCl) at concentrations of 0 mM and 100 mM. Some of the transgenic lines exhibited high chlorophyll and proline contents than that of the control plants at 100 mM stress. These results showed that expression of the OVP2 gene improved total soluble sugar content and salt tolerance in transgenic lines

813-821 Download
6

Screening of  seedlings of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars for tolerance to PEG-induced drought stress


Afef Othmani, Sourour Ayed, Zoubeir Chamekh, Olfa Slama-Ayed, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, Mounir Rezgui, Hajer Slim-Amara and Mongi Ben Younes

Screening of  seedlings of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars for tolerance to PEG-induced drought stress


ABSTRACT:

The effect of drought stress on 11 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars was determined at the germination stage. Cultivars were screened for drought tolerance. Six levels of osmotic stress (0, -0.47, -1.48, -3.02, -5.11 and -7.73 bars) were assessed by applying different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG-8000). There were significant differences between treatments for all seedling characteristics (p<0.05, p<0.001), except mean daily germination (MDG). All seedling traits also differed significantly (p<0.001) among all cultivars. In general, osmotic stress decreased seed germination percentage, germination rate (GR), coleoptile length (CL), shoot length (SL), root length (RL), root/shoot (R/S) length ratio, and root number (RN). Averaged over all osmotic stress levels, Mahmoudi had high MDG (0.55), GR (1.88), CL (4.20 cm), SL (10.45 cm), and RL (9.93 cm), suggesting that this variety was highly tolerant to drought stress. There were high correlation coefficients between different characteristics: SL had a positive and significant (p<0.01) correlation with CL (r = 0.83), RL (r = 0.74), and R/S length ratio (r = 0.67). This study showed that, based on morphological traits, preliminary screening at an early stage for drought stress using PEG-8000 may facilitate the choice of an adequate cultivar for growth under water stressed conditions.

823-832 Download
7

Effects of drought stress on the growth, physiology and secondary metabolite production in Pinellia ternata Thunb.


Yuhang Chen, Yun Chen, Qiaosheng Guo, Guosheng Zhu, Changlin Wang and Zuoyi Liu

Effects of drought stress on the growth, physiology and secondary metabolite production in Pinellia ternata Thunb.


ABSTRACT:

Pinellia ternata grown under four water regimes in a greenhouse. The morphology traits and photosynthetic pigment content were highest in P. ternata plants grown under the well-watered treatment. The antioxidant activities and malondialdehyde content were significantly greater in P. ternata under drought condition. The soluble protein content of P. ternata was significantly higher under moderate drought stress, but the soluble sugar content of P. ternata was significantly lower under severe and moderate drought stress. Additionally, the total alkaloid content of P. ternata showed the highest increase under severe drought stress, but the guanosine and succinic acid contents of P. ternata were significantly lower under drought stress. The maximum yield of total alkaloid, guanosine and succinic acid of P. ternata were obtained under the well-watered regime. The results suggest that a well-watered condition can contribute to the yield of tuber and secondary metabolites production in P. ternata.

833-840 Download
8

The relationship of synonymous codon usage bias analyses of stress resistant and reference genes in significant species of plants


Syed Qasim Shah, Nayab Khan, Syed Umair Ahmad, Zohaib Bashir and Tariq Mahmood

The relationship of synonymous codon usage bias analyses of stress resistant and reference genes in significant species of plants


ABSTRACT:

The Synonymous Codon Usage Bias (SCUB) corresponds to the difference in the expression level of a gene that interrupts the quantity of proteins and varies the expression level of a protein. Stress associated with dehydration, cold, heat, salt, heavy metals, oxidative and drought also lessen the yield of significant plants. This research is centered upon the CUB and RNA structures (RS) analyses of abiotic stress resistant and reference genetic material in significant species of dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana, Populous trichocarpa) and monocot (Oryza sativa and Triticum aestivum) plants. Precisely, 11 stress resistant and 3 reference genes were subjected to SCUB and RS analysis. SCUB analysis revealed that O. sativa presented 82%, P. trichocarpa 91% and T. aestivum with about 55% similarity with A. thaliana in the utilization of synonymous codons for abiotic stress resistant genes. The Reference genes for O. sativa and P. trichocarpa each manifest 100% similarities with A. thaliana except for the T. aestivum that exhibit 67% similarities in the usage of codons. Mfold algorithms were implemented for the prediction of RNA Secondary Structures (RSS) of abiotic stress resistant and Reference genes, the Dicot species expressed a significant difference in the MFE with the Monocot species; however, there were no significant difference in the number of stems and loops. The Reference genes indicated a random behavior for MFE, number of stems and loops. Most preferred codons were calculated for stress resistant and Reference genes via gene infinity software. SCUB and RSS results will be supportive to encounter numerous stress resistant crops across codon optimization

841-846 Download
9

Effects of herbicide drift on  chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme levels of various types of fruit trees


Qiuli Li, Zhifeng Wei, Dengtao Gao, Peng Si, Huili Yu and Junwei Liu

Effects of herbicide drift on  chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme levels of various types of fruit trees


ABSTRACT:

We studied the effects of glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium (GLA) herbicides on the photosynthetic and antioxidant enzyme capacities in the leaves of various non-target fruit species that are sometimes subjected to herbicide drift. Glyphosate is a slow-acting systemic herbicide and GLA a new, nonselective contact (non-conducting) herbicide. Glyphosate and GLA were sprayed (at the recommended doses) onto 1-year-old saplings of ‘Fuji’ apple (Malus pumila Mill.), ‘Chunmi’ peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch), and ‘Summer Black’ grape (Vitis vinifera L. ´ Vitis labrusca L.) growing in the Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Glyphosate and GLA triggered distinct injuries at different times, and greatly reduced the Soil-Plant Analyses Development (SPAD) readings of apple, peach, and grape leaves. Both herbicides reduced photosystem II efficiencies under light conditions, increased non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and increased the levels of malondialdehyde and antioxidant enzyme levels. The chlorophyll fluorescence transients differed greatly between sprayed fruit trees and control. GLA reduced the performance indices (the PIABS values) of apple, peach, and grape leaves by 14.89%, 15.53%, and 18.05%, respectively; the glyphosate-induced reductions were 68.33%, 30.41%, and 8.20%. Thus, photosystem II activity was reduced by glyphosate and GLA application in all three trees, associated with reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. All species were less susceptible to glyphosate than GLA and the apple was less susceptible than the peach and grape. However, no tree recovered from glyphosate-induced injury, whereas apple and peach (but not grape) trees recovered from GLA-induced injury.

847-857 Download
10

Relationship between photosynthetic pigments and seed yield components in soybean cultivars in a semi-arid region


Ismail Demir

Relationship between photosynthetic pigments and seed yield components in soybean cultivars in a semi-arid region


ABSTRACT:

The field experiment was conducted according to a randomized block design with three replications. Most common cultivated soybean cultivars (Arısoy, Atalkişi, Blaze, Bravo, İlksoy, Lider, Mersoy, Nova and Traksoy) in Turkey were selected as the plant materials of the study. Agronomic properties such as plant height, first pod height, number of branches, number of pods, thousand-seed weight, plant seed yield, seed yield, crude oil ratio, crude oil yield, chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids contents were determined to assess the yield performances of the soybean cultivars. The results showed that yield and yield components were significantly different among soybean cultivars. Although grown under irrigated conditions, the differences in climate factors between the years caused a significant impact on yield and yield components. Photosynthetic pigments, i.e., chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids, and consequently, seed yield was affected by stress conditions. The crude oil content of cultivars ranged from 21.45 to 26.6%, and seed yield varied between 1736.8 and 2496.24 kg ha-1. The results revealed that Atakişi and Atasoy cultivars with high photosynthetic pigment contents can be recommended to obtain high seed and oil yields under semi-arid climate condition

859-863 Download
11

Comparative metabolomics reveals the inhibition of glutamine and pyruvic acid synthesis closely related to pepper cytoplasmic male sterility


