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Year 2023 , Volume  55, Issue 2
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1

Induction of chromium (Cr) stress tolerance in maize by foliar applied vanillic acid: growth, gas exchange characteristics and antioxidants


Maleeha Razzaq, Nudrat Aisha Akram, Shafaqat Ali and Muhammad Ashraf

Induction of chromium (Cr) stress tolerance in maize by foliar applied vanillic acid: growth, gas exchange characteristics and antioxidants


ABSTRACT:

The effect of foliar-applied vanillic acid (VA) on biomass, photosynthesis, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activities and uptake of chromium (Cr) in maize plants under varying levels of Cr stress was assessed. The experiment comprised the maize cultivar Malka-2016, three levels of Cr stress (0, 100 and 500 µM), and VA (0, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/L) applied as a foliar spray. The results showed that Cr stress markedly decreased the physiological and morphological characteristics including gas exchange attributes, non-enzymatic compounds, and the activities of enzymatic antioxidants. However, foliar-applied VA significantly increased plant dry weight and improved the gas exchange attributes such as rate of transpiration, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of maize plants under stress and non-stress conditions. A positive influence of VA was also found on the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase enzymes and the levels of glycinebetaine and proline. Overall, foliar application of VA significantly enhanced Cr stress tolerance in maize plants by improving gas exchange attributes and antioxidant defense system

419-428 Download
2

Organic amendments mitigate drought stress-induced oxidative changes  in synthetic cultivars of maize


Shabir Hussain and Muhammad Nadeem Shah

Organic amendments mitigate drought stress-induced oxidative changes  in synthetic cultivars of maize


ABSTRACT:

Drought stress is the most crucial abiotic stress. It adversely affects plant growth and increases reactive oxygen specifies. However, antioxidants biosynthesis is one of the most important defensive mechanisms of crops under drought stress. On the other hand, many scientists successfully elaborate the positive effects of organic amendments for alleviation of drought stress in cereal crops. These organic amendments, i.e., farmyard manure (FYM), poultry manure (PM) and biochar have the potential to improve soil water holding capacity. Although many scientists have worked on organic amendments to mitigate drought stress, there is still an information gap regarding organic amendment's effects on the antioxidant attributes of plants. That is why the current study was conducted on two maize varieties, "Neelum" and "Sadaf" with two irrigation levels, i.e., normal (100%FC) and drought stress (50%FC). In organic amendments, FYM, PM and biochar were applied with three replications in a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement. Results showed that antioxidants SOD, POD and CAT were significantly increased in "Neelum" and "Sadaf" under drought stress (50%FC) over control irrigation (100%FC). Adding FYM and PM significantly decreased SOD, POD and CAT over control. However, biochar remained significantly best for decreasing antioxidants under stress conditions. The addition of biochar also remained significantly better among all the treatments for the enhancement in protein and sugar contents of maize varieties. In conclusion, biochar application can provide better results for alleviating drought stress in "Neelum" and "Sadaf" maize varieties over FYM and PM. More investigations are suggested in the field to declare the best biochar application rate for drought stress alleviation in maize

429-436 Download
3

Influence of phosphorus enriched acidified carbon on maize growth cultivated in salt affected soil


Aftab Ahmad Sheikh, Zahid Hassan Tarar, Muhammad Saleem, Saima Nazar, Irfan Ahmad Saleem and Sher Afzal

Influence of phosphorus enriched acidified carbon on maize growth cultivated in salt affected soil


ABSTRACT:

Proper management of phosphorus (P) in salt-affected soils is one of the major issues for the achievement of maximum maize yield. Disturbance in ionic homeostasis in soil due to the high amount of water-soluble salts in saline soils decreases the balance uptake of phosphorus. Organic amendments can play an imperative role in this regard. The use of acidified carbon is one such technology. Its application can decrease the soil pH, and thus can enhance the available P in salt-affected soils. That’s why the current study was conducted to explore the effect of acidified carbon on maize growth in salt-affected soils. There were 3 levels of phosphorus enriched acidified carbon (PEC) i.e., 0, 2.5 and 5.0% applied in normal and saline soil (5.32 dS/m EC). Results showed that 5.0 PEC significantly improved shoot length, root length, shoot fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll in maize compared to 0PEC in normal and saline soils. A significant improvement in leaves and root P concentration also validated the efficacious role of 5.0 PEC over 0PEC in normal and saline soils. In conclusion, 5.0PEC has the potential to improve phosphorus availability in salt-affected soils. It can also play an immense role in the improvement of maize growth in saline conditions. More, investigations are suggested at the field level under variable agro-climatic zones to declare 5.0PEC as the best application rate for enhancement of maize yield in saline soils

437-445 Download
4

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria induced modulation of physiological responses in rice under salt and drought stresses


Farman Ali, Asghari Bano, Tamoor Ul Hassan, Munazza Nazir and Rizwan Taj Khan

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria induced modulation of physiological responses in rice under salt and drought stresses


ABSTRACT:

