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Year 2023 , Volume  55, Issue 1
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1

Effect of salinity on growth and physiology of Thellungiella halophila L. ecotypes


Zahoor Ahmad Sajid

Effect of salinity on growth and physiology of Thellungiella halophila L. ecotypes


ABSTRACT:

The influence of salinity on seed germination, growth, and water relations of four Chinese [Hebei (HB), Henan (HN), Shandong (SH), or Jiangsu (JS)] and four North American [Cracker Creek (CC), Colorado (CO), Dillibrough (DB), or Yukon (YK)] ecotypes of Thellungiella halophila was investigated. The goal of this study was to identify superior or inferior ecotypes, related to the mean population, for eventual identification of the growth and physiological basis for salt tolerance in this new model species. Germination of seeds was completely diminished in all ecotypes above 200 mM NaCl.  Seedlings of CC, CO, DB and SH had higher root growth at 100 mM than other ecotypes. North American ecotypes showed less shoot dry weight% in control compared to Chinese ecotypes. Colorado showed maximum shoot and root% of control compared to all other ecotypes. Chinese ecotypes showed less increase in leaf specific weight compared to North American ecotypes. In case of relative water content and leaf succulence an increasing trend was observed up to 400 mM NaCl. North American ecotypes showed decreasing, but Chinese showed increasing trend at low salt concentration (200 mM) and decreasing at higher level of salt (600 mM). Shoot osmotic potential decreased with increasing concentration of salt from 0-300 mM but an increasing trend was observed by increasing salt concentration in the medium between root and leaves

1-8 Download
2

Amelioration of harmful effects of soil salinity on plants through silicon application: a review


Muhammad Adil, Adnan Noor Shah, Allah Nawaz Khan, Tasaddaq Younas, Muhammad Sajid Mehmood, Arshad Mahmood, Rana Muhammad Ammar Asghar and Muhammad Sheeraz Javed

Amelioration of harmful effects of soil salinity on plants through silicon application: a review


ABSTRACT:

Improved crop production in salt-affected regions is necessary to counter growing demands for food. Salt stress initiate osmotic and oxidative stress, and specific ion toxicity leading to nutritional imbalance and altered gas exchange characteristics in plants. It is broadly stated that silicon (Si) is the 2nd rich element present in soil used previously to mitigate salt stress. Here we reviewed the salt uptake mechanisms by roots and its integration with different physiological and metabolic processes. The primary focus is to explain mechanisms by which Si uptake in plants contributes to the salt stress amelioration. Numerous studies suggested that Si is effective in improving plant growth and biomass, seed germination, photosynthetic pigment, antioxidant enzymes activity, relative water content and reducing ion toxicity and oxidative damage under salt stress. However, it is a prerequisite to determine Si-mediated salinity tolerance mechanisms under different edaphic and climatic conditions with varying specie types and field practices systems which are considered here in detail.

9-18 Download
3

Salt tolerance in maize with melatonin priming to achieve sustainability in yield on salt affected soils


Syed Saqlain Hussain, Muhammad Rasheed, Muhammad Hamzah Saleem, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmed, Aqsa Hafeez, Ghulam Jilani, Saad Alamri, Mohamed Hashem and Shafaqat Ali

Salt tolerance in maize with melatonin priming to achieve sustainability in yield on salt affected soils


ABSTRACT:

Salt stress has a significant impact on agricultural output, affecting seed germination and seedling growth. The uncontrolled production of oxidative species (ROS) induces a range of biochemical, physiological, and metabolic changes, resulting in reduced crop yields. Under such circumstances, seed priming may be a feasible and practicable approach for achieving rapid, uniform emergence, vigorous seedlings, and higher crop yields. The present study was therefore executed to explore efficacious effects of various seed priming agents, such as hydro-priming (HP), CaCl2 @ 2% (CaP), and melatonin @ 1000 M (MP) to cope with salt stress in salt-affected fields. A non-priming control treatment (WP) was also included in the trial to allow for a fair comparison of the treatments. Three promising maize genotypes, SB-9617 (V1), YH-1898 (V2), and NCEV-1530-9, were investigated with these priming treatments (V3). The study results depicted that all seed priming methods significantly attenuated the adverse effects of salt stress. However, seed priming with melatonin (MP), on the other hand, improved development and adaptability in maize seedlings under salt stress conditions. In our findings, melatonin priming (MP) significantly produced the higher total soluble sugar (34.6%), total phenolics contents (61.1%), proline contents (45.1 %), and total soluble protein contents (34.8 %), combined with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity viz., SOD (32.5%), POD (18.2%) and  CAT (17.1%) than un-primed (WP). The improved organic osmolytes coupled with activated enzymatic defense system in melatonin priming (MP) caused a significant reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (35.1%), H2O2 concentration (31.3%) and electrolyte leakage (16.9%) via improving the ROS scavenging activity (15.6%), membrane stability (22.7%) and relative water contents (29.3%) relative to un-primed treatment (WP). The melatonin primed plants also exhibited the highest crop growth and leaf area indices without causing substantial damage to the chlorophyll contents, resulting in increased radiation interception (PAR) and its usage efficiency with improved yield. Interestingly, SB- 9617 (V2) was proved the outperforming maize genotype in maintaining better crop growth and yield with improved physiological and biochemical characters under salt-affected field conditions. The current findings may serve as a chunk of scientific information for the researchers to disclose further the unexplored aspects of salt tolerance mechanism in maize crop to achieve sustainability in crop yield in salt-affected soils

19-35 Download
4

Salicylic acid alleviates salt stress in soybean by improving anti-oxidant capacity and growth performance


Xueqing Jia and Zihong Jiang

Salicylic acid alleviates salt stress in soybean by improving anti-oxidant capacity and growth performance


ABSTRACT:

The paper investigated the effects of salicylic acid (SA, 0, 0.5, and 0.75 mM) on soybean (Glycine max) development, antioxidant enzyme activity, and biochemical characteristics under salt stress. The results showed that, salinity exposure (0, 25, 75, and 125 mM NaCl) inhibited soybean growth by lowering the fresh weight of the shoot and root, inhibiting leaf development, and triggering necrosis on old leaves. With 125 mM NaCl level, lipid peroxidation or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production rose by 3.37 and 2.54, respectively, whereas membrane stability decreased, which was alleviated by the addition of SA. Compared with the control, SA (0.5 mM) considerably boosted growth. Salinity (125 mM NaCl) stress increased proline accumulation by 4.63 times, carbohydrates by 39.61 percent, free amino acids via 9.44 percent, and protein content via 7.91 percent, all of which were further promoted by SA, indicating a greater stress adaption. Application of SA increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes including SOD, CAT, and APX by 1.76, 2.25, and 2.22 times, respectively, resulting in improved reactive oxygen species removal and protection from oxidative stress. Furthermore, excessive Na+ uptake in salinity-stressed plants inhibited K+ absorption and triggered leaf necrosis, while application of SA significantly reduced the damage. These results suggested salt stress has a negative impact on soybean growth and development and supplementing with a suitable dose of SA alleviated the detrimental effects by modulating osmolyte levels, antioxidant enzyme activity, and critical element intake

37-44 Download
5

Assessment of yield, agronomic traits and nutritive value of sorghum varieties grown on highly saline-alkali soil


Shichao Wang, Tonggang Fu, Hui Gao, Lipu Han, Shicun Ni, Hongzhu Liang and Jintong Liu

Assessment of yield, agronomic traits and nutritive value of sorghum varieties grown on highly saline-alkali soil


ABSTRACT:

Soil salinity is a crucial abiotic stress severely affecting crops production worldwide. Dual-purpose sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a major source of livestock feed and has great potential for phytoremediation of saline soils. Eight sorghum varieties (N5D61, A60, 4264, 2562, GT2012, F438, 2168 and F968) were evaluated based on their agronomic traits and forage nutritive values as a phytoremediation strategy in a highly saline-alkali soil of the Hetao Irrigation District. Yield, biomass, plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, leaf area as well as crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) contents varied significantly among varieties at different growth stages. The grain yield of A60 (2.16 Mg ha-1) was higher (p<0.05) than that of 4262, 2562, F438, 2168, and F968. The maximum plant biomass was observed in F968 (15.3 Mg ha-1) and 2562 (14.9 Mg ha-1) varieties compared with other seven varieties at heading and harvest stages, respectively. The CP contents of A60 (6.51%) and N5D61 (4.07%) were higher than other varieties (2.51-3.63%) at the heading stage. The accumulation levels of CP (3.59%) at the heading stage were higher than that (3.25%) at harvest. The variety N5D61 had higher NDF (68.53%) and ADF (37.76%) contents at heading, whereas, at harvest, the response of A60 (NDF, 63.53%; ADF, 35.18%) was best, compared to other varieties. The highest relative forage value (RFV) was observed for Guotian2012 (118.4 and 126.6 at heading and harvest). Ultimately, the production of salt-tolerant crops, such as sorghum, is possible with the use of subsurface pipes in the Hetao Irrigation District.