Chai Weiguo, Fang Xianping, Xiao Wenfei, Xin Ya, Liu Xinhua and Qiu Jieren

Comparative metabolomics reveals the inhibition of glutamine and pyruvic acid synthesis closely related to pepper cytoplasmic male sterility


ABSTRACT:

To investigate the mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), cytological observation and metabolomics analysis of different pollen development processes were carried out. The pollen development processes were divided into five stages. Resin semi-thin section analysis indicated an abnormality of the sterile anthers started at the tetrad stage (S2); the cell of the tapetal layer was over-vacuolated. The tapetal began to degrade and lose its function. The tetrad could not get essential energy and materials which resulted in pollen abortion. Anthers of S2, and uninucleate pollen stage (S3), were selected and analyzed by non-target metabolomics. A total of 454 metabolites in S2 and S3 stages of maintainer line were detected, and 201 were annotated. For the CMS line, 459 metabolites in two stages were detected and 211 were annotated. Alanine, arginine, serine, and tryptophan were found in the two stages of maintainer line. A marked decrease of glutamine and pyruvic acid during the pollen abortion process were especially found in the pepper CMS line. The decrease of pyruvate concentration further leads to the abnormal synthesis of various kinds of amino acids and ATP which may ultimately contribute to the phenotype of the CMS line.

865-871 Download
12

Response of leaf characteristics of BT cotton plants to ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium


Irshad Ahmad, Guisheng Zhou, Guanglong Zhu, Zahoor Ahmad, Xudong Song, Ge Hao, Yousaf Jamal and Muhi Eldeen Hussein Ibrahim

Response of leaf characteristics of BT cotton plants to ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium


ABSTRACT:

Application of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) is an important practice for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production and is a useful tool to enhance cotton plant growth and physiological activities, especially during boll setting and boll development. This study investigated the effects of the ratio of N, P, and K on physiological parameters of leaves during boll development using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton cultivars Siza 1 and Sikang 1. As compared with the treatment without P and K application, combined application of N, P and K significantly increased chlorophyll a content by 5.7% and 14.6%, chlorophyll b content by 22.6% and 3.8%, carotenoids content by 14.7% and 9.9%, soluble proteins by 0.6% and 17.5% as well as soluble sugar by 16.8% and 7.9% in the two growing seasons. Similarly, catalase was enhanced by 10.0% and 14.6%, peroxidase by 45.5% and 47.5%, superoxide dismutase contents by 4.9% and 42.2%, and seed cotton yield by 29.2% and 18.7%, respectively. Our study indicated that combined application of N, P, and K at appropriate ratios enhanced the activity of physiological parameters and yield and the ratio of 1:0.6:0.9 considerably performed best for Sikang 1 cultivar amongst all treatments.

873-881 Download
13

Pruning effects on sap flow and sugar phloem unloading in current-year shoots of different aged grapevine shoots


Xianhua Zhao, Liyuan Liu, Hua Li and Cuixia Li

Pruning effects on sap flow and sugar phloem unloading in current-year shoots of different aged grapevine shoots


ABSTRACT:

The study aimed at providing an efficient and sustainable pruning technique and theory for high quality and stable yield in grape production, sap flow rate in current-year shoots on different aged grapevines, photosynthetic rate of leaves, pruning-induced tylose development in vessel, and the sugar phloem unloading in grape berries. It was found that the sap flow rate changed rapidly with the increase of the water transport distance and changed dramatically with the increasing age of the shoots. The photosynthetic rate and the sugar phloem unloading trend in all treatments were basically remained the same. As the distance of water transportation increased, the sugar phloem unloading in grape berries on the older shoots was significantly lower than that on the younger ones. Tyloses were found in the vessel after pruning, and the vessel partly or completely blocked by tyloses at the wound would continue to increase over time. The results showed that the changes of sap flow rate, photosynthetic rate and sugar phloem unloading were not simultaneous. With the extension of the perennial part, the resistance of water transport became greater; the amount of sugar phloem unloading in berries also decreased with the extension of the perennial part. The study proposed the number of cuts and the length of perennial parts should be minimized without affecting the quality, stability, and sustainability of grape production.

883-891 Download
14

Interaction of ACC deaminase and antioxidant enzymes to induce drought tolerance in Enterobacter cloacae 2WC2 inoculated maize genotypes


Saman Maqbool, Amna, Ammarah Maqbool, Shehzad Mehmood, Muhammad Suhaib, Tariq Sultan, Muhammad Farooq Hussain Munis, Shafiq-Ur-Rehman and Hassan Javed Chaudhary

Interaction of ACC deaminase and antioxidant enzymes to induce drought tolerance in Enterobacter cloacae 2WC2 inoculated maize genotypes


ABSTRACT:

Beneficial endophytic bacteria are well known for plant growth enhancement, induced plant defense responses and antioxidant activities that confer resistance against various biotic and abiotic stresses by utilization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. A plant growth promoting endophytic (PGPE) bacteria Enterobacter cloacae 2WC2 strain was investigated for its role in drought stress amelioration and plant growth promotion via ACC deaminase activity and enhanced levels of antioxidant enzymes in stressed plants. Invitro screening revealed drought tolerance of E. cloacae at various stress levels (10-40 % PEG 6000) and showed resistance against 15 different antibiotics. Furthermore, its positive results for indole acetic acid (IAA), ammonia production, catalase, and phosphate solubilization revealed its growth promoting attributes. Exopolysaccharide production and ACC deaminase activity (0.95 µM/mg protein/h exposed its potential as competing candidate in drought stressed conditions. In a pot experiment, two maize genotypes TP 30 and TPSSWD either inoculated with or without E. cloacae were grown to investigate its effectiveness under drought stress. Experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design under factorial arrangement with three water regimes 100% FC (control), 75% FC (mild stress) and 40% FC (severe stress). Drought stress significantly reduce maize growth, however inoculation with E. cloacae 2WC2 elevated the morphological variables, relative water content and antioxidant activity, at all stress levels. Results showed that maize variety TP 30 was found to be more drought tolerant as compared to variety TPSSWD. Current findings suggest inoculation of plants by ACC deaminase producing endophytic bacteria, could be harnessed as an effective approach for sustainable crop production in drought stressed conditions.

893-903 Download
15

Identification and expression analysis of the auxin response factor (ARF) gene family in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]


Ling Zheng, Ji Zhou, Li Yi And Xiaojun Zhou

Identification and expression analysis of the auxin response factor (ARF) gene family in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]


ABSTRACT:

Many ARF genes have been identified in plants, yet there remains a limitation of comprehensive analyses of this gene family in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. In this study, we identified a total of 46 S. bicolor ARF (SbARF) genes by bioinformatics methods. Then, we analyzed this gene family in terms of conserved domain, phylogenetic relationship, chromosome location, gene structure, and expression pattern. The results showed that All SbARF genes could be divided into four subfamilies (classes I–IV) according to their relationship in Arabidopsis thaliana. Each of the SbARF genes consisted of one to 13 introns, with three highly conserved regions of the ARF, B3, and auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) domains, respectively. Class III genes were mainly expressed in 10 different tissues of sorghum, indicating important roles in growth of leaves, flowers and seeds. Expression levels of some SbARF genes were significantly upregulated or downregulated in roots or shoots of sorghum under stress induced by exogenous abscisic acid or polyethylene glycol, indicating critical roles in abiotic stress responses. This study provides insight into the role of the ARF gene family in the growth, development, and stress responses of sorghum.