Effects of Pseudomonas sp. on physiology of Oryza sativa (L.) var. KS-282 were evaluated under induced drought stress and salinity stress conditions. For seed inoculation, sterilized seeds were immersed in Pseudomonas broth culture for 2 to 4 hours, whereas control seeds were soaked in distilled water for the same time period before being sowed in autoclaved, sand-soil mixture. Drought stress was induced by withholding water supply for 10 days, while salinity stress was induced by irrigating with 200 mM NaCl. Plants were harvested at the vegetative stage. Both the stresses significantly decreased the relative water content of leaves, root area, total soluble leaf proteins, chlorophyll content of leaves, osmotic potential of leaves whereaas electrolyte leakage, proline content of leaves and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly increased. The decrease in moisture content of the rhizosphere soil was much less marked in salt-stressed plants. The PGPR ameliorated the adverse effects of drought and salt stress on all parameters but at different magnitude. Generally, PGPR were more effective under drought stress. The percentage decrease in soil moisture content and relative water content (RWC) were higher under drought stress. The drought stress induced a decrease in protein production, and an increase in proline was similar under both stresses however, the PGPR induced production of protein was 50% lower in saline condition but was equally effective for proline production. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher under drought stress than that under salt stress, and PGPR further augmented it. It is inferred from the present finding that the effect of drought is more pronounced in rice and that the ameliorative effectiveness of PGPR used as bioinoculant differs under different stresses for a plant grown under similar condition

447-452 Download
5

Salt-induced systemic Ca2+ signal regulates pre-mRNA splicing in Arabidopsis thaliana


Mohammed Albaqami

Salt-induced systemic Ca2+ signal regulates pre-mRNA splicing in Arabidopsis thaliana


ABSTRACT:

Plants adjust their biological processes to cope with numerous environmental factors. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a common post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism of environmental stress tolerance, such as in response to high salt exposure. Salinity induces transcriptome-wide reprograming via regulation of pre-mRNA splicing; however, the early response signals that trigger this modification are currently unknown. Several external stimuli, including high salinity, cause intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) accumulation. Under salt stress, those ions form a specific long-distance signal that communicates responsiveness and adaptation messages between plant parts. However, while salt-induced Ca2+ signaling is known to mediate several adaptation events, its role in regulating pre-mRNA splicing is yet unknown. Here, evidence is presented that salt-induced long-distance Ca2+ signaling is involved in salt stress-regulated pre-mRNA splicing. Application of localized salt stress (NaCl) to Arabidopsis thaliana root tips modulates the expression and alternative splicing of several transcripts in the shoot. These transcript changes were inhibited by localized treatment of the mid-region of the root with LaCl3, a plasma-membrane Ca2+ channel blocker, suggesting salt-triggered Ca2+ signaling acts as a long-distance modulator of RNA transcription at both the levels of initiation and alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Interestingly, salt-induced Ca2+ signaling affects several stress-related pathways, including the Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways, as well as expression of stress-associated genes and RNA splicing factors. These findings indicate the salt stress-activated long-distance calcium waves are involved in the molecular regulation of RNA splicing, which may contribute to entire-plant salt stress tolerance

453-458 Download
6

Foliar application of mannitol as an effective approach to ameliorate the salt stress-induced toxicity in two varieties of maize (Zea mays L.)


Mehreen Afzal, Khalid Nawaz, Khalid Hussain, Iqra Iqbal, Huma Riaz, Zainab Abdul Rouf, Mehreen Javeria, Rida Akram, Maida Khaliq, Ayesha Attique, Rida Zainab and Waqar-U-Nisa

Foliar application of mannitol as an effective approach to ameliorate the salt stress-induced toxicity in two varieties of maize (Zea mays L.)


ABSTRACT:

The present research work was done to assess the role of mannitol in the amelioration of adverse effects of NaCl stress on two maize varieties i.e. Salaar (V1) and LS-787(V2). For this purpose, a pot experiment with Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was conducted at Botanical Garden of University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Pakistan. For this study, 64 pots, half (32) for V1 and half (32) for V2 were filled with river sand. There were four replicates for each treatment. NaCl stress (100mM) was applied at the time of sowing. Full strength Hoagland‘s nutrient solution was given once in a week. After two weeks of germination, foliar application of mannitol was applied in three levels (25mM, 50mM. 75mM). Data was collected for biochemical, physiological and yield parameters after one month of foliar application of mannitol. Data was analyzed using COSTAT software for Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and mean values were compared with DMRT. Results indicated a considerable decrease in chlorophyll pigments, antioxidant activities (SOD, POD and CAT), protein and carbohydrate accumulation, anthocyanin contents and yield of both varieties which were not treated with mannitol spray under induced salt stress (100mM NaCl) as compared to the plants that were treated with foliar spray of mannitol under salt stress. There was a rise in the electrolyte leakage in the presence of induced salt stress. Physiological activities of maize were also reduced by the salt stress. This indicated a positive role of mannitol in the amelioration of harmful effects of salt stress in maize

459-467 Download
7

Bioinformatics analysis and gene expression patterns of YABBY gene in poplar under heat, osmotic, and salt stress


Shenmeng Wang, Qingxin Dong and Chengjun Yang

Bioinformatics analysis and gene expression patterns of YABBY gene in poplar under heat, osmotic, and salt stress


ABSTRACT:

YABBY is a plant-specific and widely distributed transcription factor involved in the regulation of plant growth and development and plays an important role in plant response to environmental stress. In this study, 33 genes encoding YABBY family transcription factors were identified from Populus trichocarpa, and these YABBY genes were divided into 4 subfamilies. The physicochemical properties showed that the YABBY protein family members were between 133aa-244aa in length, rich in acidic amino acids, and had high thermal stability and localization in the nucleus. The genes are unevenly distributed on 9 chromosomes, and there is a phenomenon of aggregate distribution on the chromosomes. During the evolution of genes, homologous recombination and tandem replication events occurred, including three significant tandem repeat regions and four defined chromosome homologous recombinations. Expression of YABBY gene in mature leaves, young leaves, roots, xylem, female flowers, male flowers, and seeds during germination of P. trichocarpa. Most of the YABBY gene is expressed in young leaves and seedlings. It is speculated that these genes mainly function in these two parts, and there are some differences in the expression levels of each member in each tissue and growth process. The expression of three abiotic stresses (heat, salt, and infiltration) in 10 selected genes of Populus simonii×P. nigra was further studied by real-time quantitative PCR to better understand the function and regulation mechanism of YABBY family transcription factors

469-482 Download
8

Inheritance pattern and gene action of biochemical attributes in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)


Wajid Khan, Abdur Rauf, Raziuddin, Muhammad Ilyas, Tanweer Kumar, Muhammad Amir Zia and Muhammad Arif

Inheritance pattern and gene action of biochemical attributes in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)


ABSTRACT:

The knowledge of gene action and inheritance pattern is of prime importance for a breeder to choose the correct breeding strategy for crop improvement. To understand the inheritance pattern of the quality trait in rapeseed, an experiment of 8 × 8 complete diallel crosses was conducted. The scaling test analysis proved the full adequacy of Hayman's additive–dominance model for all traits except oleic acid and erucic acid contents. The analysis showed the role of both additive and dominance gene action in the manifestation of studied traits. The larger values of dominance (H1, H2) than additive genetic components of variation (D) indicated the prime importance of the non-additive genetic effect. The E component was also significant specifying unstable expression of these traits due to the environmental influence. The Vr/Wr graph and the average degree of dominance revealed over dominance type of gene action for the studied traits. The scattering of genotypes on the regression line proved sufficient genetic diversity for studied traits among parental genotypes. The distribution of array points revealed that genotypes AUP-05 possessed the most dominant genes whereas genotypes AUP-06 possessed the most recessive genes for most of the studied traits. Heritability analysis also revealed the greater role of dominant genes and environment effect in controlling these traits. From these results, it could be suggested that selection could be effective in later segregating generations for improving these quality parameters

483-488 Download
9

Molecular dissection and an in-silico approach of a novel gibberellin 20-oxidase gene of Hibiscus cannabinus L.


Nor Aini Ab Shukor, Yusuf Chong Yu Lok, Sures M. Kumar, Rambod Abiri and Mohd Puad Abdullah

Molecular dissection and an in-silico approach of a novel gibberellin 20-oxidase gene of Hibiscus cannabinus L.


ABSTRACT:

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L) is widely grown for its fibre. The Gibberellin 20-oxidase (HcGA20ox) gene is responsible for the improvement in quality of kenaf fibre. The two transcripts designated as HcGA20ox1 (KY399834) and HcGA20ox1 (KY399835) were isolated from the shoot tissue of three-week-old seedlings using the Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends PCR (RACE), and PCR walking approaches, which encoded the polypeptides of 430 and 345 amino acids, respectively. Therefore, HcGA20ox1b was presumed as a pseudogene and only HcGA20ox1 was focused in downstream works. A high level of similarity has been observed between amino acid sequence of HcGA20ox1 and the GA20ox of other species. In addition, substrate binding site “LPWKET” and two histidine residues which serve as Fe2+ binding domains were found in the sequence. The BLAST results showed that HcGA20ox1 shared high identity with the GA20ox from other species including Gossypium hirsutum, Citrus sinensis, Populus trichocarpa, Jatropha curcas, etc. The highest identity was attributed to the GA20ox of Gossypium hirsutum (accession no.: XP_016668427) at 83% identity. Using the Conserved Domain Database (CDD) available in NCBI, the non-heme dioxygenase superfamily, 2OG-Fe (II) oxygenase superfamily and gibberellin 20-oxidase domains were detected in HcGA20ox1. The molecular weight of the protein was 122224.45 with 4.97 theoretical pI.

 

489-500 Download
10

Analysis of genetic architecture of head yield and biochemical traits in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) using cytoplasmic male sterile lines


Asma Jabeen, Sanjay Chadha, Shabir Hussain Wani, Muhammad Saqlain Zaheer, Hesham F. Alharby, Sameera A. Alghamdi, Hafiz Haider Ali, Yasir Niaz, Abdulrahman Alasmari and Mohamed I. Sakran

Analysis of genetic architecture of head yield and biochemical traits in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) using cytoplasmic male sterile lines


ABSTRACT:

The dearth of research on development of high quality cabbage hybrids in public sector by utilizing combining ability estimates, gene action and heterosis persuaded us to undertake this study. We made 30 F1 hybrids between 15 cytoplasmic male-sterile lines and 2 testers during the summer of 2019 as per the line × tester design. The seedlings of all the parents and 30 F1 hybrids along with two standard checks were transplanted during the Rabi season of 2019-2020 and evaluated using a randomized block design. Experimental results revealed that the parental lines II-105-CMS, III-M-CMS and SC 2008-09 were found to be good general combiners for most of the traits studied. Based on the mean performance, specific combining ability effects and heterosis three cross combinations viz., II-S-CMS × SC 2008-09, II-105-CMS × SC 2008-09 and II-105-CMS × E-1-3-1&2 were most outstanding. The proportional contribution of lines (5.77 – 62.12%) were found to be higher than the testers (0.04–11.93%) for all the traits studied. Further, the contribution of line × tester interactions (33.76 – 93.83%) was found to be higher than the individual contribution of lines and testers. This showed that interactions played a significant role in the expression of different characters in various cross-combinations. The dominance variances (σ2D) were of higher magnitude for majority of the traits, indicating that non-additive gene effects were more important than additive effects. Hence, strong heterosis could be better displayed in yield and quality of cabbage heads

501-512 Download
11

Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of two LEA genes in chrysanthemum


Cao Xiaohan, Yin Dandan, Mao Huimin, Deng Xianhui, Yan Huan, Wan Wenyang and Ren Liping

Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of two LEA genes in chrysanthemum


ABSTRACT:

Late embryogenesis abundant protein (LEA) has been demonstrated to play essential roles in plant growth, development, and also in a variety of environmental stress responses. In this study, 2 LEA gene family members were cloned and named CmLEA2-2 and CmLEA6-5, then computationally examined to explore its physical and chemical characteristics, evolutionary links, and expression patterns in different tissues and under low-temperature stress. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CmLEA2-2 and TcLEA14 are closely related, while CmLEA6-5 and PfLEA is closely related. The expression of the CmLEA gene in distinct tissues of chrysanthemum is tissue specific: the expression of CmLEA2-2 gene was highest in leaves, second in stems, and lower in roots and flowers; the CmLEA6-5 gene was highest expressed in stem, but not in other tissues. The expression study of the 2 discovered LEA family members under low-temperature stress revealed that low-temperature stress influenced the transcription of the chrysanthemum LEA gene. The expression of them increased, but there were variances in response time and intensity. They're supposed to help the chrysanthemum cope with stress and protect its cells. This could be owing to the tiny molecular weight and strong hydrophilic properties of the CmLEA protein

513-518 Download
12

Cloning and expression profile of PdPapDOL3 gene in Shanxin poplar (Populus davidana × P. alba var. Pyramidlis) in response to stress


Yuan Yin, Abdul Majeed Baloch, Xiaoxuan Chen, Yida Che, Jiamin Lei, Yue Zhang, Surui Liu, Abdul Wahid Baloch and Rongshu Zhang

Cloning and expression profile of PdPapDOL3 gene in Shanxin poplar (Populus davidana × P. alba var. Pyramidlis) in response to stress


ABSTRACT:

In order to identify and verify crucial genes that regulate the stress response and resistance of poplar, RNA-seq data of poplar (Populus davidiana × P. alba var. Pyramidlis, cv ‘Shanxin’) leaves induced by Trichoderma asperellum and/or Alternaria alternata were screened. As a result, a key responding gene was identified, cloned and named as PdPapDOL3. In silico analyses showed that the coded protein PdPapDOL3 was a non-transmembrane hydrophilic protein of the DOG1 transcription factor family. The tissue-specific expression profile of PdPapDOL3 in poplar seedlings was investigated through real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The results showed that PdPapDOL3 was constititutively expressed in different compartments of poplar with the root demonstrating the highest expression. The differential regulation of PdPapDOL3 expression induced by salt, alkali, polyethylene glycol (PEG), five soil-borne plant fungal pathogens or phytohormones for 48 hours was separately investigated. The results showed that the alkali induction caused the most evident change in PdPapDOL3 expression. Fusarium oxysporum, Cytospora chrysosperma or Alternaria alternata induction significantly up-regulated PdPapDOL3 expression in young tissues. F. oxysporum induction significantly up-regulated PdPapDOL3 expression in mature leaf. C. chrysosperma and A. alternata significantly induced PdPapDOL3 expression in the root. PdPapDOL3 expression was induced by salicylic acid (SA) in all the investigated compartments of poplar. While induced by jasmonic acid (JA) or abscisic acid (ABA), PdPapDOL3 expression was up-regulated in young tissues but down-regulated in the root. In this study, we report the tissue-specific expression patterns and the differential regulation profiles of the PdPapDOL3 gene in poplar under various stress conditions. Our results lay a foundation for further elucidating the function of PdPapDOL3 and provide insights into breeding novel stress-resistant poplar cultivars through modifying PdPapDOL3 expression

519-528 Download
13

Phylogeny of Solanaceae based on morphological and molecular data-useful approach for classification


Ishrat Jamil, Abid Azhar, Zabta Khan Shinwari and Syed Irtifaq Ali

Phylogeny of Solanaceae based on morphological and molecular data-useful approach for classification


ABSTRACT:

Data from morphological characters and sequence of chloroplast intergenic spacer region ndhF-rpl32 were analyzed for the same set of 18 species of Solanaceae and one outgroup Ipomoea cairica, a member of sister family Convolvulaceae. In the present study, ndhF-rpl32 intergenic spacer region was utilized to explore systematic relationships within Solanaceae. Sequence analysis revealed that the intergenic spacer ndhF-rpl32 was a hyper variable region in terms of nucleotide deletion compared to the other coding (rbcL, matK) and non-coding region (atpβ-rbcL) of the chloroplast genome. The result of separate parsimonious analysis revealed that the topology of both morphological and molecular phylogenetic trees were similar with respect to the division of subfamilies within Solanaceae but are in conflict with respect to the resolution of the tribal and intergeneric association within monophyletic subfamily Solanoideae. The sequence based parsimonious analysis results in few fully resolved clades within Solanoideae. Moreover, the Bayesian analysis provides the increased resolution within Solanoideae and for the rest of the tree.

 

529-538 Download
14

The comparative morphological, anatomical and palynological studies on the genus helleborus (Ranunculaceae) growing in Turkey


Omer Elkiran

The comparative morphological, anatomical and palynological studies on the genus helleborus (Ranunculaceae) growing in Turkey


ABSTRACT:

In the present study, the morphological, anatomical, and palynological characteristics of H. orientalis Lam. and H. vesicarius Aucher (endemic) were studied and compared. The root structures, branching shape, the distance between internodes, basal and stem leave dimensions, detailed descriptions of leaves, detailed new morphological characters of flowers and sepals were added to plant descriptions. Their anatomical structures were visualized under a light microscope and compared for the first time with detailed micro-anatomical measurements. Pollen images were shown for the first time by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy. It was found that the pollen types were tricolpate and tricolporate (rarely tricolpate), their shapes were subprolate and prolate-spheroidal, and their ornamentations were reticulate and microreticulate-foveolate

539-547 Download
15

A transcriptomic approach to develop a novel set of low-copy nuclear gene primers for the sand whip grass, Psammochloa villosa (Trin.) Bor (Poaceae), a dominant species from the inner Mongolia plateau


Ting Lv, Yu-Ping Liu, Tao Liu, Gui Fu, Zi-Lan Ma, Chang-Yuan Zheng and Xu Su

A transcriptomic approach to develop a novel set of low-copy nuclear gene primers for the sand whip grass, Psammochloa villosa (Trin.) Bor (Poaceae), a dominant species from the inner Mongolia plateau


ABSTRACT:

The sand whip grass, Psammochloa villosa (Trin.) Bor, is a species found in the Inner Mongolian Plateau and neighboring areas with economic and ecologic importance due to its abundance in sand dunes. Its tolerance to dry environments makes of this grass a species of interest for a potential source of genetic material to improve crops or as a forage plant for local livestock. Here, we designed a collection of primers suitable to amplify genes with the capacity to assess the genetic variability among populations of P. villosa. The primers were designed from a randomly selected subset of 72 low-copy nuclear genes retrieved from 300 orthologs amplified from transcriptomes. We tested the performance of the 10 primers using 15 individuals from five wild populations. The primers were able to amplify ten low-copy genes, whose aligned sequences ranged in length from 716 to 1221 base pairs. We used the resulting data to measure diversity of haplotypes (Hd) and nucleotides (π), which varied from 0.402 to 0.979, and from 0.00064 to 0.006540, respectively. Meanwhile, a phylogenetic analysis showed topological consistency between the topologies of trees constructed using ML and BI methods, placing the genus Achnatherum as sister to Psammochloa. Our work demonstrated the success of these primer pairs amplifying low-copy nuclear genes in P. villosa, and their potential to perform large-scale studies assessing the genetic variation and evolution of this species. These primers may be also useful to conduct molecular studies of closely related taxa such as the numerous and economically important feather grasses in the genus Stipa L

549-554 Download
16

Assessment of genetic diversity among okra genotypes through PCA and correlation analysis for fruit tenderness, and morphological and yield traits


Abdul Manan Saleem, Khurram Ziaf, Muhammad Amjad, Amir Shakeel, Muhammad Awais Ghani and Anam Noor

Assessment of genetic diversity among okra genotypes through PCA and correlation analysis for fruit tenderness, and morphological and yield traits


ABSTRACT:

Most of the local okra varieties grown in Pakistan are prone to several challenges like long maturity periods yet short harvesting time, biotic and abiotic stress, inferior quality and low yield in comparison to countries like India, Nigeria and Iraq. Therefore, this study was designed to measure diversity in available okra germplasm comprising of twenty four genotypes for morphological, yield and quality related traits. Considerable variation was observed for all studied traits except for internodal length, fruit girth, days to fruit maturity and vitamin C. Highest variation was recorded for plant height, leaves plant-1, leaf area, days to flowering, number of fruits plant-1, fruiting span, fruit yield plant-1 and fruit tenderness at 10th and 12th day from flower opening. Plant height was significantly positively correlated with all measured traits except days to flowering, days to fruit maturity and fruit tenderness. Days to flowering were significantly positively correlated with fruit weight and tenderness of at all intervals of picking. Moreover, number of fruits plant-1 was positively correlated with average fruit weight and both were significantly correlated with fruit weight plant-1, fruiting span, protein contents and vitamin C. However, fruit weight plant-1 was significantly positive correlated with fruiting span, but negatively correlated with fruit tenderness. Principal component analysis (PCA) unveiled that PC-I and PC-II had Eigen values greater than one and these two contributed 80.82% of total variability for various traits, but PC-III to PC-VI had Eigen value 0.68, 0.62, 0.58 and 0.39, respectively. Among the three clusters of all genotypes, highest yield and related traits were perceived in cluster I and III, while lowest values of these parameters were recorded in cluster II. Moreover, highest genetic divergence was noticed among cluster I and cluster II. As a result, it is recommended that genotypes residing in I and III clusters can be crossed to assess heterosis for okra yield and quality traits like fruit tenderness