 

45-53 Download
6

Growth, biomass partitioning and chlorophyll fluorescence response to drought stress: a comparative study of Commelina communis L. biotypes


Muhammad Haroon, Fazli Wahid, Muhammad Ilyas, Mukhtar Alam, Hidayat Ullah, Rafi Ullah, Beena Saeed, Mian Ahmad Raza, Masaud Khan and Li Xiangju

Growth, biomass partitioning and chlorophyll fluorescence response to drought stress: a comparative study of Commelina communis L. biotypes


ABSTRACT:

Plants continuously adjust to their surroundings to organize the growth and photosynthesis activity in response to environmental fluctuations. The growth and photosynthesis response is mostly achieved by linking multiple environmental signals. Drought stress is one of the environmental setbacks which negatively affects growth and physiological processes of plants. In this study drought stress was applied to C. communis biotypes to provide the basic information and to detect the efficiency of photosystem II. Three different biotypes of C. communis (JL-1-1, LN-8 and HB-9-1) were used and compared each other in this study. These biotypes were treated with 100% field capacity (control) and 60% field capacity followed by 10 days drought stress condition. Under drought stress, plant growth, biomass partitioning and chlorophyll fluorescence were significantly decreased in all three biotypes as compared to control. In conclusion C. communis biotypes JL-1-1 under drought stress showed a healthy status having a superior photosynthetic capacity than LN-8 and HB-9-1. This study revealed the survival and competitiveness mechanism of C. communis biotypes under drought stress conditions and may serve as a theoretical basis to protect C. communis populations

55-62 Download
7

Estimation of genetic diversity among Linum usitatissimum L. germplasm through molecular markers


Asma Hameed, Rizwan Taj Khan, Syed Rizwan Abbas and Sania Begum

Estimation of genetic diversity among Linum usitatissimum L. germplasm through molecular markers


ABSTRACT:

The present study was undertaken to evaluate heritable diversity of 42 linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.,) germplasm, 30 from the Pakistan and 12 from the USA through molecular techniques. The research was performed at the National Institute of Genomics and Biotechnology (NIGAB), NARC Islamabad Pakistan. For this purpose, twenty molecular markers (13 ISSR and 7, SSR) has been chosen for the assessment of diversity amongst forty two linseed genotypes through DNA-PCR based technique. DNA extraction was carried out by using the CTAB method. Out of twenty molecular markers (13 ISSR and 7 SSR), sixteen markers were found to be reproducible while four markers (2 of ISSR and SSR each) were not reproducible. Molecular data was demonstrated by dendrograms generated through UPGMA method based on bivariate data matrix. Highly branched clusters based on genetic associations among genotypes were presented by ISSR markers as compared to SSR markers.  The 100 to 400 bp fragments were amplified by the SSR markers profiling while 100-1100bp in ISSR profiling. The most significant and diverse genotypes found through SSR markers were 021750, 021570, 021245, 021425 and 021310 while only 1 most diverse genotype 021570 was found through ISSR markers. Hence the genotypes 020885, 020890 and 020870 are recommended for their further used in breeding programs while mapped markers should be used for gene sequencing of genotype 021570.

 

63-71 Download
8

Exogenous application of phytohormones modulates the antioxidant enzyme system  to induce terminal heat stress tolerance in chickpea


Azra Yasmeen, Hafiz Muhammad Muzamil, Saima Anjum and Aqeela Shaheen

Exogenous application of phytohormones modulates the antioxidant enzyme system  to induce terminal heat stress tolerance in chickpea


ABSTRACT:

Heat stress has been considered as vital ecological feature to affect the plant growth and productivity. Rising temperature due to global warming resulting in heat stress that restricting the plant growth and potential productivity throughout the world. Therefore, a field experiment was carried out at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan to minimize the heat stress induced-losses in chickpea plants with the foliar spray of phytohormones during two consecutive years 2017-18 and 2018-19. Experimental treatments comprising of two chickpea cultivars (DHUST and Bhakkar, 2011) were cultivated on two different sowing dates (15th November and 1st December) and foliar spray of phytohormones (Benzyl-amino purine (BAP) and Moringa leaf extract (MLE30)) including tap water as a control. Results suggested that heat stress severely reduced the chickpea growth and productivity. However, exogenous application of MLE had a tremendous effect on the studied attributes. Exogenous application of MLE improved the growth and yield contributing attributes, which ultimately increased the final productivity. Moreover, foliar spray of MLE significantly modulated superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase enzymatic activities and minimized the adverse impacts of heat stress on yield contributing traits. Our results suggested that foliar spray of phytohormones particularly MLE modulated the heat stress induced losses to chickpea cultivar Bhakkar 2011 by improving their antioxidant defense mechanism and enhanced the productivity

73-78 Download
9

Association of the effects of elevated temperature and CO2 on plant growth and leaf photosynthesis  with changes in stomatal traits, leaf anatomy, and foliar carbohydrates in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)


Zhijie Chang, Lihua Hao, Yi Han, Xiaodong Fan, Yunxin Zhang, Yinshuai Tian, Liang Liu, Wenna Chen, Zhipeng Wang, Wei Shi, Jiawei Yin, Yuanyuan Liu and Yunpu Zheng

Association of the effects of elevated temperature and CO2 on plant growth and leaf photosynthesis  with changes in stomatal traits, leaf anatomy, and foliar carbohydrates in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)


ABSTRACT:

We examined the effects of elevated CO2 concentration (e[CO2]), experimental warming (warming) and the two combined environmental factors (e[CO2] × warming) on plant biomass, stomatal characteristics, gas exchange, leaf anatomy, as well as the Rubisco activity and gene express of winter wheat with environmental growth chambers, where the temperature was set at 21/16°C (day/night) or 26/21°C and the [CO2] was controlled at 400 µmol mol−1 or 800 µmol mol−1, respectively. We found that the plant biomass and leaf photosynthesis were dramatically decreased by e[CO2] × warming (all p<0.05), although elevated temperature and [CO2] were not significantly altered biomass accumulation and leaf photosynthesis (all p>0.05). This down-regulated net photosynthetic rates (Pn) at e[CO2] × warming partially attributed to the limited effect of CO2 diffusion processes relating to the declined regularity of stomata distribution, as evidenced by the decrease of stomatal conductance (Gs) at e[CO2] × warming. Additionally, accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates in leaves of winter wheat can also contribute to the declines of plant biomass and Pn at e[CO2] × warming. These results indicate that the fertilization effect from CO2 enrichment can be lowered by experimental warming, and thus the potential risks of global change on the net primary productivity of agricultural ecosystems may be underestimated by current process-based ecological models.

 

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10

Growth, photosynthetic and biochemical responses of Rhododendron delavayi Franch seedlings irrigated with different pH solutions


Huie Li, Yongfeng Tang, Song Zhu and Xiuyin Luo

Growth, photosynthetic and biochemical responses of Rhododendron delavayi Franch seedlings irrigated with different pH solutions


ABSTRACT:

Rhododendron delavayi Franch, an evergreen ornamental shrub, has a special preference for acidic soils, however, the exact pH value of the matrix suitable for R. delavayi growth is still unknown. In this study, three-year-old R. delavayi seedlings were irrigated with different pH solutions (4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, and groundwater) to observe their growth, photosynthetic, and biochemical responses. Results showed that R. delavayi seedlings maintained well-growth and leaf development under pH 5.5 solution irrigation, without a remarkable difference in the branch numbers per plant. Meanwhile, the maximum values of the chlorophyll content, photosynthesis ability, and antioxidant enzyme activities were observed. Redundancy analysis indicated that the higher net photosynthesis rate and total chlorophyll content of R. delavayi seedlings were contributed to the rapid growth and improvement resistance of individuals. Our study suggested that the irrigation under pH 5.5 solution was the optimal treatment for the cultivation of R. delavayi seedling. The study provides a reliable scientific basis for exploring efficient cultivation and adaptation of R. delavayi seedlings under different pH matrixes

