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Flora of the Kurram valley (tribal area), Pakistan: diversity, physiognomy and conservation issues

Said Muhammad, Manzoor Hussain, Zafeer Saqib, Jan Alam, Ghulam Mujtaba Shah, Zaheer Abbas, Maroof Ali, Ghulam Qadir and Zainul Abideen

Pakistan-Afghan border is famous for diverse flora harbouring substantial endemic, medicinal and wild food plant species. The current study presents the results of floristic study conducted in the Valley of Kurram Pak-Afghan border from 2015-2018. The study documented 365 plant species belonging to 244 genera and 86 families. Asteraceae was the leading family with 40 species (10.96%), followed by Lamiaceae (31 spp., 8.49%) and Fabaceae (26 spp., 7.12%). Endemic and rare species, such as Seriphidium kurramense, Pseudomertensia anjumiae, Rhododendron collettianum, Rhododendron afghanicum, Nepeta kurramensis, Vincetoxicum cardiostephanum were sampled. Herbaceous growth form was prevailed with 237 species with 77 shrubs and 47 tree taxa. Therophytes include 114 taxa (31.23%), hemicryptophytes 67, (18.36%) and nano-phanerophytes 60 (16.44%). One hundred fifty-eight (22.47%) nanophyllous species were recorded with 82 (22.47%) leptophyll, 65 (17.29%) microphylls. Being a topographically and climatically varied valley, the study area presents a divesre flora with significant number of endemic taxa. However, it accounts for several environmental degradation activities due to burgeoning population and unsustainable utilization of plant resources such as deforestation, overgrazing. Moreover, the area remained war-affilicted continuously for two decades for local, national and international concerns causing direct habitat destruction. Therefore, current study articulates the ecological health, species diversity and conservation issues. The outcomes emphasize the tangible conservation measures for the ecological restoration of the region for national and global interest

To Cite this article: Muhammad, S., M. Hussain, Z. Saqib, J. Alam, G.M. Shah, Z. Abbas, M. Ali, G. Qadir and Z. Abideen. 2023. Flora of the Kurram valley (tribal area), Pakistan: diversity, physiognomy and conservation issues. Pak. J. Bot., 55(1): DOI:  

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