555-562 Download
17

Cloning and expression analysis of OfCCD1 and OfCCD4 genes in sweet osmanthus


Chen Xu, Xiulian Yang, Shoucheng Huang, Hong Chen and Yuanbing Zhang

Cloning and expression analysis of OfCCD1 and OfCCD4 genes in sweet osmanthus


ABSTRACT:

Sweet osmanthus is an extraordinary aromatic flower, an excellent greening tree species in gardens, and a raw material for processing spice of high economic value. More than 60 main aroma components have been identified in it. According to their chemical structures, the components can be divided into terpenes, aldehydes, esters, ketones, alcohols, and other compounds. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase is a key enzyme in the degradation of carotenoids, which catalyzes the cleavage of carotenoids to produce a variety of products, including the floral substances α-ionone and β-ionone. In order to explore the critical enzyme genes of sweet osmanthus, two CCD genes named OfCCD1 (GenBank No. OM256439) and OfCCD4 (GenBank No. OM145981) were cloned by RACE and RT-PCR and analyzed by bioinformatics and their expression pattern. The results showed that the total length of the cDNA of OfCCD1 and OfCCD4 genes were 1811 bp and 2076 bp, respectively. They both contained a complete open reading frame, 1632 bp and 1833 bp, encoding 543 aa and 610 aa, respectively. Analysis showed that both OfCCD1 and OfCCD4 were stable hydrophilic proteins with an RPE65 domain and without signal peptide cleavage sites and transmembrane regions. Phylogenetic tree results showed that OfCCD1 and OfCCD4 were closely related to the evolution of the homologous proteins of Olea europaea. Expression analysis showed that the expression of OfCCD1 was greatest in leaves at the full flowering stage, while the expression of OfCCD4 was greatest in inflorescences at the bud-eye stage; OfCCD4 had obvious tissue specificity. In conclusion, the cloning and correlation analysis of OfCCD1 and OfCCD4 genes can provide a further basis to study sweet osmanthus’s floral aroma metabolism

563-569 Download
18

Selection of potassium efficient and responsive wheat genotypes for sustainable low K-input agriculture


Muhammad Ali Khan, Muhammad Ubaidullah Shirazi, Aisha Shereen, Mahboob Ali Sial, Muhammad Athar Khan, Asma and Saifullah Baloch

Selection of potassium efficient and responsive wheat genotypes for sustainable low K-input agriculture


ABSTRACT:

The study was conducted at early seedling stage for the evaluation of K-efficient and K-responsive wheat genotypes using Johnson’s solution adjusted to 0.3 mM (def.K) and 3.0 mM (adq.K) uses K2SO4 as Potassium source. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design (CRD) and each treatment was replicated thrice. It was found that usually K-deficiency resulted to decrease biomass production, K- contents and K- use efficiency. On the contrary potassium use efficiency was enhanced, almost four folds in the genotypes grown at low K (0.3 mM) and significantly correlated with total biomass (r=0.732). On the basis of growth parameters, i.e. Shoot dry weight(SDW), Root dry weight(RDW), Total bio-mass(TBM), Root shoot ratio(RSR) and Potassium Use efficiency(KUE) ) as well as K-allocations parameters, i.e. Shoot Potassium accumulation(SKA), Root Potassium accumulation(RKA) and Total Potassium accumulation(TKA), nine genotypes, viz. MSH-14, NIA- Sundar, SD-4047, Khirman, 17-03, SD-222, NIA-MB-II, 54-03 and SD-621 were categorized as responsive & efficient (R&E), the highly desirable criterion. This study concluded that shoot dry weight and potassium use efficiency can be efficiently utilized for screening of wheat genotypes under deficient and adequate K conditions. It is further suggested that K-responsive and efficient wheat genotypes may be utilized in the breeding programme to develop K-efficiency for sustainable low K-input wheat production

571-582 Download
19

Contribution to flora of Pakistan: three new records for Amaranthaceae and Fabaceae including a new generic record


Mahrine Rashid and Amir Sultan

Contribution to flora of Pakistan: three new records for Amaranthaceae and Fabaceae including a new generic record


ABSTRACT:

The current study is based on vegetation surveys, conducted throughout Pakistan from 2014 onwards and three plant species viz., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb., Amaranthus albus L. (Amaranthaceae) and Galactia striata (Jacq.) Urb. (Fabaceae) were identified as new records for Pakistan. Macro- and micro-morphological characteristics of these three species were studied and descriptions and illustrations are provided for easy identification.