91-98 Download
11

Physicochemical characteristics, microelements and bacterial population density in the soils of Wadi Al-Adairey, Hail, Saudi Arabia


Abdel Moneim Elhadi Sulieman, Adullah Suliman Alshammai, Naimah Asid Alanazy, Nawaf Ibrahim Alshmmari, Meshary Alazmi, Gamal Albadri, Waleed Sabri and Nabil Hamid Beshir

Physicochemical characteristics, microelements and bacterial population density in the soils of Wadi Al-Adairey, Hail, Saudi Arabia


ABSTRACT:

The present study determined the physicochemical characteristics, minerals, and coliform bacteria in the soil samples of Wadi Al-Adairey, Hail region. Sandy texture (90 %) dominated the soil samples containing a very low concentration of microelements. The concentrations of copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were noted to be 0.5, 0.37, 0.24, 0.24, 0.71, 0.008 mg/L, respectively. The microbiological analysis revealed the absence of coliform bacteria in most of the soil samples except the samples from section (5) at a site depth of 25-55 cm. These samples contained high numbers of coliforms (9.3X102), faecal coliforms (4.3X102), and E.coli (5.5x102), which respectively decreased to 4.6x102, 2.3x102, and 3.2x102.

99-106 Download
12

Development and validation of gene-specific dCAPS markers for a temperature-sensitive male sterile gene TMS5 in rice


Xue Zhang, Wenjing Zheng, Zhongxu Zhang, Zhonghua Sheng, Jiezheng Ying and Guomin Sui

Development and validation of gene-specific dCAPS markers for a temperature-sensitive male sterile gene TMS5 in rice


ABSTRACT:

With the popularization of two-line hybrid rice, the corresponding two-line rice lines have been studied extensively. Two pairs of derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPS) markers were designed for the single-base mutation (C/A) of thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) rice gene tms5 in this study to quickly and effectively breed thermosensitive genic male sterile lines, and 48 indica and japonica rice accessions and one F2 population were used to validate the accuracy of two markers. The results showed that two dCAPS markers could accurately detect the tms5 gene. The polymerase chain reaction products that could be digested by restriction enzymes corresponded to normal fertile materials, whereas those that could not be digested were related to high-temperature sterile lines. The two dCAPS markers developed in this study can be used to determine whether the rice material is thermo-sensitive sterile and to breed TGMS lines and identify the purity of two-line hybrid rice seeds in marker-assisted selection

107-111 Download
13

Genome-wide study and expression analysis of Nodule-inception-like protein (NLP) gene family in Physcomitrella patens reveal its role in nitrogen response


Sami Ullah Jan, Maha Rehman, Tahmina Nazish, Sohail Ahmad Jan, Ayesha Liaqat, Mahmoud Moustafa, Alvina Gul, Noor Ul Huda, Syeda Marriam Bakhtiyar, Sarah Gul, Farees Ud Din Mufti and Muhammad Jamil

Genome-wide study and expression analysis of Nodule-inception-like protein (NLP) gene family in Physcomitrella patens reveal its role in nitrogen response


ABSTRACT:

NODULE-INCEPTION-LIKE Proteins (NLPs) are plant specific transcription factors that play a significant role in orchestrating nitrogen response. NLPs have been widely studied in vascular plants but they are not explicitly reported in non-vascular bryophytes till date. In the current study, in silico tools were employed for identification and characterization of NLPs in model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. Furthermore, the expression profiles of PpNLPs were assessed under variable supply of nitrogen. A total of 6 Physcomitrella patens NLP genes (PpNLPs) were identified that shared resemblance in their physical and chemical attributes with Arabidopsis thaliana NLPs (AtNLPs). PpNLP genes possessed resemblances in their iso-electric point and hydropathicity values with those of AtNLPs while gene lengths, protein lengths, and molecular weights were found higher in PpNLPs. The online tools suggested that all PpNLPs, except PpNLP6, yield acidic hydrophilic proteins localized in the nucleus and share a significant degree of homology in their gene structures and protein motifs with AtNLPs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PpNLPs possess significant evolutionary linkage with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Zea mays. Protein-protein interaction analysis suggested that PpNLPs possess substantial coordination with nitrogen responsive genes like nitrate reductase. Expressions of all PpNLPs were up-regulated in the availability of nitrogen (5 and 10 mM) while no significant increment was observed in the absence (0 mM) of nitrogen. The expression levels increased with increasing time treatment of 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Results proposed that NLPs are responsive to as well as significantly regulated by nitrogen supply.

 

113-128 Download
14

Fingerprint characteristics and expression variability of miRNA based markers in wheat varieties with different susceptibility to drought


Katarina Razna, Angela Vargaova, Matus Kysel, Zdenka Galova and Jana Ziarovska

Fingerprint characteristics and expression variability of miRNA based markers in wheat varieties with different susceptibility to drought


ABSTRACT:

Drought susceptible (Aladin, Dagmar) and drought tolerant (Seladon, Venturero) varieties of summer wheat were examined in experiment. Genotypes were tested under In vitro conditions on Murashige-Skoog culture medium with different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 %) of polyethylene glycol to induce dehydration stress conditions. Genomic response of seedlings was tested by stress-sensitive miRNA markers, tae-miR156, tae-miR408 and tae-miR827. In general, the fingerprints generate activity of tae-miR156 was higher in resistant genotypes in comparison to susceptible ones and lower in tae-miR408. The genome response to induced dehydration stress was genotype-specific, what has been statistically proven. The phosphate-induced tae-miR827 marker activity was balanced, since the optimal nutritional composition of the medium, create appropriate conditions to cope with the stress factor. The expression levels of analysed miRNA correspond to the differences in obtained fingerprints what confirmed the DNA based analysis of miRNAs markers as a very good screening tool for their analysis in plat genomes

129-134 Download
15

Evaluation of the role of different types of cytokinins as  zeatin replacement in in vitro proliferation of Vaccinium dunalianum


Dakuan Sun, Mengting Wang, Ping Zhao, Yong Ding, Biyou Huang and Junrong Tang

Evaluation of the role of different types of cytokinins as  zeatin replacement in in vitro proliferation of Vaccinium dunalianum


ABSTRACT:

In plant tissue culture, cytokinin is an important limiting factor for rapid proliferation, but the effects of different types of phytokinins on the proliferation of different plants vary. Isoprenoid cytokinin is more valid for shoot initiation in Vaccinium species, the purpose of our research was to study whether Vaccinium dunalianum has a preference for Zeatin. V. dunalianum, which belongs to Ericaceae, is rich in caffeoylarbutin derivatives. In the early stage, the proliferation system of V. dunalianum was established using zeatin (ZT). In this study, V. dunalianum was used as experimental material to evaluate the effects of substituting kinetin (Kin), 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), or thidiazuron (TDZ) for ZT in the shoot proliferation stage of V. dunalianum. The proliferation rate of V. dunalianum decreased when ZT was completely replaced by the other types of cytokinins. When ZT was partially replaced by Kin, 2.0 mg∙L-1 Kin and 0.5 mg∙L-1 ZT was discovered to be the optimal combination, and the effective multiplication rate was 3.40. When ZT was partially replaced by BA, 1.0 mg∙L-1 BA and 0.5 mg∙L-1 ZT was the best combination, and the effective multiplication rate was 2.26. When ZT was partially replaced by TDZ, malformed buds appeared. Of the combinations tested, 1.0 mg∙L-1 Kin, 1.0 mg∙L-1 BA, and 0.1 mg∙L-1 ZT led to the greatest shoot proliferation rate (4.32), and the growth was normal. In conclusion, ZT is preferred for shoot multiplication of V. dunalianum. When ZT was added to the medium, the propagation of V. dunalianum was easier and the growth of seedlings was better. Results could provide technical support for reducing the production cost of tissue culture seedlings of V. dunalianum and a certain reference for selection of tissue culture formulas of other Vaccinium plants

135-140 Download
16

Predicting impacts of climate change on distribution of alligator weed Alternanthera philoxeroides in China


Li Hong-Qun, Sun Xie-Ping, Zhang Yan, Xing Li-Gang and Liu Xiao-Mei

Predicting impacts of climate change on distribution of alligator weed Alternanthera philoxeroides in China


ABSTRACT:

To understand the relationship between the alligator weed’s potential distribution and environment variables, its potential distribution was analyzed by the Maxent model under the current and future environmental conditions. The results showed that model performances are highly accurate in predicating its potential distribution in model training and testing. The dominate factors were precipitation of the driest month, temperature seasonality, altitude and precipitation of the wettest month, with thresholds of 20-110 mm, 550-925, <200 m and 160-300 mm respectively, indicating that the alligator weed is suitable for the water-land interface of various freshwater ecosystems in tropical to warm temperate regions. Its suitable geographic distributions are mainly distributed on eastern, southern, central, southwestern China, and south of Shaanxi and Hebei provinces. With climate change, its suitable distributions areas will first increase and then decrease from now to the 2070s, however the total suitable area increases relative to that in the current conditions. To 2050s, the increased suitable areas are southwestern Shandong and southern Hebei provinces, southwestern Yunnan province, and Nyingchi in Tibet, while to 2070s only in the southwest of Shandong province. Therefore, the current suitable habitats should be given highly attention to prevent from its spreading to these above three increased suitable and adjacent areas (western Sichuan, southeastern Gansu, southern Shaanxi and Shanxi provinces). Taken together, these informations from this study should be a useful guide for management of the species

141-147 Download
17

Flowering phenological trends under the effect of climatic parameters of the arid Mediterranean region: the model of date palm


Afifa Hachef, Hedia Bourguiba, Wejdene Saffar, Mohamed Ben Salah, Emira Cherif and Salwa Zehdi-Azouzi

Flowering phenological trends under the effect of climatic parameters of the arid Mediterranean region: the model of date palm


ABSTRACT:

Flowering is a key event in the life cycle of plants. However, in the last Century, the timing of this major reproductive episode has been disturbed by climate change especially in the arid Mediterranean regions. Monitoring these phenological processes is interesting because it allows to quantify the extend of the ecological perturbation caused by global climate change in this area. We, therefore, investigated the flowering response of male date palms (Phœnix dactylifera L.) to climatic variation for a period of three years in order to establish a flowering calendar that allows us to address its asynchronism. The flowering phenological data were collected for the emergence and the opening of the first spathe events of 180 male genotypes from January to April of each study year. Meteorological data were analyzed at the temporal scale of observations. In this study, a great yearly variability of the reproductive phase within this collection was observed between years. The recorded flowering events revealed a striking trend of precocity for the first spathe emergence and a high stability in the spathe opening stage. Moreover, our findings demonstrated a advancement of the flowering onset and an extended emergence-opening duration. At correlation level, minimum, maximum and mean temperatures, minimum relative humidity and sunshine duration were, involved in the flowering phenological response of the Tunisian male accessions. Our results proved that the date palm flowering is not immune to the climate change effects. This investigation represents an essential phenotypic basis for upcoming flowering-linked genetic research in date palm

149-157 Download
18

Distribution pattern and ecology of Lactuca L. and its allied genera (Lactucineae – Cichorieae) in Pakistan and Kashmir


Roohi Abid and Muhammad Qaiser

Distribution pattern and ecology of Lactuca L. and its allied genera (Lactucineae – Cichorieae) in Pakistan and Kashmir


ABSTRACT:

Distribution pattern and ecological preference for habitat including altitude and soil of Lactuca L. (s. str.) and allied genera viz. Steptorrhamphus, Cephalorhynchus and Melanoseris have been studied in Pakistan and Kashmir. All the taxa belonging to these genera are mostly confined to high mountain ranges in Pakistan and Kashmir. Out of 33 taxa, two taxa belonging to Lactuca are subcosmopolitan. The seven taxa are Irano – Turanian (Central Asian) elements of which 2 belong to Lactuca and 2 to Steptorrhamphus and 3 belong to Cephalorhynchus. There are 8 Sino – Japanese elements of which one belongs to Lactuca and 7 belong to Melanoseris. However, 3 more taxa viz. M. rapunculoides, M. decipiens var. decipiens and M. decipiens var. multifida are also tentatively recognized as Sino – Japanese elements. Beside these 4 taxa are biregional, of which 3 Lactuca species are Mediterranean – Irano – Turanian elements whereas L. tatarica is an Irano- Turanian - Euro-Siberian element. There are 13 taxa which are endemic to subendemic, most of these are endemic to Pakistan (Western Himalayas and mostly known from type locality). However, M. gilgitensis seems to be confined to Karakorum Mountains and 2 species viz. M. alii and M. astorensis occur in Western Himalayas and Karakorum. It is difficult to classify these taxa into definite phytogeographical elements until more information is available

159-169 Download
19

Lack of phylogeographic pattern in populations of  Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Podocarpaceae) from mainland China and Hainan island


Yang Peng, Feng Deng, Li Liu, Can Cui, Zhen Wang, Ning Li, Yingjuan Su and Ting Wang

Lack of phylogeographic pattern in populations of  Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Podocarpaceae) from mainland China and Hainan island


ABSTRACT:

Historical climate fluctuations and geological events can affect the distribution range and demographic history of plant populations. Dacrycarpus imbricatus is a member of the Podocarpaceae family, mainly distributed in mainland China and Hainan Island in China. It thus provides a framework for unraveling the specific impact of Qiongzhou Strait on the phylogeographic pattern of the species. In this study, seven populations were sampled throughout its distribution range in China. Based on the variation of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), the trnF-L noncoding region sequence, phylogeographic pattern, population genetic structure, population history, and ecological niche model of D. imbricatus were calculated. The haplotype diversity was 0.719, and the nucleotide diversity was 1.630 × 10-3. Moreover, the results did not show a significant phylogeographic pattern between the island and the mainland populations. Qiongzhou Strait did not serve as a geographic barrier in genetic variation. The haplotype network diagram and a mismatch distribution indicated that the D. imbricatus population had experienced a population expansion event. Ecological niche modeling suggested the distribution range of D. imbricatus population has gradually expanded northward. These results might contribute to establishing ecological reserves and understanding the impact of Qiongzhou Strait on plants in coastal areas of East Asia

171-184 Download
20

Ecological and floristic study on the medicinal plants in Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia


Nadi Awad Al-Harbi

Ecological and floristic study on the medicinal plants in Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia


ABSTRACT:

Folk medicine is used in many countries. Arab countries, especially the Arabian Peninsula, are famous for using folk medicine. In local communities, traditional and folk medicine relies on plants that have medicinal properties. In Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia 61 species of medicinal plants have been listed. The number of plant species recorded in Al-Qassim region is 24, 32, 45, 27 and 35 species in the central, northern, southern, eastern and western, respectively. Some listed plants are used to treat digestive diseases, blood diseases, bone and joint diseases, eye diseases, obstetrics & gynecology, oral & dental diseases, respiratory system diseases, skin diseases or urinary system diseases. Asteraceae is the most frequent plant families. Whole plant is the most common used part of medicinal plants. While, the largest number of recorded species is perennials. Biodiversity indicators were calculated, and many soil factors were analyzed (sand, silt, clay, pH, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chlorides, sodium, calcium, magnesium content and electrical conductivity). For processing and organizing data, multivariate statistical analyzes (TWINSPAN and DCA) were used

185-197 Download
21

Flora of the Kurram valley (tribal area), Pakistan: diversity, physiognomy and conservation issues


Said Muhammad, Manzoor Hussain, Zafeer Saqib, Jan Alam, Ghulam Mujtaba Shah, Zaheer Abbas, Maroof Ali, Ghulam Qadir and Zainul Abideen

Flora of the Kurram valley (tribal area), Pakistan: diversity, physiognomy and conservation issues


ABSTRACT:

Pakistan-Afghan border is famous for diverse flora harbouring substantial endemic, medicinal and wild food plant species. The current study presents the results of floristic study conducted in the Valley of Kurram Pak-Afghan border from 2015-2018. The study documented 365 plant species belonging to 244 genera and 86 families. Asteraceae was the leading family with 40 species (10.96%), followed by Lamiaceae (31 spp., 8.49%) and Fabaceae (26 spp., 7.12%). Endemic and rare species, such as Seriphidium kurramense, Pseudomertensia anjumiae, Rhododendron collettianum, Rhododendron afghanicum, Nepeta kurramensis, Vincetoxicum cardiostephanum were sampled. Herbaceous growth form was prevailed with 237 species with 77 shrubs and 47 tree taxa. Therophytes include 114 taxa (31.23%), hemicryptophytes 67, (18.36%) and nano-phanerophytes 60 (16.44%). One hundred fifty-eight (22.47%) nanophyllous species were recorded with 82 (22.47%) leptophyll, 65 (17.29%) microphylls. Being a topographically and climatically varied valley, the study area presents a divesre flora with significant number of endemic taxa. However, it accounts for several environmental degradation activities due to burgeoning population and unsustainable utilization of plant resources such as deforestation, overgrazing. Moreover, the area remained war-affilicted continuously for two decades for local, national and international concerns causing direct habitat destruction. Therefore, current study articulates the ecological health, species diversity and conservation issues. The outcomes emphasize the tangible conservation measures for the ecological restoration of the region for national and global interest