905-914 Download
16

Transcriptome-wide identification and functional characterization of BBX transcription factor family in Toona sinensis


Ren Liping, Zhang Jinbo, Cao Xiaohan, Wan Wenyang, Yin Dandan and Su Xiaohui

Transcriptome-wide identification and functional characterization of BBX transcription factor family in Toona sinensis


ABSTRACT:

The B-box proteins (BBXs) are a class of transcription factors that play important regulation roles in plant growth and development, and in the response to biotic and abiotic stresses as well. Currently there are few studies reporting Toona sinensis BBX transcription factors (TsBBX). In order to characterize the function of the TsBBX family, we used an array of bioinformatic tools to assess their types, nuclear localization, domains, phylogeny and advanced structures. Results showed that a total of 20 TsBBX protein sequences were identified from the Toona sinensis transcriptome database, with the number of amino acids ranging from 99 to 296 and the relative molecular mass ranging from 11293.3 to 31839.46 kD. Four TsBBX family members were identified to be stable proteins and 16 were unstable proteins; 15 family members were hydrophobic proteins and the remaining 5 family members were hydrophilic proteins. Most of the secondary structural elements of the proteins were irregular coils, followed by alpha helices and beta sheets. Subcellular localization analysis showed that 16 TsBBX proteins were predominantly distributed in the nucleus and 4 were distributed in the extracellular matrix. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 20 TsBBX proteins were classified into type IV transcription factors, indicating that they may have similar functions. The results provide clues for further functional studies of TsBBX proteins as well as genetic resources for agronomic trait improvement by molecular genetic breeding in Toona sinensis and other crops.

 

915-921 Download
17

QTL mapping for significant seed traits of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Schrad)


Benjamin Agyei Osae, Shi Liu, Sikandar Amanullah, Peng Gao, Chao Fan and Feishi Luan

QTL mapping for significant seed traits of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Schrad)


ABSTRACT:

With the ever-increasing demand of healthy vegetable oil for domestic and industrial use, there is the need to seek for alternative sources through molecular breeding to meet this demand. Recently, the Cleaved Amplified Polymorphism Sequence (CAPS) markers were emerged as a powerful source for molecular breeding experiments. Two watermelon accessions named as P1 = W1-1 (low oil percentage), P2 = PI-186490 (high oil percentage) and with their F1 and F2:3 generation was used for measuring seed oil percentage, also other seed phenotypic traits (seed length, seed thickness, seed width, thickness of seed coat, 100 seed weight). Mean of seed oil percentage (SOP) in PI-186490 (mean = 22.25%) was significantly higher than that of W1-1 (mean = 14.75%). The F2:3 seeds had seed oil percentage ranging from 9% to 32%. Means of other seed traits in P1 and P2 were: seed length (8.81 mm and 14.71 mm), seed width (5.96 mm and 10.53 mm), seed thickness (2.06 mm and 2.65 mm), thickness of seed coat (0.33 mm and 0.15 mm) 100 seed weight (4.70 g and 18.20 g). Overall, 145 CAPS markers with six restriction endonucleases (BamHI, EcoRI, HindII, HindIII, HinfI, PstI) were applied to the F2 population for molecular genotyping. The linkage map spanned a distance of 3000.19 cM covering the whole genome with an average distance of 20.01 cM. Total of 11 QTLs were detected as follows: seed length (2 QTLs), seed width (1 QTLs), seed thickness (1 QTLs), thickness of seed coat (4 QTLs), 100 seed weight (2 QTLs), seed oil percentage (1 QTLs). QTLs for Seed Length, Seed Width, Thickness of Seed Coat and 100 Seed Weight (qSL-6-1, qSW-6-1, qTSC-6-1, q100SWT-6-1) were all located on chromosome 6 within a less than 5 cM of genetic distance indicating colocalization. The data on seed oil percentage and detected QTLs presented by this study will provide very practical information for future breeding and genetic schemes in watermelon.

923-931 Download
18

Cloning and transcriptional analysis of RuBisCO hybrid promoter


Ammara Masood, Hira Mubeen, Nadia Iqbal and Aftab Bashir

Cloning and transcriptional analysis of RuBisCO hybrid promoter


ABSTRACT:

Two variants of RuBisCO promoter from zea mays were selected to generate hybrid promoter by using bioinformatics tools. Sequence analysis of both RuBisCO promoter variants revealed several critical cis regulatory elements and transcription factors binding sites within the promoter region. Various regulatory motifs related to constitutive expression were located in RuBisCO promoter fragments. Analysis of cis-regulatory regions has paved way to design synthetic promoters. Both variants were separately cloned in TA vector (pTZ57R/T) and then joined to get the complete hybrid promoter (Rub-H). Hybrid RuBisCO promoter was further cloned in expression vector pGR1. Transient GUS assay revealed that hybrid promoter exhibited endosperm specific expression in wheat. From the study it is demonstrated that hybrid promoter (Rub-H) may be used to derive constitutive expression in monocots. The present work provides an important insight in the designing of hybrid monocot promoters to improve various traits in crops without facing IPR issues. It is expected that complete understanding of the regulatory regions and transcription factors in the regulatory regions would help in designing new synthetic/ hybrid promoters for tissue specific or constitutive expression of transgenes

933-940 Download
19

Yield stability studies in indigenous and exotic maize hybrids under genotype by environment interaction


Muhammad Irfan Yousaf, Naeem Akhtar, Aamer Mumtaz, Aamar Shehzad, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Shoaib and Asrar Mehboob

Yield stability studies in indigenous and exotic maize hybrids under genotype by environment interaction


ABSTRACT:

Identification of superior maize hybrids for targeted environment is very complex due to the existence of lager genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI). This study considered G × E interaction of nine genetically diverse, indigenous and exotic maize hybrids with eleven environments of Pakistan for grain yield in two consecutive spring seasons (2017 and 2018) under randomized complete block design in split plot arrangement with two replicates. Combined analysis of variance showed that environments, genotypes and their interactive effects were significant (p<0.01) for grain yield. Average grain yield of the maize hybrids ranged from 8369 kg ha-1 for YH-5140 to 11066 kg ha-1 for FH-1046. The first two principal components (PC1 and PC2) were used to produce two-dimensional genotype + genotype × environment interaction (GGE) biplot that accounted for 62.3% and 18.69%, respectively. Results showed a crossover type of interaction between hybrids and environments, with differential performance of maize hybrids across test environments. The “which won where” GGE biplot proposed the presence of two maize mega-environments with two wining hybrids i.e., FH-1046 and YH-5482. The “mean vs. stable” biplot suggested that FH-1046 was the most productive hybrid but was less stable, whereas YH-1898 was the most stable hybrid across the test environments. The “discriminativeness vs. representativeness” biplot showed that Depalpur was the most ideal test environment while Jhang was the most discriminative location. Highly productive but less stable maize hybrids across test environments are proposed for cultivation in those test environments/locations wherever they performed outstandingly.

941-948 Download
20

Variation of leaf traits with altitude in Lonicera caerulea var. Edulis (Caprifoliaceae) from northeastern China


Zhihui Luan, Diankun Shao, Qige Qi, Qichang Zhang, Xin Gao, Jinge Luan, Mingfeng Lin and Weiqing Jiang

Variation of leaf traits with altitude in Lonicera caerulea var. Edulis (Caprifoliaceae) from northeastern China


ABSTRACT:

Leaf structure, orientation and other properties along elevation gradients in seven populations of Lonicera caerulea var. edulis in the Changbai Mountains of China were studied to evaluate the relationship between the properties of adaptability to alpine environment. Leaf architecture was isolateral at low altitude, but dorsiventral at high altitudes, whereas the leaf orientation in space changed from upright to horizontal. Raised stomata were present in Lonicera caerulea var. edulis and their density increased with increasing elevation. Leaf thickness initially increased with altitude, but then decreased. Between 600 m and 1400 m, palisade parenchyma thickness increased but then decreased above 1600 m, reaching a minimum at 1800 m, a pattern also reflected by spongy parenchyma. The palisade parenchyma thickness/spongy parenchyma thickness ratio increased with increasing altitude. By contrast, the thickness of the upper epidermis decreased with increasing altitude, whereas there was no change in the lower epidermis. There were significant differences in the ecological indicators of L. caerulea var. edulis at seven altitudes. Leaf area (LA) and leaf biomass (LB) were highest at 1800 m, whereas the specific leaf area (SLA) was the highest at 1600 m. The leaf saturated weight (SW), LB and the specific leaf weight (LMA) were lowest at 1200 m. At 600 m, LA, SLA and SW/LB were the lowest, whereas LMA was highest at 800 m. The leaf saturated water content (SWC) and SW/LB were also highest at 600 m. Therefore, there was a significant correlation between leaf and environmental factors at different altitudes, indicating that Lonicera caerulea var. edulis modifies its structure and morphology to adapt to alpine environments with a thin atmosphere, lower oxygen levels, low temperatures, heavy rainfall and strong solar radiation. 