 

583-586 Download
20

Qualitative phytochemical screening of some medicinally important alpine plants from Mastuj valley, Hindu Kush range Pakistan


Farrukh Hussain, Syed Mukaram Shah, Khalid Aziz, Sapna Raisham and Shabir Ahmad

Qualitative phytochemical screening of some medicinally important alpine plants from Mastuj valley, Hindu Kush range Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Qualitative phytochemical screening of 24 medicinally important alpine plants from Mastuj Valley, Hindu Kush Range, Pakistan was carried out for the detection of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and oil contents at three phenological stages: Pre-reproductive (young vegetative stage), Reproductive (flowering/fruiting stage) and Post-reproductive stages (fruit/seed maturation and dispersal stage). The selected plants were distributed among, 5 tree, 8 shrub, 7 herbaceous and 4 grassy species belonging to 16 families. Phytochemical screening indicated that 15 species contained all the 4 chemicals, 5 species had 3, 3 species had 2 and one species had only oil. Alkaloids and saponins were present in 21 species. Tannins and oils were detected in 20 species. Alkaloids were recorded in 12, 8 and 20 species in pre-reproductive, reproductive and post reproductive stages, respectively. Saponins were recorded in 21, 19 and 16 species respectively at pre-reproductive, reproductive and post reproductive stages. Pre-reproductive, reproductive and post reproductive stages respectively had tannins in 18, 15 and 16 species. Oils were recorded in 14, 15 and 18 species in the three successive phenological stages. This preliminary study suggests further quantitative analysis for the screened and other phytochemicals in different plants, their various parts to exactly pin-point the quantity of these useful chemicals under varied environmental conditions by using different solvents.

 

587-594 Download
21

Stock and hydrological characteristics of four limestone secondary forest litters in subtropical China


Siyu Gun, Manfu Hou and Laiye Qu

Stock and hydrological characteristics of four limestone secondary forest litters in subtropical China


ABSTRACT:

Forest litter plays an important role in water conservation, which has obvious effects on water storage and preservation. Taking four types of limestone forests in Guilin in the subtropical region as the object, the existing amount of litter in subtropical limestone forests was investigated via field sampling, and the hydrological effect of litter was explored using the water soaking method. The amount of litter accumulated in the four forests was 4.64–8.29 t·hm−2 (p<0.05), and the accumulation of the undecomposed layer of litter was greater than the semi-decomposed layer. The maximum water-holding capacity of litter was 11.53–16.05 t·hm−2 (p<0.05), Cyclobalanopsis glauca forest was the largest, Platycarya strobilacea forest was the smallest. The water-holding capacity and soaking time of the four forest litters had a logarithmic function relationship (R2 > 0.95, p = 0.00), whereas the water absorption rate and soaking time had a power function relationship (R2 > 0.9994, p = 0.00). The effective interception volume and effective interception depth of the four forest litters were represented by the C. glauca forest (127.71 t·hm−2), deciduous mixed forest (114.35 t·hm−2), P. strobilacea forest (97.21 t·hm−2), and evergreen mixed forest (86.86 t·hm−2) (p<0.00), which was equivalent to intercepting precipitation of 12.77, 11.44, 9.71, 8.69 mm (p<0.00), respectively. The C. glauca forest had the strongest interception ability and the evergreen mixed forest had the weakest. The existing amount of litter and hydrological functions of the four forests indicated that the C. glauca forest had strong water conservation ability. It is recommended to enhance the protection and restoration of the C. glauca forest in the limestone area of Guilin or other areas with similar climate and environment.

 

595-604 Download
22

Macro- and micro-morphological study of fruit and seeds in the genus Alyssum (Brassicaceae)

 


Dervis Ozturk

Macro- and micro-morphological study of fruit and seeds in the genus Alyssum (Brassicaceae)

 


ABSTRACT:

In this study, the fruit and seed characteristics of twelve species belonging to 5 sections of the genus Alyssum (Brassicaceae) were investigated in 12 populations from different localities in Eskişehir/Turkey. Morphological and micromorphological studies were carried out using stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the nutlet and fruit characteristics to determine the systematic relationships of 12 species belonging to the genus Alyssum from the family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae). The methods used in the numerical analysis included clustering [unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA)] and principal component analysis (PCA). PCA allowed for most of the among the seed micromorphology to be highlighted and provided possible explanations for them. According to the UPGMA analysis, the most related taxa were A. linifolium with A. obtusifolium and A. niveum with A. simplex As a result of the PCA, it was determined that the extension width as well as the extension length minimum and maximum values are important characters to be used in the classification of Alyssum.