199-212 Download
22

Distribution and morphology of some flowering plants belonging to family Chenopodiaceae


Dalia G. Gabr and Wafaa A. Al-Taisan

Distribution and morphology of some flowering plants belonging to family Chenopodiaceae


ABSTRACT:

Morphology and anatomy of vegetative parts (stem and leaves) of 8 species representing six genera of Chenopodiaceae, commonly distributed in eastern region of Saudi Arabia were examined. The characteristics of the studied species divided the investigated species into two main clusters and four groups; the cluster (I) included Chenopodium murale, Chenopodium album and Spinacia oleracea, since these plants had common characters as simple, petiolate leaves and presence of mechanical tissue in their vegetative parts. Cluster (II) included Salsola jordanicola, Arthrocenemum macrostachyumm, Halopeplis perfoliate, Salsola cyclophylla and Sueada fruticosa. The diagnostic morphological and anatomical characters of vegetative parts appeared to be significant to differentiate various species of Chenopodiaceae. A dichotomous indented key to the species is also developed. The finding showed that there was a close relationship between the morphological and anatomical characters of the species and their distribution.

 

213-224 Download
23

Modelling secondary succession on old fields using Markov chain and an overview of mathematical modelling of successional process


S. Shahid Shaukat and Moazzam Ali Khan

Modelling secondary succession on old fields using Markov chain and an overview of mathematical modelling of successional process


ABSTRACT:

In search for models of succession a number of mathematical and statistical models have been tried by various ecologists and range workers including, descriptive, based on ordinary or partial differential equations, cellular automata, fractals and stoichiometric models as well as ordination techniques and matrix models including Markov chains. This paper examines the old-field succession using Markov chain stochastic model to describe, predict and simulate the vegetation dynamics of the abandoned fields at Malir-Landhi area, southern Sind, Pakistan.

Recorded data over 4-years period from permanent plots (patches) permitted an estimation of transition probabilities using the frequency of plots in various states that moved to other states over a period of one year at various sampling times. Average transition matrix using four years data was employed for the sake of accuracy in the estimation of probabilities. The paper discusses the Markov properties and its features, studies and exemplifies the test of first order Markov chain. The results indicate that the secondary succession under study conform to first-order Markovian process since the observed field data was found to fit closely to the first–order transition process. Transition matrix successfully exposed the nature and mechanism of succession and provided insights into the process of secondary succession. Succession was found to be almost unidirectional. Stability of the system was also checked which disclosed relatively greater stability at the later stage of succession pointing it to be the disclimax of the area. Though not all assumptions of Morkovian process were held by the data it appears that the transition matrices provide useful descriptive devices even when the system is not absolutely Markovian. The succession was related to second law of thermodynamics and entropy. The entropy of the successional ecosystem changed with the onward march of the succession. The overall system Entropy of the successional ecosystem was moderately high

225-235 Download
24

Pollen and fungal spore composition variations of honeys according to different feeding methods


Gulsah Yil, Semiramis Karlidag, Abuzer Akyol, Abdurrahman Koseman, Ayse Burcin Uyumlu, Murat Yilmaztekin, Selim Erdogan and Ibrahim Seker

Pollen and fungal spore composition variations of honeys according to different feeding methods


ABSTRACT:

Honey samples were collected from two districts of Malatya (Eastern Turkey) Battalgazi and Dogansehir for melissopalynological analysis after the honey season in 2018. The survey was conducted to 3 different feeding groups, Glucose, Sucrose, Bee Feed and a Control group in each study area. The samples were prepared according to Louveaux et al., (1978) procedure. Melissopalynological examinations were done to determine both pollen grains and fungal spores for each feeding group and districts. According to the microscopic analyses the dominant pollen types were determined as Astragalus, Cistus, Poaceae, Verbascum, Echium, Berberis, Artemisia, Plantago, Vicia, Onobrychis, Cichorioideae, Astragalus pollen grains were most frequent in glucose and control groups, Cistus pollen grains were widely represented in sucrose and bee feed groups in both study area. Dominant fungal spore types were determined as Aspergillus / Penicillium, Urediniospores, Cladosporium and Myrotechium. Aspergillus / Penicillium spores were dominated almost all samples by varying degrees. Analysis of pollen grains and fungal spores is useful instrument for determining the botanical, geographical and ecological sources of honey. This paper could be guide to beekeepers for selecting convenient apiary domains and appropriate feeding methods for qualitative honeys and the study is also help agriculturists for increasing the crop yield, the bees could be diverting to less-preferred plants during forages by sugar manipulation in order to cultivation improving.

 

237-247 Download
25

Oxytropis mandokhailii (Fabaceae) a new species from Zhob, Pakistan


Nazar Khan, Amir Sultan, Mahrine Rashid and Kamran Ishaq

Oxytropis mandokhailii (Fabaceae) a new species from Zhob, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

A new species Oxytropis mandokhailii (Fabaceae) from Zhob distict of Pakistan is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by basally fused unequal stipules, heteromorphic leaves and very long stems. Key to Oxytropis species in Flora of Pakistan is amended to reflect the diagnostic characters of O. mandokhailii.

 

249-255 Download
26

Floristic and vegetation diversity of Gadoon hills outer Himalayas district Swabi, Pakistan


Farrukh Hussain, Zaman Sher, Lal Badshah, Khalid Aziz, Sajid Aziz and Sapna Resham

Floristic and vegetation diversity of Gadoon hills outer Himalayas district Swabi, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

An ecological study was conducted in summer to record the floristic and vegetation diversity of unexplored Gadoon Hills, Outer Himalayas District Swabi, Pakistan. Vegetation was analyzed using 10 nested, 10-m2, 5-m2 and 1-m2 quadrats respectively for trees, shrubs and herbs in all the sites for determining density, cover and frequency of each recorded species. Floristic composition revealed 107 plant species of 98 genera and 54 families. The vegetation and its component flora is divided altitudinally in to sub-Himalayan semi–evergreen, Himalayan Chir pine and Himalayan Temperate zones, each with its component plant communities. The flora and vegetation exhibited hemicrpto-therophytic life form and nano-mesophillic leaf spectra. Majority of the species were mesophytic (63.55%) and annual with simple leaves. FIV, TIV and Mori index revealed that Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Poaceae, Mimosaceae, Pinaceae, Fagaceae, Lamiaceae and Papilionaceae were the dominant families in the investigated area.SIV identified that the top most species in decreasing order were Pinus roxburghii, Quercus dilatata, Acacia catechu and Heteropogon contortus. Of the 13 sites, 12 were heterogeneous. Most of the species occupied Classes I-III. Species diversity (0.05-0.29), species richness (0.89-2.14) and species maturity (42.0-76.67) were generally low in the investigated area. The area is highly degraded with nutrient deficiency owing to deforestation, overgrazing, over-exploitation and soil erosion, which are the major threats to the biodiversity of the area. Trees and shrubs are generally stunted and isolated. The area requires concerted ecological and conservation management efforts for the rehabilitation of the original vegetation with the participation of all stake-holders

257-276 Download
27

Taxonomic significance of stem, lamina and epidermal micro-characters in understanding Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae alliance


Mohamed E. Tantawy, Mohamed A. Salim, Aya T. Bayoumy and Alsafa H. Mohamed

Taxonomic significance of stem, lamina and epidermal micro-characters in understanding Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae alliance


ABSTRACT:

Despite the importance of Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae, the two families were not thoroughly explored and discussed from taxonomic point of view, because of the limited taxonomic characters and the succulent nature of several species. The stem and lamina anatomical characteristics as well as epidermal micro-characters of 35 wild and cultivated taxa (29 of Chenopodiaceae and six of Amaranthaceae) were investigated using LM and SEM. The specific objective is to estimate the taxonomic weight of these characters in understanding the Chen-Am alliance. The obtained stem, lamina and epidermal micro-characters were considered diagnostic at generic and specific level. Two major aspects of growth:  normal secondary growth (five taxa belonging to Chenopodiaceae) and abnormal growth (30 taxa of Chenopodiaceae & Amaranthaceae). Five sub-types of anomalous growth were recognized viz, successive cambia, medullary bundles, included phloem, included phloem with bipolar vascular bundles or included phloem with medullary bundles. Six types of lamina anatomy were recognized based on mesophyll type, size and distribution of kranz cells viz, atriplcoid, kochioid, kranz-ventrodorsal, salsoloid, flat-leaved salsoloid and non-kranz type. Brachyparacytic and anomocytic stomata, rhomboid crystals, platelets, fissured crust, and granules epicuticular wax were recorded. Most of the obtained data reinforce the alliance between the studied taxa of Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae. The most common characters that support this alliance are anomalous secondary growth (medullary, successive, included phloem), leaf mesophyll (dorsiventral), Kranz anatomy (atriplcoid type), trichomes, druses and sandy crystals, C4 photosynthetic pathway and epidermal characteristics

277-289 Download
28

A study of wild vegetables: proximate and mineral analysis of selected wild edible vegetables of Parachinar, district Kurram KP, Pakistan


Wajiha Batool, Wahid Hussain, Ravena Hassan, Tasleem, Shariat Ullah and Amjad Ali

A study of wild vegetables: proximate and mineral analysis of selected wild edible vegetables of Parachinar, district Kurram KP, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Wild vegetables have a crucial role in human life in connection with diet, medicine or other domestic uses. The five wild vegetables, i.e., Bistorta amplexicaulis, Chenopodium album, Nasturtium officinale, Citrullus colocynthis and Polygonum plebejum, were collected from the District Kurram of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, to estimate the mineral and nutritional composition of these plants. For the analysis of the nutritional composition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods and for minerals, atomic spectrometric methods were used. Chenopodium album showed the highest content of both moisture and nitrogen-free extract (15.12% and 72.97% respectively), while the ash content was highest in Nasturtium officinale (21%). In Polygonum plebejum, crude fiber content was the highest (12.74%), and the crude fat and protein content was the highest in Nasturtium officinale and Bistorta amplexicaulis (8.49% and 12.25%). The highest amount among all the minerals shown is Ca (102.7 mg/L) followed by K, Mg and Fe, (77.15, 17.26 and 2.964 mg/L). Among all proximate analysis and minerals content, only minor variations were observed. Agreement was found when the results were compared to other studies with slight differences, which might be due to climatic and regional conditions.

 

291-298 Download
29

Allometric deviation in biomass and biochemicals of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants amplified by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) foliar extract


Muhammad Asad, Afsheen Khan, Saira Qadir and Bushreen Jahan

Allometric deviation in biomass and biochemicals of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants amplified by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) foliar extract


ABSTRACT:

Growth of crops is recently studied in terms of allometry that explains the growth attainment pattern of plant components. Current study describes the effect of lemongrass foliar extract on sunflower plants and the investigations focus the intense response of sunflower vegetative parts. For this purpose, biomass along with major metabolites i.e. carbohydrates, proteins and chlorophyll (a and b) contents have been extracted and evaluated. In this study, different concentrations of lemongrass applied to sunflower plants that showed 1% concentration to be the best adapted application for growth promotion in treated plants. Highest fresh weight, Average Growth Rate and Relative Growth Rate (12.1±0.4 mg, 1.9±0.09 mg/week and 0.9±0.04 mg/week respectively) attained by 1% samples. Among leaves, shoots and roots, leaves showed highest adaptive capability by synthesizing greater amount of chlorophyll a and carbohydrates in 1% treated plants. Whilst control samples showed higher activity in producing greater amount of carbohydrates (1.04±0.3 mg/ml) in roots. In shoots, carbohydrates (3.02±1.0 mg/ml) and proteins (2.04±0.2 mg/ml) were also found in greater amount in 1% samples. Two-way ANOVA produced a highly significant (p<0.001) relationship among metabolites of leaves, roots and shoots. Overall, the study produced comprehensive outcomes hence supports the utilization of natural bio-stimulants for crop growth

299-306 Download
30

Protective effect of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum, Galium odoratum, and Cymbopogon citratus against oxidative DNA damage in cultured human lymphocyte cells


Omar F. Khabour, Karem H. Alzoubi, Salwa F. M. Hassanein, Hanin Makhlouf and Farah Alhashimi

Protective effect of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum, Galium odoratum, and Cymbopogon citratus against oxidative DNA damage in cultured human lymphocyte cells


ABSTRACT:

The potential of essential oils as antioxidants is gaining interest by researchers and medicinal industry. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of essential oils obtained from Ocimum basilicum, Galium odoratum, and Cymbopogon citratus against oxidative DNA damage in cultured human lymphocytes. DNA damage was assessed using 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine assay (8-OHdG). The oil of G. odoratum showed significant decreases of 8-OHdG biomarker  in cultured cells at all examined concentrations (0.1, 1 and 2 uL/mL) with magnitudes that range between 31-39% (p<0.01). With respect to C. citratus oil, a significant decrease of 8-OHdG was observed at 1 and 2 µL/mL concentrations with magnitudes of 34% and 44% respectively (p<0.05). Similarly, O. basilicum significantly decreased 8-OHdG at 1µL/mL and 2 µL/mL concentrations (p<0.005) with magnitude of decreases of about 62% at both concentrations. In conclusion, potent antioxidative DNA damage activity of examined essential oils was observed in cultured human lymphocytes.

 

307-311 Download
31

Mechanism of bract reddening in guzmania


Jian Xin-Liu, Guo Fu-Wang, Shu Yu-Cai, Shao Quan-Hu and Wei Yong-Wang

Mechanism of bract reddening in guzmania


ABSTRACT:

To clarify the mechanism of Guzmania bract reddening, we conducted the following investigation from three aspects. First, we determined the pigments contained in the red Guzmania bracts, observed tissue anatomy, and performed the color reaction test, spectral scanning analysis, and HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis of the bracts. The results confirmed that the red substance distributed in the fence tissue of the bracts is anthocyanin (a flavonoid substance with an absorption wavelength of 510nm) composed of cyanidin (red) and pelargonium (orange-red), the yellow substances distributed throughout the mesophyll tissue of the bracts are mainly flavones (absorption wavelengths of 291nm and 328nm) and carotenoids (absorption wavelengths of 438nm and 467nm), and the green substance distributed in sponge tissue of the bracts is chlorophyll (absorption wavelengths of 440nm and 468nm). Second, to explore the molecular mechanisms of changes in flavonoids and chlorophyll, we used HPLC, RT-Qpcr (Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction), and other methods to detect changes in flavonoids and chlorophyll contents and the gene expression of key enzymes for corresponding metabolic processes. The results confirmed that bract reddening was caused by accumulated flavonoids and reduced chlorophyll content, while the reduction in chlorophyll was caused by a decrease in chlorophyll synthesis and a significant increase in chlorophyll degradation. Finally, we examined dynamic changes in ethylene release from the bracts and expression patterns of key enzymatic genes in ethylene biosynthesis. It was confirmed that the biosynthesis of ethylene increased in the bracts, further promoting the process of bract reddening. This study on the mechanism of bract color formation has practical significance for improving bract color and ornamental quality through breeding and guiding production practices.

313-320 Download
32

Impact of tillage and potassium levels and sources on growth, yield and yield attributes of wheat


Mushtaq Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Adnan, Abdul Basir, Shah Fahad, Aqsa Hafeez, Muhammad Hamzah Saleem, Manzoor Ahmad, Farhana Gul, Durrishahwar, Fazli Subhan, Saad Alamri, Mohamed Hashem and Inayat Ur Rahman

Impact of tillage and potassium levels and sources on growth, yield and yield attributes of wheat


ABSTRACT:

Appropriate tillage (T) and potassium (K) fertilizer from a suitable source can play a vital role in optimization of wheat (Triticum aestivum) production. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of potassium levels (of 30, 60, 90, and 120 kg K2O ha-1), sources [sulphate of potash (SOP 50% K2O) and muriate of potash (MOP 60% K2O)], and various tillage implement (moldboard plough, chisel plough and rotavator) on growth and yield of wheat in a field experiment during winter 2012-13. Three factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split-split plot arrangement having three replications was adopted where tillage implement was assigned to main plot, sources to sub plot and K levels to sub-sub plot.  Plots tilled through rotavator or moldboard and treated with 60 kg K2O ha-1 as SOP produced significantly higher spikes per m2, kernels per spike, thousand grains weight, kernel and biological yield compared to plots tilled through chisel plough and control or plots fertilized with other K levels. Crop growth rate (CGR) was at par for different tillage implements and K sources. We can conclude that rotavator and mould board plough with application of 60 kg K2O ha-1 from SOP source have improved yield and yield components of wheat, and optimized wheat production