949-957 Download
21

A study on genetic diversity of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. and few members of Convolvulaceae on the basis of RAPD and SDS-PAGE


Qumqum Noshad, Muhammad Ajaib, Aysha Kiran, Muhammad Ishtiaq, Tanveer Bashir and Muhammad Faheem Siddiqui

A study on genetic diversity of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. and few members of Convolvulaceae on the basis of RAPD and SDS-PAGE


ABSTRACT:

In the research, genetic diversitry of Cuscuta refelexa Roxb.and some slected taxa of Convolovulaceae was conducted using DNA markers and SDS-PAGE technique. Four primers were used for the amplification of genomic DNA of twelve samples of 11 species belonging to Convolvulaceae and one species of Cucutaceae. RAPD-PCR was performed by the use of four primers and in total 40 bands were produced and among these 24 bands showed polymorphism. On the basis of pair wise comparison between species, the highest number of polymorphic bands were obtained by primer 4, band size generated by these primers ranged from 200-500bp. Maximum similarity was observed between Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. and Ipomoea pes-tigridis L. with 100 similarity index at distance level of 1.375. Same plant samples were also evaluated for their total protein variability. Protein was extracted and loaded on polyacrylamide gel for electrophoresis. Observed proteins bands were ranged in size from 20 to 200 kDa. C. reflexa has only 20 and 40 kDa protein that is found in every studied member of Convolvulaceae. Maximum similarity was observed between C. reflexa and Ipomoea pes-tigridis with 100% at distance level of 0.355. A significant result of this study was the identification of close relationship among C. reflexa Roxb. and Ipomoea pes-tigridis L. confirmed by both SDS and RAPD analysis. 

959-965 Download
22

Spatial arrangements and seeding rates influence biomass productivity, nutritional value and economic viability of maize (Zea mays L.)


Asif Iqbal, Muhammad Aamir Iqbal, Mohamed F. Awad, Muhammad Nasir, Ayman El Sabagh and Muzammil H. Siddiqui

Spatial arrangements and seeding rates influence biomass productivity, nutritional value and economic viability of maize (Zea mays L.)


ABSTRACT:

Climate change and global warming have necessitated re-investigating production technology package of field crops for boosting their performance. Forage maize herbage yield, nutritional value and profitability were assessed by executing a field trial under semi-arid conditions. Agronomic yield attributes, green herbage yield, dry matter biomass, nutritional quality traits and economic turnouts were taken as response variables. The field trial was conducted using the factorial arrangement of RCBD. Different spatial arrangements (15, 30 and 45 cm) and seeding rates (80, 100 and 120 kg ha-1) were tested to determine the most productive combination. Maize planted in row spacing of 30 cm using 100 kg ha-1 seed rate remained superior by producing the maximum fresh biomass (49.82 t ha-1) and dry matter yield (13.18 t ha-1). The same treatment combination also improved the nutritional value of maize by increasing fat and ash contents while decreasing crude fiber. This treatment combination was followed by 120 kg ha-1 seed rate sown in 30 cm apart rows, while the seed rate of 80 kg ha-1 planted in 15 cm apart rows remained inferior to other treatments. In terms of economic performance, 100 kg ha-1 seed rate sown in 30 cm spaced rows remained unmatched by generating the maximum net earnings of US$ 567 with the highest benefit-cost ratio (2.39).  Thus, it is inferred that the forage potential of maize can be maximally exploited by using the seed rate of 100 kg ha-1 sown in 30 cm apart rows under semi-arid agro-climatic conditions.

967-973 Download
23

Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship among different leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) varieties in Korea


Yu-Meng Lu, Xin-Fu Bai, Shi-Lin Zheng, Yong-Chul Park, Yan-Lin Sun and Soon-Kwan Hong

Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship among different leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) varieties in Korea


ABSTRACT:

The genus Lactuca, known as vegetables or oil crops, is widely cultivated in Canada, Australia, European and Asian countries. To satisfy people’s demands of nutrition and taste on lettuces, abundant germplasm and hybrids have been bred by breeding programs or hybridized naturally. This makes variety identification of these germplasm and hybrids difficult, and baffles the following trait improvement and target selection by breeding programs. In this study, we selected 18 distinguished edible lettuce varieties, and evaluated their genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationship based on multi DNA markers to search for an effective method of variety discrimination. DNA alignment results suggested that the rRNA 5S gene was the most variable DNA marker among investigated markers, and the nrDNA ITS gene was not sensitive between Lactuca and Brassica genera. In the 5S phylogenetic tree, all materials were divided into two groups, and the grouping pattern was considered to be related with leaf color but not leaf shape. S3 and S5 had two nucleotide array deletions and one addition as comparison to other lettuces, sharing relatively nearer phylogenetic relationship compared to other lettuces. By analyzing multi DNA markers, the relations between grouping and leaf color and shape were further improved in the combined phylogenetic tree. This work could help to direct lettuce variety discrimination and target selection for breeding programs. The most informative DNA marker for lettuce variety discrimination could be applied in the variety discrimination of other plant species. 

975-979 Download
24

Biochemical and phenolic acid profiling of sunflower hybrid varieties’ seeds treated with different bio-priming agents


Nighat Zia Ud Den, Shazia Anwer Bukhari, Tehreema Iftikhar and Ghulam Mustafa

Biochemical and phenolic acid profiling of sunflower hybrid varieties’ seeds treated with different bio-priming agents


ABSTRACT:

Seed dormancy is a major factor in germination of seeds. Sunflower is the most important oil seed crop that faces a major problem in seed dormancy. Therefore, a study was conducted to find out the efficiency of biocontrol agents such as Enterobacter (FD-17), Bacillus sp. (KS-54) and Paraburkholderia phytofirmans (PsJN) on seed germination and biochemical profile of sunflower seedlings. These biocontrol agents have mineralization and solubilization mechanism of nutrients from organic and inorganic sources that reduce the chances of seed dormancy and help in germination of seeds. Growth parameters of seedlings (germination percentage, mean growth time, vigor index I, vigor II) and enzymatic parameters (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, protease activity, total soluble protein and amylase activity) were measured. It was shown that the seed variety FH620 has (100%) germination percentage, (40%) mean growth time when treated with Enterobacter (FD-17) and Paraburkholderia phytofirmans (PsJN). Similarly, biochemical profiling indicated that FH620 gave optimized results when treated with Enterobacter (FD-17) strains. Similarly, in case of protease, lipid peroxidation (MDA) contents and α-amylase, the seed variety FH620 indicated 10.33 mg/mL of protease when treated with (Bacillus sp.) KS-54, (95.52 mg/mL) MDA contents when treated with (Enterobacter) FD-17. Phenolic profile was also carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. All the experiments were performed in triplicates under optimized conditions

981-989 Download
25

A comparative study of growth and biochemical attributes of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh of Indus delta and in vitro raised plants


Abdul Majeed Mangrio, Muhammad Rafiq, Zhanwu Sheng, Nadir Ali Rind, Mai Farzana Bibi Korejo, Syed Habib Ahmed Naqvi and Sher Muhammad Mangrio

A comparative study of growth and biochemical attributes of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh of Indus delta and in vitro raised plants


ABSTRACT:

The study was conducted to optimize medium and growth conditions for micropropagation and field establishment of grey mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh using nodular stem sections as explants. Varying concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin (Kin) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were supplemented in medium to assess their effects on the development of microshoots while indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were supplemented to assess their role in root formation. All the treatments promoted shoot formation, the highest percentage of explants (86%) formed microshoots from the axillary buds with the highest number of microshoots per explant (2.4±0.1) were noted on MS medium consisting of 0.5mg/L of BAP, 1.0mg/L of Kin and 0.25mg/L IAA. In contrast 1.0mg/L IBA containing medium caused root formation in the maximum microshoots (82%) with 2.16±0.05 roots per microshoot, 27.5±0.5mm average root length. Furthermore, 65% of micropropagated A. marina plants were successfully survived for two years during 2015-17 in region II (Jamshoro). These plants showed better growth as plant height, numbers of leaves, chlorophyll contents, sugars and proteins were increased comparing with same age plants of region I. On the other hand, an increase in stem diameter, number of branches, and the amount of total phenolic contents, total flavonoids and antioxidants was found in plants of region I (Shah Bander, Indus Delta). In conclusion, micropropagated plantlets of A. marina were successfully established in geographically hot region which will support to establish mangrove plants around the banks of Indus River

991-999 Download
26

Effect of colchicine addition to culture medium on induction of androgenesis in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)


Nuray Comlekcioglu

Effect of colchicine addition to culture medium on induction of androgenesis in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)


ABSTRACT:

Anther culture generate completely homozygous line in single generation whereas 6–8 cycles of self-pollination is required to develop homozygous line through conventional breeding method.  Experiment on the anther culture in pepper was carried out to determine effect of colchicine on haploid embryo. Semi-solid and double layer culture media were studied. MS (Murashige & Skoog, 1962) medium containing 4 mg l-1 NAA(naphthalene acetic acid), 0.5 mg l-1 BAP (6-benzylaminopurine), 2 g l-1 activated charcoal, 30 g-l sucrose, 10 mg l-1 AgNO3 (silver nitrate) and 0.05 mg l-1 biotin, 0.5 mg l-1 ascorbic acid, 7 g l-1agar was used as control (M1). Semi-solid M2 was % 0.3 colchicine containing M1. The third medium (M3) was double layer. The semi-solid layer was the same of the M1 and liquid layer was % 0.3 colchicine solution. The experiment was carried out in randomized block design with 4 replications. 5 Petri dishes per repetition and 10 anthers per Petri dishes were cultured. Frequency of embryos increased by 89.5% and 36.8% for M2 and M3 medium, respectively, as compared to control (M1).The chromosome doubling of pepper haploids is necessary to restore diploid status and restore fertility. Spontaneous double haploid (SDH) ratios were 33.3% in M1 medium, 57.6% in M2 and 47.3% in M3 medium. Colchicine application significantly affects the number of embryos obtained, embryos rate, the number of regenerated plants and SDH plant numbers.

1001-1005 Download
27

Impact of integrated row spacing, fertilizer application methods and sowing dates on bioethanol production in sorghum


Toqeer Ahmed Shaikh, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari, Inayatullah Rajpar and Islamuddin Majeedano

Impact of integrated row spacing, fertilizer application methods and sowing dates on bioethanol production in sorghum


ABSTRACT:

In present times the world is facing a severe energy crisis. Therefore, alternative resources of energy have been studied to cope with this ever increasing global issue. The bioethanol from sorghum crop is a safe and environment-friendly energy resource. In this context, a series of field experiments had been conducted in two consecutive years 2016 and 2017 on bioethanol production in sorghum as influenced by row to row distance, fertilization and sowing date at the Department of Agronomy, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam. The use of bioethanol through sorghum can reduce the effects of greenhouse gases on the environment. It is also a source of renewable energy in the world. Sorghum is an excellent choice to meet future energy demands. Integrated approaches can maximize the overall benefits of farmers. The randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications was used for this study. The sowing was done with combined treatments based on three-row spacing such as 30 cm, 45 cm, and 60 cm, three fertilizer application methods (broadcasting, band application, and fertigation) and three sowing dates (18th April, 03rd May and 17th May) respectively. The statistical analysis of variance for all tested factors was significant at (p< 0.05%) probability level. The results for combined impact of these three factors on all observed traits of study showed that leaves plant-1, nodes plant-1, plant height (cm), stem girth (cm), distance between nodes plant-1 (cm), brix (oBx) and ethanol yield (L ha-1) were affected at highly significant level except tillers plant-1 that was non-significant. The maximum bioethanol yield (1725.9 L ha-1) was recovered with 45 cm rowspacing under fertilizer applied through the broadcasting method and sowing date of 17thMay. Therefore, these three combined approaches should be applied in sorghum crop for establishing a developed and improved production technology to enhance bioethanol production.

1007-1013 Download
28

Spatial distribution of invasive alien plants in Pokhara valley, Nepal


Hom Nath Pathak, Bharat Babu Shrestha, Dinesh Raj Bhuju and Daya Sagar Subedi

Spatial distribution of invasive alien plants in Pokhara valley, Nepal


ABSTRACT:

Urban areas often provide suitable microhabitats for the establishment of invasive alien plants (IAPs), which subsequently disseminate their propagules for further spread in surrounding landscape. Periodic survey of IAPs in urban areas not only brings opportunities for early detection and eradication of the invaders but also generate science-based information for the management of established IAPs. In this study, we inventoried IAPs and documented their spatial distribution in Pokhara valley, a popular tourist destination in Nepal. Using a checklist of 26 IAPs that have been reported from Nepal, we examined roadside vegetation in 201 plots (size: 5 m ´ 5 m) located at the interval of ca. 500 m in the valley. In each plot, the IAPs present were recorded along with geographic coordinates and land use type. Field data were used to calculate species richness, frequency, and prepare distribution maps of the IAPs. In Pokhara valley we recorded 20 IAPs, i.e. 77% of the total number of IAPs reported from Nepal. Four of the recorded IAPs: Chromolaena odorata, Eichhornia crassipes, Lantana camara and Mikania micrantha were among the 100 of the world’s worst invasive species. Bidens pilosa had the highest frequency (63%), followed by Ageratum houstonianum (61%) and Lantana camara (44%). Small population of Alternanthera philoxeroides, and Mesosphaerum suaveolens were spotted at a single locations and Mikania micrantha at two locations, suggesting that they were at the early stage of invasion in the valley. Richness of IAPs was the highest in shrub land, followed by agriculture fallow land, and forest. Our data revealed that the Pokhara valley has already been invaded by a large number of IAPs, with possibility of arrival of new IAPs in near future. Periodic inventory and mapping of the IAPs would be helpful in identifying new IAPs and making management decisions timely.

1015-1024 Download
29

Assessment of floristic diversity in the desert ecosystem of central Karakoram National Park (Karakoram Range) Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan


Sher Wali Khan, Qamar Abbas, Alamdar Hussain, Azher Hussain, Haibat Ali and Shaukat Ali

Assessment of floristic diversity in the desert ecosystem of central Karakoram National Park (Karakoram Range) Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The Central Karakoram National Pakistan is one of the largest National Park in Pakistan, covering an area of 10,000 km2. The park consists of 14 valleys of Karakoram Range out of which four floristically important valleys were selected for current research namely, Istak, Turmic, Haramosh and Shighar valleys. Assessment of floristic diversity provide basis for planning the suitable strategies for conservation of plant resources. The current study was conducted to understand the floristic diversity along an altitudinal gradient with elevations varying from 1200m to 4000m in cold desert area of CKNP region. Plant specimens were collected during the springs of 2001-2016 from various habitats of the selected valleys of this region. In the course of present inventory 190 taxa of Spermatophytes from 48 families were found from different habitats of study area. The largest group was Dicot with 172 species and 122 genera from 44 families. Monocots are represented by 13 species and 12 genera from 2 families followed by Gymnosperms 5 species, 2 genera from 2 families. There were 44 shrubs 9 trees 27 annuals and 110 perennials were classified according to their life forms. Out of these 190 plant species, 116 were ranked as common, 34 was very common, 7 rare 2 very rare and 31 were infrequent. It was observed that family Compositae was the largest family containing 38 species followed by Fabaceae with 19 species, Labiatae, 11 species, Poaceae 11 species, Rosaceae 8 species, Chenopodiaceae 7 species, Boraginaceae 6 species and the remaining families represents less than 5 species. In general, the vegetation was composed of perennial herbs and few shrubs which form the permanent frame work of the area. The Index of similarity for shrub and herb species between different altitudes was low which indicates remarkable degree of dissimilarity in plant species between different altitudes. The medicinally important plant species of the study area was observed under threat due to commercial exploitation by the locals which need proper management for conservation. The abundance of these commercially exploited species had declined in their abundance during the last decades.

1025-1036 Download
30

Efficient in-vitro micropropagation of an endangered marsh species Ranalisma rostratum through organogenesis of buds and stolons


Jiayao Yang, Congguang Shi, Qianqian Xiang, Dajin Wang, Hongxin Zhao and Wanli Guo

Efficient in-vitro micropropagation of an endangered marsh species Ranalisma rostratum through organogenesis of buds and stolons


ABSTRACT:

Ranalisma rostratum, a marsh plant species, is considered to be extinct in China because the wild population had not been discovered till 1930s. In 1993, R. rostratum was rediscovered in Chaling, Hunan Province, and is under people’s supervision and preservation. In this study, an efficient system was established to preserve this species through In vitro micropropogation through an orthogonal analysis (L16 (44)) with four factors (6-benzylaminopurine, BA; kinetin, KT; zeatin, ZT; and indolebutyric acid, IBA) at four levels. Four indexes (bud induction rate (BIR), shoot proliferation (SP), shoot height (SH), and shoot color (SC)) were recorded to select the optimum combinations of the hormones. The results showed that: (1) Buds are only induced from stem segments. (2) Three cytokinins (BA, KT and ZT) and appropriate IBA promote the bud occurrence and shoot growth. (3) The growth vigor is improved by ZT, but inhibited by high concentrations of BA and KT. (4) The plantlets produce stolons with novel rooted plants in MS medium without any hormone. Therefore, the optimum bud-induction, shoot recovery, and shoot-proliferation mediums are 2 mg·L-1 BA + 2 mg·L-1 KT +0.2 mg·L-1 ZT + 0.5 mg·L-1 IBA, 1 mg L1 BA + 0.4 mg L1 ZT+ 0.25 mg L1 IBA and 3 mg·L-1 BA +3 mg·L-1 KT + 0.4 mg·L-1 ZT, respectively, and the optimum root-induction and stolon proliferation medium is MS without hormone.

1037-1043 Download
31

Morpho-anatomical, histological, phytochemical and physicochemical characterization of Dicliptera bupleuroides Nees.


Shehla Akbar and Saiqa Ishtiaq

Morpho-anatomical, histological, phytochemical and physicochemical characterization of Dicliptera bupleuroides Nees.


ABSTRACT:

Dicliptera bupleuroides Nees. a medicinal herb belongs to family Acanthaceae. Morpho-anatomical, phytochemical and physicochemical characterizations of Dicliptera bupleuroides Nees were determined. The anatomy of leaf, stem, and root depicted various structures including; fibres, vessels, tracheids, oil cells, starch granules, cortical cells, cork cells, phloem, collenchyma and parenchyma tissues etc. Anatomical sections of leaf, stem and root showed the arrangement of different cells, certain tissues that will serve as diagnostic characters to standardize this plant. In conjunction with these observations palisade ratio, stomatal index, vein termination, vein inlet number of leaf were also calculated. Histochemical features were studied by using Phlorogucinol, conc. HCl, Iodine solution, Ferric chloride and Sudan III solution. These reagents were used to locate the presence of Ca+2 oxalate crystals, lignin, starch, tannins and oil globules, respectively.  In fluorescence analysis different colors were noted when powder of whole herb were exposed to ordinary and UV light. Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of whole herb exhibited the occurrence of saponins, tannins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, sterols, lipids and alkaloids. Physicochemical analysis i.e. extractive values and ash values were calculated to strengthen standardization process. These findings and estimations will help in characterization, verification and quality maintenance of Dicliptera bupleuroides Nees.

1045-1050 Download
32

A new sustainable production method for the sahlep orchid Serapias orientalis (Greuter) H. Baumann & Kunkele


Omer Caliskan, Dursun Kurt and Cuneyt Cirak

A new sustainable production method for the sahlep orchid Serapias orientalis (Greuter) H. Baumann & Kunkele


ABSTRACT:

Effective production of tuberous orchids (sahlep orchids) from Orchideceae family has not yet been achieved. For that reason, all the species of this family are placed under protection worldwide with national and international treaties. In the present study, it was aimed to describe a sustainable production method for Serapias orientalis and plants were forced to produce two tubers in the same growing season. For this purpose, 100 plants were cultivated and their fresh tubers were harvested at the beginning of flowering (first harvest). The plants whose fresh tubers were removed were re-planted, thus they completed their growing season. It was observed that the re-planted plants produced new tubers in one month period. Some of them produced more than one tubers and a total of 110 new tubers were produced (second harvest). Finally, 100+110=210 tubers were obtained from 100 plants in one growing season. Productivity of all the tubers was tested in the next growing season and positive results were observed. In conclusion, the present results indicate that Serapias orientalis has the ability of producing tubers twice in the same growing season and it is possible to cultivate this plant via the tubers sustainably. The method, described here for the first time, was termed as “dismantle and re-plant”.

1051-1056 Download
33

Identification and phylogenetic study of Arabis alpina L. from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


Widad S Al-Juhani and Kadry Ne Abdel Khalik

Identification and phylogenetic study of Arabis alpina L. from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


ABSTRACT:

The purpose of the current study was to determine the phylogenetic relationships between the Arabis alpina L. growing naturally in Afro-Alpina Mountains at south western regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and its closely related species. A case study approach was applied to DNA barcode, secondary internal transcribed spacer (ITS2), chloroplast maturase-K (matK), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL) for the identification and determination phylogenetic relationship. An analysis of barcode data was conducted using the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), pairwise genetic distances and the maximum likelihood (ML) methods. The results showed the clear superiority of the nuclear ITS2 loci and chloroplast matK gene with a 100% success rate found for DNA amplification, sequencing, and 100% species resolution. A maximum likelihood ML tree of ITS2 and matK strongly supported the presence of variations between A. alpina of Saudi Arabia and specimens of A. alpina of different geographical origins. This study represented the first inspection to A. alpina in KSA, and is useful in species identification, conservation and evolutionary studies. More studies are needed to verify if the A. Alpina of the KSA can be considered a subspecies

1057-1064 Download
34

Insights into bamboo shoot degeneration


Wanqi Zhao, Ali Chen, Jiao Xiao, Zhengchun Wu, Guangyao Yang and Fen Yu

Insights into bamboo shoot degeneration


ABSTRACT:

Bamboo shoot degeneration is a widespread phenomenon that can lead to bamboo forest loss and impaired sustainable management. However, little is known about the mechanisms of bamboo shoot degeneration. In this study, changes of morphology, anatomy and endogenous hormones were determined and analyzed at different degenerating stages of Phyllostachys edulis ‘Pachyloen’ shoot. The degeneration process was classified into different stages based on morphological changes of bamboo shoots. The stages were used as a basis for light microscopy study on the structure of the cells and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on the endogenous hormones. The observations indicated that the absence of guttation was the earliest and most remarkable feature of degenerating shoots with the cessation of height growth, followed by gradually withered sheaths and yellowed shoot bodies. A comprehensive judgement criterion was provided including morphological features and nutritional components. Anatomical analysis showed both cellular protection changes, such as cell wall relaxation and increased silica cells which might be the caused by water deficit, and senescence changes, like condensed and degraded nuclei in degenerating shoots. Furthermore, not only the contents of endogenous hormones but also ratios of growth-promoting hormones to ABA in both the whole bodies and different growing regions were remarkably different between the degenerating and normal shoot, which indicates that ABA accumulation might be induce and promote the degeneration of bamboo shoot. In addition, starch grains degradation increased, which might accelerate the degeneration of bamboo shoots. These findings reveal that bamboo shoot degeneration is a complicated process including senescence activities and stress response, which provides new insights into the mechanisms of bamboo shoot degeneration.