321-326 Download
33

Achene dormancy characteristics of theree rose species and the methods for improving germination

 


Zhiqiong Zhou, Dandan Wei, Xiaoming Li, Yulan Peng and Fuzhong Wu

Achene dormancy characteristics of theree rose species and the methods for improving germination

 


ABSTRACT:

Roses are a group of world famous garden plants, and strong dormancy exists in the achenes. We characterized the water absorption of achenes, the inhibition of extracts of pulp and achenes, effects of different pretreatments on breaking dormancy to determine the dormancy type and mechanism. Achenes of three rose species had physiological dormancy (PD) based on the water-permeable seed coat and fully developed embryo. Rosa rubus had intermeditate PD, and Rosa longicuspis and Rosa helenae had deep PD. The best treatment for improving germination was warm plus cold stratification, as indicated by higher germination percentage (GP) and lower moldy achene percentage for R. rubus (74.9±2.1%) and R. longicuspis (25.9±2.1%). For R. helenae, GP (36.3±1.5%) was highest treated by H2SO4 scarification followed by warm stratification at 25°C for eight weeks and cold stratification at 5°C for sixteen weeks. Prolonged period of cold stratification significantly increased germination speed and moldy achene percentage especially when combined with H2SO4 scarification. The physiological dormancy of rose achenes was caused jointly by inhibitory substances in pulp and achenes, mechanical barrier of thick pericarp and physiological dormancy in embryo.

 

327-336 Download
34

Uptake and transport characteristics of organic and inorganic nitrogen in rice seedlings


Zhaohui Zou, Xian Li, Gangqiao Deng, Hongke Xie, Yong Zhang, Jun Liu, Yijie Zhou, Xiaoyi Tu and Aiguo He

Uptake and transport characteristics of organic and inorganic nitrogen in rice seedlings


ABSTRACT:

The study was conducted in sterile hydroponics using isotopes tracer technique to demonstrate the posibility for rice seedlings (variety: C Liangyou 266) to directly absorb and utilize molecular organic nitrogen, transport and assimilation of organic/inorganic nitrogen.  Further the activity of assimilation-related enzymes i.e Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), in rice seedlings were also studied using isotopic tracing technique. In this regard 15N-ammonium sulfate, 15N-potassium nitrate and 2-13C-15N-glycine salts were used to analyzes the abundance of 13C/15N. The results suggest that the 15N excess and the ratio of 15N excess in shoot to root under glycine nitrogen treatment (Gly-N) were significantly higher than those under ammonium nitrogen or nitrate nitrogen treatment (p<0.05); the 13C excess/15N excess ratios of rice organs and the whole seedling measured at 24h after Gly-N approximated the theoretical value of 1:1, which showed gradual declines 48h and 72h later. The activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), in rice seedlings cultured by organic nitrogen were significantly higher than those by inorganic nitrogen (p<0.05). The findings also showed that rice seedlings are capable for direct absorbing and utilizing molecular glycine nitrogen. The absorption rate of glycine nitrogen was much higher than that of ammonium nitrogen or nitrate nitrogen. The transport capabilities of organic and inorganic nitrogen in rice plants, ranked in descending order are as follows: glycine nitrogen > ammonium nitrogen > nitrate nitrogen

337-343 Download
35

Effects of crop rotation on growth and physiological indexes of Panax notogingseng


Feiyang Wang, Xijun Yan, Meitang Wei, Weiguo Chai, Qinxiang Chang, Guangjian Shen, Pengguo Xia and Zongsuo Liang

Effects of crop rotation on growth and physiological indexes of Panax notogingseng


ABSTRACT:

Panax notoginseng is widely used as a kind of medicinal plant because of its anti-tumor, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuro-protective activities. Continuous cropping obstacle is currently a major problem restricting the development of the P. notoginseng. Crop rotation might reduce the replant problems, but little information is available on the effect of other crops rotation on soil cultivated with ginseng. In this study, we analyzed growth and physiological indexes, saponins and the expression of saponins synthesis genes from the P. notoginseng field after planting coix seed, dry rice, ginger, pepper, and tobacco. Six crop rotation modes were set up to explore the changes in the indicators of P. notoginseng. Physiological indicators were measured by a microplate reader. The content of the five saponins was determined by HPLC, and the expression of saponins synthesis genes was detected by real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that the incidence rate of M5 (P. notoginseng- ginger- coix seed- P. notoginseng) was the lowest (23.08%). The growth index in M5 is the highest. The content of defense enzymes decreased with increasing crop rotation interval. A parallel comparison with the same interval period showed that the saponins content in the rotation fields of coix seed was slightly higher. The test results of soluble sugar, soluble protein and chlorophyll showed that the rotation sites of P. notoginseng and coix seed could improve the photosynthetic parameters and physiological indicators of P. notoginseng leaves. The above results indicated that M5 was a suitable crop rotation mode for P. notoginseng. Coix seed rise proved to be more suitable as a previous crop of P. notoginseng. Choosing a reasonable crop rotation is more effective than increasing the rotation time.

 

345-355 Download
36

Structural and functional attributes of Citrus reticulata Blanco under diverse soil and environmental conditions


Amina Ameer, Sahar Mumtaz, Naila Asghar, Mansoor Hameed, Farooq Ahmad, Athar Mahmood, Maria Naqve, Mehwish Naseer and Muhammad Azeem

Structural and functional attributes of Citrus reticulata Blanco under diverse soil and environmental conditions


ABSTRACT:

Citrus reticulata Blanco (Family Rutaceae) also known as mandarin orange is a small citrus tree. It acquired vital position in fruit industry worldwide, as well as in Pakistan. Citrus plants from six different habitats of Punjab were explored to investigate the structural and functional modifications in response to diverse soil and climatic conditions. C. reticulata revealed specific anatomical and physiological changes relating to the rhizosphere and environmental circumstances. Plants from low rain-fall habitats showed thicker stems, larger cortical cells and broader xylem vessels for maximum water conservation. Plants of slightly saline habitats exhibited enhanced accumulation of osmolytes and calcium, narrow vessels, larger pith cells and well-developed waxy layer to prevent water loss under physiological drought. Plants of Bhalwal revealed maximum biomass production and highest fruit yield due to favorable soil conditions like good saturation percentage, higher uptake of K+ and Ca2+. Some anatomical and physiological modifications such as greater accumulation of osmolytes, efficient photosynthetic attributes, thicker stem and wider vessels result in better growth in Bhalwal. Plants of investigated sites demonstrated moderate capability of structural and functional changes relating to the soil composition because fruit yield of slightly saline, poorly irrigated and low rainfall habitats declined to greater extent. Citrus plants require good soil composition and better environmental conditions, so higher fruit yield can be obtained by cultivating plants in well-irrigated and slightly acidic soil

357-366 Download
37

Pre-exposure impact of electromagnetic field radiation on carnation plant growth and quality cut flower production


Riffat Ayesha, Imran Hassan, Nadeem Akhtar Abbasi, Ishfaq Ahmed Hafiz and Khalid Saifullah Khan

Pre-exposure impact of electromagnetic field radiation on carnation plant growth and quality cut flower production


ABSTRACT:

The current research paper manifests the impact of the electromagnetic field radiation on prolongation of the vase life of carnation cut flowers. Carnation cuttings were pre-exposed to various EMF flux densities (50 Hz) viz., 0, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180 and 200 mT via electromagnet. The optimal exposure time of the carnation cuttings with EMF was 10 minutes of duration. The think about concluded the best outcomes with EMF 160 mT flux density with reference to the plant growth, floral traits, and vase life extension. Thus the pre-exposure of the carnation cuttings to EMF radiation has a profound impact on its cut blooms vase life prolongation.