1065-1072 Download
35

Pollen morphology studies on some Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) species from Turkey


Okan Sezer and Ali Can Yildiz

Pollen morphology studies on some Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) species from Turkey


ABSTRACT:

In this study, palynological features of Gagea granatellii, G. villosa var. villosa, G. juliae, G. bohemica, G. peduncularis, G. taurica, G. foliosa, G. villosa var. hermonis, G. bithynica and G. dubia were investigated. Similarities and dissimilarities of the pollen grains of these taxa were compared. Scanning electron microscope and light microscope microphotograps of these 10 taxa were investigated for the first time. Pollen grains of all studied taxa were identified as prolate/subprolate and sulcate (monocolpate). Some differences in the exine ornamentation of these taxa were identified. G. granatellii, G. villosa var. villosa and G. juliae had reticulate type (Type I); in G. bohemica and G. peduncularis microreticulate-perforate (Type II); and in G. taurica, G. foliosa, G. villosa var. hermonis, G. bithynica and G. dubia microreticulte exine ornamentation were identified.

1073-1077 Download
36

Pollen vitality and germination capacity in three taxa of the genus Brassica L. (Brassicaceae)


Shaukat Ali and Anjum Perveen

Pollen vitality and germination capacity in three taxa of the genus Brassica L. (Brassicaceae)


ABSTRACT:

The present article pertains to the pollen vitality and germination capacity of 3 Brassica taxa viz. B. rapa ssp. campestris (L.) Clap, B. oleracea var. capitata L., and B. oleracea var. botrytis L. The study revealed that B. oleracea var. botrytis showed vitality for a longer period of 128 weeks at freeze-dried condition (-60 C), while the shortest period of 32 weeks was noted in B. oleracea var. capitata. In fresh form pollen of B. oleracea var. botrytis showed 72% of germination compared to 64% and 62% of B. oleracea var. capitata and B. rapa ssp. campestris respectively. In stored conditions the maximum percentage of germination (74.5%) was noted in B. rapa ssp. campestris after 4 weeks of storage compared to the lowest (10.7%) of B. oleracea var. capitata. The investigation showed that the freeze-dried condition seemed to be a better method for pollen storage contrary to the refrigerator (4˚C) and freezer (-20˚C, -30˚C).

1079-1082 Download
37

Age, structure, survivorship, and life expectancy for future in Murree forests


Afsheen Khan, S. Shahid Shaukat and Moinuddin Ahmed

Age, structure, survivorship, and life expectancy for future in Murree forests


ABSTRACT:

This study examines the survivorship patterns of trees and seedlings of four conifer species including Pinus wallichiana, P. roxburghii, Abies pindrow and Cedrus deodara in the forests of Murree hills. The construction of life tables and key-factor analysis allows us to examine the demographic parameters of the four conifer species including their growth, age structure, survival, mortality and mean expectation of further life. The age of the trees of different species ranged between 35-185, 65-125, 30-120 and 45-135 years for Pinus wallichiana, Pinus roxburghii, Cedrus deodara and Abies pindrow respectively. The survivorship curves for conifer tree species were close to Deevy type II curves. However, the slope of survivorship curves for P. wallichiana, P. roxburghii and C. deodara became somewhat steeper in the later part of the curve indicating greater rate of mortality at old age of the trees. Except for P. roxburghii, mean expectation of further life declined in the old-aged trees. Seedling/sapling density was in the order: Pinus wallichiana > Pinus roxburghii > Cedrus deodara > Abies pindrow. The key factor analysis showed that killing power (K) was highest for Pinus wallichiana and Cedrus deodara. The survivorship curves for the seedlings/saplings also showed a pattern close to Deevy type II. Besides natural mortality owing to competition and disease pressure, one of the principal causes of tree loss is illegal logging that is depicted in the form of high mortality. It is concluded that if biological interference and deforestation is not reduced up to sustainable level, it would be a serious threat to the biodiversity, ecosystem and infra structure of that area. 

1083-1089 Download
38

Dendrochronological investigation of selected conifers from Karakoram-Himalaya, northern Pakistan


Munawar Ali, Fayaz Asad, Haifeng Zhu, Moinuddin Ahmed, Shalik Ram Sigdel, Ru Huang, Shankar Sharma, Eryuan Liang, Iqtidar Hussain and Tabassum Yaseen

Dendrochronological investigation of selected conifers from Karakoram-Himalaya, northern Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Tree ring investigations at the high altitude mountains of the Karakoram-Himalaya, northern Pakistan have received limited attention concerning the climate-tree growth relationship studies. To test the climate-growth relationship, we developed four tree-ring width (TRW) standard chronologies represented by Pinus wallichiana and Picea smithiana from four sites in the Bagrot (BGR), Astore (AST), Phaphorash (PPR), and Naltar (NLT) valleys in northern Pakistan, respectively. These chronologies spanned 585, 514, 330, and 470 years, respectively. The tree growth was sensitive to spring precipitation and summer temperature, such as AST and PPR chronologies were sensitive to summer temperature. TRW chronologies of BGR and NLT were sensitive to spring precipitation and drought. Principal Component 1 (PC1) chronology was sensitive to spring temperature and showed an overall weak correlation with Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). These multi-sites based study revealed variable climate-growth response, highlighting the heterogeneity in micro-climate on a local scale.

1091-1099 Download
39

Exploiting fodder and nutritive value of Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) at different times of harvest: a potential fodder weed


Naila Farooq, Azhar Mehmood, Asif Tanveer, Muhammad Ather Nadeem, Ghulam Sarwar, Tasawer Abbas, Muhammad Mansoor Javaid and Amar Matloob

Exploiting fodder and nutritive value of Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) at different times of harvest: a potential fodder weed


ABSTRACT:

Invasive weed species dominate crop fields, forages, rangelands and pastures, thus, it is important to determine their nutritive value. Two year field study was aimed to explore nutritive value of quickly spreading invasive weed Alternanthera  philoxeroides fodder at five harvest times including 28 days after emergence (DAE), 42 DAE, 56 DAE, 70 DAE and 120 DAE. Maximum fresh and dry matter yield of single cut fodder was 22.9-27.7 and 4.8-5.1 t ha-1, respectively. The range of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), ash and fat contents in whole plant fodder except roots were 1.8-2.3%, 1.5-2.0%, 1.6-2.1%, 5.9-9.2 mg kg-1, 39.8-99.9 mg kg-1, 18.5-31.4 mg kg-1,34.4-64.5 mg kg-1, 15.1-29.8% and 2.3-3.6%, respectively. Acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and crude protein contents were ranging 13.0-17.9% and 23.3-38.9% and 10.2-14.2%, respectively. The total phenolic contents were 52-87 ug g-1. Keeping in view the nutritive quality, digestibility and fodder yield, 70 DAE was the best time of harvest. Alternanthera philoxeroides possess nutritive value comparable to that of alfalfa, sorghum and maize. In addition, potential for multi cutting, positive response to climate change, vigorous growth under stresses and all type of habitats ensure its potential as new fodder species

1101-1106 Download
40

Evaluating the allelopathic effects of sorghum aqueous extract tank-mixed with herbicide for weed management in soybean


Muhammad Ayaz Shahzad, Muhammad Naeem, Hafiz Haider Ali and Rana Muhammad Ikram

Evaluating the allelopathic effects of sorghum aqueous extract tank-mixed with herbicide for weed management in soybean


ABSTRACT:

Weeds are one of the major biotic constraints in crop production system. As an alternative approach, allelopathy can be used to develop eco-friendly weed control strategy for sustainable agriculture. The present study was planned, therefore, with the main objective to evaluate the effects of plant aqueous extract (PAE) of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) 1% and 2% especially on Avenafatua L. and Phalaris minor Retz. The experiment was conducted for consecutive two years (2017 & 2018) at Farm research area of “The Islamia University of Bahawalpur”, Pakistan. Plant aqueous extract @ 18 L ha-1 alone and in combination with reduced dose @ 75% and 50% of Pendimethalin, Metolachlor and Acetochlor and also recommended dose of all the mentioned herbicides were sprayed for weed control. A weedy check control treatment was also maintained with no application of plant aqueous extract and herbicide. Lower doses @ 75% and 50% of Pendimethalin in combination with plant aqueous extract gave statistically the same level of weed reduction and crop improvement as produced by label doses of Pendimethalin. Based upon this study, it is hereby concluded that the allelopathic plant aqueous extract of Sorghum bicolor L., in combination with 50% of the recommended dose of Pendimethalin, may act as potential and environment friendly herbicide to control weeds in soybean crop

1107-1116 Download
41

Allelopathic competitiveness of Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Parthenium hysterophorus L. on morphological and physiological growth parameters in okra


Muhammad Akbar, Zohaib Aslam, Usman Ali, Tayyaba Khalil, and Muhammad Sajjad Iqbal

Allelopathic competitiveness of Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Parthenium hysterophorus L. on morphological and physiological growth parameters in okra


ABSTRACT:

Okra is an essential vegetable world over, but in past decade, a reduction in per hectare yield was noted. Amongst various reasons for its low yield, weeds are the most important. These weeds reduce the crop growth by competing for resources and by allelopathic effects. During surveys of okra fields in Pakistan, amongst others, Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Parthenium hysterophorus L. were noted but no data till to date are available that show comparative allelopathic potential of these weeds in okra. So, in the recent investigation, experiments were executed to assess the allelopathic effects of these two weeds on okra. Soil amendment with T. portulacastrum significantly reduced the shoot length of okra up to 42%, root length up to 73%, shoot dry weight up to 84%, root dry weight up to 73% and chlorophyll a up to 48%, chlorophyll b up to 50% and carotenoid up to 19.5%. Similar inhibitory effects were observed in case of P. hysterophorus but with comparatively less intensity. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analysis of T. portulacastrum revealed the presence of compounds viz., Phytol, 11-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, 8, 11-Octadecadienoic acid, metlyl ester and Pentadecanoic acid at the highest concentrations. While in case of P. hysterophorus, following compounds were present at the highest concentrations; Phorbol, 1, 2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester, Isolongifolene-7, 8-dehydro-8a-hydroxy- and 1H-cycloprop[e]azulene, 1a, 2, 3, 4, 4a, 5, 6, 7b-octahydro-1, 1, 4, 7-tetramethyl-, [1ar (1a.alpha., -4.alpha., 4a.beta.,7b.alpha.)]-. It can be concluded that these compounds may be responsible for allelopathic effects observed during the present study. 

1117-1123 Download
42

Ectopic expression of Cu/Zn-SOD gene from Ceriops tagal enhances salinity tolerance of yeast


Yueyun Pan, Shousong Zhu, Na Song, Pengyu Hou, Xinyi Yu, Jian Zang, Xiaolei Niu, Honggang Wang and Yinhua Chen

Ectopic expression of Cu/Zn-SOD gene from Ceriops tagal enhances salinity tolerance of yeast


ABSTRACT:

Ceriops tagal is a typical non-salt secretion mangrove plant while it has a strong salt resistance. However, the mechanism of C. tagal underlying salt stress remains largely unknown. Superoxide dismutase (SODs) is the first line of defense system against active oxygen in plants. In order to investigate whether SOD involves in salt resistance in C. tagal, an antioxidant enzyme related gene (Cu/Zn-SOD) was isolated from the root of C. tagal and expressed in yeast in this study. The transgenic yeast INVSc1 could effectively express the Cu/Zn-SOD protein and improve the salt tolerance of yeast significantly. This is the first study about cloning a Cu/Zn-SOD gene from the root of C. tagal and revealing its role in salt stress resistance in yeast. 

1125-1131 Download
43

Antifungal activity of methanolic leaf extract of Carthamus oxycantha against Rhizoctonia solani


Muhammad Rafiq, Arshad Javaid and Amna Shoaib

Antifungal activity of methanolic leaf extract of Carthamus oxycantha against Rhizoctonia solani


ABSTRACT:

Potato is a globally important crop whose production is severely damaged by black scurf disease (stem cankers and tuber blemishes) caused by soil-borne fungus, Rhizoctonia solani. This study was undertaken to assess antifungal potential of Carthamus oxycantha extracts and detection of likely antifungal components by GC-MS. In laboratory bioassays, antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem, root and inflorescence of C. oxycantha was checked using a range of concentrations from 1.562 to 200 mg mL-1. The leaf extract significantly suppressed fungal growth. Methanolic leaf extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis. A total of 95 compounds were found present in this extract. Predominant compound was D-ribofuranose, 5-deoxy-5-(methylsulfinyl)-1,2,3-tris-O-(trimethylsilyl)- (13.312%) followed by benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-, methyl ester (11.888%), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (9.842%), 4-hydroxy-2,2',4',6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, trimethylsilyl ether (6.837%) and pentanedioic acid (4.926%). Besides, a number of free fatty acids and fatty acid methyl esters with known antifungal potential were also identified as minor compounds

1133-1139 Download
44

Establishment of real-time PCR for quantitatively monitoring of Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucumber (Cucumis sativus)


Dong Liu, Chunqing Pan, Lei Tao, Di Zhang, Chunlong Wang, Ziwei He and Yanju Zhang

Establishment of real-time PCR for quantitatively monitoring of Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucumber (Cucumis sativus)


ABSTRACT:

Cucumber downy mildew caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis is an important airborne disease in China and greatly threatens cucumber production. Early accurate quantitative detection is the foundation of forecasting and control. Here, we designed a pair of specific primers according to the rDNA-ITS sequence of P. cubensis in GenBank. These primers could amplify the DNA of P. cubensis isolates by conventional PCR but not the DNA of other pathogens.The sensitivity of real-time PCR was higher than that of conventional PCR.The real-time PCR detection results of infected cucumber samples were significantly positively correlated with disease indexes and inocula. In conclusion, real-time PCR assays for P. cubensis are fast, highly specific, sensitive, and reproducible. We therefore successfully established a SYBR Green I real-time PCR method for P. cubensis. This method can be used to detect P. cubensis in cucumber and help guide the prediction and control of cucumber downy mildew.

1141-1145 Download
45

Amylase production and growth pattern of two indigenously isolated Aspergilli under submerged fermentation: influence of physico-chemical parameters


Saira Yahya, Faiz Muhammad, Muhammad Sohail and Shakeel Ahmed Khan

Amylase production and growth pattern of two indigenously isolated Aspergilli under submerged fermentation: influence of physico-chemical parameters


ABSTRACT:

Amylases are the industrial enzymes that are produced on large scale using Bacillus or Aspergillus species. Keeping in view the significance of Aspergilli in fermentation industries, amylase production and growth pattern of two indigenous Aspergilli, A. tubingensis SY 1 and A. niger MS 101, was determined under submerged fermentation (SmF) conditions. Enzyme production was improved by optimizing different physico-chemical parameters. Highest amylase production was achieved at 30oC and pH 5.9. Maltose, starch and glucose were found to be good inducers of amylase in addition to nitrogen source, peptone. Amylase production and fungal growth kinetic studies under optimum conditions revealed volumetric amylase production (IU/L.h) of 271.67 and 70.62 for A. tubingensis SY 1 and A. niger MS 101, respectively. Amylase production was found to be significantly correlated with the fungal growth, protein secretion and utilization of starch by the fungi and pH changes in the medium.

1147-1155 Download
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