 

367-377 Download
38

Analysis of miRNA expression associated with gene Lr34 responsible for resistance mechanisms to wheat leaf rust


Agnieszka Tomkowiak, Roksana Bobrowska, Michal Kwiatek, Julia Spychala, Jakub Kuczynski, Agata Tyczewska, Przemyslaw Lukasz Kowalczewski, Dorota Weigt and Tomasz Kosiada

Analysis of miRNA expression associated with gene Lr34 responsible for resistance mechanisms to wheat leaf rust


ABSTRACT:

Diseases caused by pathogenic fungi significantly limit the yield and quality of common wheat. The most dangerous fungal diseases of wheat include leaf rust, stripe rust and powdery mildew. Cultivating resistant wheat varieties is the most effective way to minimize the development of fungal diseases. Genetically determined resistance of the horizontal type (racially non-specific, adult plant resistance genes) is preferred due to its more persistent expression compared to the major (R) genes determining race-specific resistance, which is often overcome by pathogens. Currently, hexaploid wheat resistance gene Lr34/Yr18/Sr57/Pm38 (hereafter referred to as Lr34) is the best characterized gene determining horizontal-type resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze miRNA expression in selected common wheat varieties, showing the presence of resistance gene Lr34 in response to infection with the fungus Puccinia triticina responsible for leaf rust. The reference varieties (Pavon'S', Myna'S', Frontana'S' and Sparrow'S') contained slow rust resistance genes, including Lr34, whereas the control variant HN ROD did not have these genes. The presence of Lr34 in four reference varieties was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Biotic stress in adult plants was induced by inoculating fungal spores under monitored conditions in a growth chamber. Differences in the expression of various microRNAs (miR9653b, miR9657b, miR9773, miR9677b) associated with gene Lr34 were tested using emulsion PCR (ddPCR). Plant material for analysis was collected before inoculation and 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after inoculation. The results showed an increase in miR9653b expression in varieties carrying gene Lr34 as a result of plant infection with P. triticina. The ddPCR analysis of miR9657b, miR9773 and miR9677b yielded too low a copy number for correct inference. The expression level of miR9653b in a control variety (HN ROD) lacking this resistance gene remained stable. This demonstrated that miR9653b could be involved in plant resistance mechanisms in response to leaf rust

379-385 Download
39

In vitro studies to determine  antibacterial and antifungal properties of three Pleurotus species (Oyster mushroom)


Uzma Sitara, Parwaiz Ahmed Baloch, Atta Ullah Khan Pathan, Muhammad Ismael Bhatti, Mohammad Abbas Bhutto, Qazi Mehmood Ali, Abid Ali and Mehwish Iqbal

In vitro studies to determine  antibacterial and antifungal properties of three Pleurotus species (Oyster mushroom)


ABSTRACT:

Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus spp.) are edible, nutritious and have antifungal and antibacterial potential. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of three Pleurotus species; i.e. P. ostreatus, P. florida and P. eryngii were examined against five pathogenic fungi including Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium oxysporum, Monilinia fructicola and five food pathogenic bacteria i.e. Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The antagonistic activity of oyster mushroom fungal strains was tested by using dual culture method. Amongst all Pleurotus species, P. ostreatus showed maximum whereas P. eryngii possessed minimum antifungal and antibacterial activities. The highest inhibition antimicrobial activity of 90.86% and 92.67% was observed for P. ostreatus against A. alternata and E. coli whereas the minimum 32.33% and 35.9% was recorded for A. flavus and V. parahaemolyticus for P. eryngii respectively. Selected Strains of oyster mushrooms have great potential to replace in-use fungicides.

387-392 Download
40

Phyto-chemical analysis of plant-products and their influence against soil-borne phytopathogens


Noureen Basheer, Abdul Hakeem Sheikh, Muhammad Abid, Alia Abbas, Paras Shah, Uzma Sitara and Bushreen Jahan

Phyto-chemical analysis of plant-products and their influence against soil-borne phytopathogens


ABSTRACT:

Plants are able to produce various chemical substances in order to protect their body from several abiotic and biotic stresses. These phyto-chemicals are secondary metabolites that can inhibit pathogenic growth by terminating their cellular body. In present studies, it is evaluated that plant products like aerial part of Alfalfa, Rice husk and wheat straw comprised phyto-chemicals with different strength. Study showed that alfalfa contains greater amount of phyto-chemicals such as total phenols, flavonoids and higher percentage of antioxidants. It was also able to inhibit the mycelial growth of Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani by its methanolic and chloformic extracts. Beside alfalfa, methanolic extract of wheat straw exhibited 100 % eradication of R. solani and F. oxysporum as comprised second highest measures of phyto-chemicals. Rice husk contained lesser amount of total phenols, total flavonoids and lowest percentage of antioxidant. Rice husk also showed minimum inhibition percentage of phytopathogens as compared to the other plant extracts. It is concluded that all plant products contain different strengths of phytochemicals and have ability to inhibit the mycelial growth of phytopathogens to protect their plant body against infections. It is also concluded that among above mentioned plant species, extracts of alfalfa and wheat straw showed greater results of phyto-chemicals as well as inhibition percentage of pathogens

403-409 Download
41

Diversity and distribution of cyanobacterial community in mangrove stands and coastal waters along the coast of Pakistan


Shahnaz N. Mansoor, Zaib-Un-Nisa Burhan, Seema Shafique, Rahila Abdul Aziz and Pirzada Jamal Ahmed Siddique

Diversity and distribution of cyanobacterial community in mangrove stands and coastal waters along the coast of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Cyanobacteria are a diversified group of microorganisms found in variety of habitats. For a better understanding of their diversity and distribution, these cyanobacteria epiphytic on pneumatophores of mangroves, adjacent surface sediments, and channel water were studied. A total of 47 taxa were observed belonging to five orders and fifteen families. The majority of the taxa were recorded in the order Oscillatoriales followed by Synechococcales and Chrococcales. Family Oscillatoriaceae contributed substantially (10.26%) in the order Oscillatoriales. While, in the order Synechococcales, Merismopediaceae had considerably contribution (17.95%) and the order Chroococcidiopsidales was represented by only one family. Diversity and distribution of cyanobacteria in the mangrove habitat was observed where fourteen species were recorded as epiphytes on pneumatophores and thirty seven species were distributed on the surface sediments. On the other hand, twenty one and fourteen species were present in adjacent channel waters of Manora and Sonmiani, respectively. Results showed that Manora channel water has greater cyanobacterial diversity compared to Sonmiani Bay waters. Diversity indices also reflect the same pattern. High species richness R1 (9.36) and species diversity 0.97 (λ) and 3.53 (H') were recorded for surface sediment. Evenness (J') was similar (1.0) in all collected material from different sitesr however the dominance (D) was higher (0.07) for pneumatophore at Sandspit and channel water of Sonmiani Bay. Present study is initiated as preliminary survey to record the distribution and diversity of cyanobacteria which play a pivotal role in microbial food web. During the study it has been revealed that they have capabilities to act as nitrogen fixers, recyclers of nutrients and primary producers, thus further studies on significant contribution of cyanobacteria in the unique mangrove ecosystem are suggested

411-417 Download
42

Effects of grafting on agro-morphological characteristics in eggplants grafted onto Solanum torvum and interspecific hybrid rootstocks


Ayhan Gokseven and Nuray Akbudak

Effects of grafting on agro-morphological characteristics in eggplants grafted onto Solanum torvum and interspecific hybrid rootstocks


ABSTRACT:

Grafting may cause changes in plant growth and morphology. These changes may affect the fruit appearance, earliness, and yield. In these respect, it is important to investigate whether there are changes in the scion due to grafting before the fruit formation phase. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rootstocks on plant structure, stem, leaf and flower morphology, rootstock/scion compatibility and to investigate the effect of observation dates in different fruit-shaped scions. Two eggplant hybrids, Amadeo and BT Bıldırcın were used as scions and Solanum torvum (Hawk) and interspecific eggplant hybrid- “IEH” (Anafor) were used as rootstocks. In the study, grafting positively affected to plant height, stem diameters, number of leaves, growth habit, leaf color and anthocyanin coloration of stem depending on the rootstock/scion combination. However, grafting negatively affected the percentage of plant survival, flowering time and plantlet height. The maximum plant height was found in the “BT Bıldırcın / S. torvum” andBT Bıldırcın/ IEH” combination with 81.14 and 77.30 cm, respectively. The highest stem diameter was found in “IEH” rootstock in both scions. Apart from these, rootstocks produced the upright plants compared to ungrafted ones. On the other hand, the most seedling losses and the latest flowering time were in the grafted S. torvum combinations in both scions. Consequently, positive effect of grafting depends primarily on chosen scion variety and then rootstock/scion combination. Also our study demostrates that interspecific eggplant hybrid rootstocks may be good alternative to S. torvum. In addition, observation dates and plant, stem, leaf and flower traits are important in revealing the effect of the grafting

493-402 Download
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