605-610 Download
23

Characterization of diverse cotton cultivars for potassium acquisition based on morphological and physiological traits at early growth stage


Muhammad Naeem Akhtar, Tanveer-Ul-Haq, Fiaz Ahmad, Wazir Ahmed and Abdul Ghaffar

Characterization of diverse cotton cultivars for potassium acquisition based on morphological and physiological traits at early growth stage


ABSTRACT:

Categorization of cotton cultivars on the basis of their growth performance under nutrient deficient conditions is an essential for the development of K efficient cultivars in any crop. Soil all over the world is exhausting for the supply of adequate potassium (K) nutrition due to intensive systems of crop cultivation. The exploitation of genetic variability underlying efficient K transport system is a viable cost-effective strategy to increase cotton productivity in low input production system. The aim of this study was to characterize 46 diverse cotton cultivars for enhanced K acquisition and utilization efficiency at low (0.26 mM K) and adequate (3.33mM K) potassium levels in a sand culture experiment. Our data revealed that at low K level, the shoot dry matter weight of cotton cultivars ranged from 1.19 to 3.16 g plant-1, whereas K content in shoot tissue varied from 5.5-11.8 (mg g-1dw). Similarly, at low K level, shoot K uptake in cotton cultivars ranged from 6.90 to 37.4 (mg plant-1dw), whereas it was ranged from 30.3 to 67.5 (mg plant-1dw) at adequate K level. An overall 67.6% reduction in total K uptake was noticed in cotton cultivars at low K level when compared with adequate K level. The cotton cultivars were classified into highly, moderately, and poorly K efficient groups based on K use efficiency, dry matter yield index, and morphological and physiological traits. The highly K efficient group includes cultivars e.g., MNH-886, CYTO-124, FH-142, CIM-554, CIM-707 and IUB-2013, whereas the cultivars BH-212 and FH-901 were represented as poorly K efficient cultivars. The moderately K efficient group includes CIM-599, N-444, CIM-534, FH-Lalazar, CIM-443, VH-369, CIM-663, CYTO-515, and BH-184. We concluded that genetic diversity is existed among indigenous cotton cultivars for K utilization efficiency. The K- efficient cultivars can be used as donor of key K acquisition traits in breeding programs to develop cotton varieties with enhanced K uptake and utilization along with high yields

611-626 Download
24

Performance of different sized urban trees for aboveground carbon sequestration in semi arid environment


Afsheen Khan, S. Shahid Shaukat, Toqeer Ahmed Rao and Bushreen Jahan

Performance of different sized urban trees for aboveground carbon sequestration in semi arid environment


ABSTRACT:

The study primarily focuses on the evaluation of carbon sequestration capability of seven tree species (Conocarpus erectus, Azadirachta indica, Vachellia nilotica, Delonix regia, Parkinsonia aculeate, Cassia fistula and Guaiacum officinale) commonly growing on roadsides and off-roadsides in Karachi city. The DBH (diameter at breast height) and height of trees of each species were recorded from two habitats (off-roads i.e., inner streets, including Karachi University Campus) and main roadsides in Gulshan-e-Iqbal area. The former habitat is only slightly polluted while the later is amply polluted. Soil samples were collected (from 0-30 cm depth) and analysed physically and chemically. The DBH distribution was examined using histograms. Using tree DBH and height data simple but authentic equations put forward by earlier workers were applied to estimate total biomass and carbon stocks accumulated by the tree species. The highest carbon stock was accumulated by Azadirachta indica because of its greater size and mostly older trees with high DBH.

 

 

627-634 Download
25

Mineral evaluation of fodder tree leaves and shrubs consumed by livestock in the mountain region of Pakistan


Ishrat Roomi, Azhar Hussain, Sher Wali Khan, Maisoor Ahmad Nafees, Arif Un Nisa Naqvi and Wasim Akram

Mineral evaluation of fodder tree leaves and shrubs consumed by livestock in the mountain region of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The current study aimed to investigate the macro-micro mineral profile of four fodder trees (Salix nigra, Salix alba, Populus nigra, and Elaeagnus angustifolia) and two shrubs (Hippophae rhamnoides and Rosa webbiana) commonly utilized as livestock feed. A study was undertaken in three villages (Holshal, Broshal, and Hakalshal) of Hoper Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan, to determine the species and seasonal changes in macro and micro-mineral concentrations. Six composite samples from each village were collected across three seasons and measured via wet digestion. Except for sulfur (0.82%) in Salix alba, substantial amounts of macro-micro minerals of phosphorus (0.41), potassium (2.14), calcium (2.64%), zinc (217.5), and copper (11.63mg/kg DM) were identified in Populusnigra, whereas magnesium (0.45%), manganese (90.4), and iron (728.3 mg/kg DM) were found in Rosa webbiana. Phosphorus (0.54), potassium (1.87%), and copper (12.4 mg/kg DM) were found in high concentrations in the spring, while calcium (3.04), magnesium (0.34), sulfur (0.53%), zinc (102.0), manganese (69.6), and iron (514.1 mg/kg DM) were found in high concentrations in the autumn. The study suggests that the leaves from all fodder species should be mixed before being fed to ruminant animals to ensure the supply of all minerals in the ration. Mineral concentrations vary by species and season, necessitating a proper feed plan to meet the nutritional needs of ruminant animals, and local farmers should use diverse feeding strategies throughout the year

635-642 Download
26

Allelopathic effect of Euphorbia hirta (pig weed) extracts and powder on seedling growth, chlorophyll and protein content of Cicer arietinum (black gram) in Pakistan


Hafsa Dar, Alia Abbas, Iram Us Salam, Rashida Rahmat Zohra, Ijaz Ahmed Qureshi and Fahad Bashir

Allelopathic effect of Euphorbia hirta (pig weed) extracts and powder on seedling growth, chlorophyll and protein content of Cicer arietinum (black gram) in Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The present study was planned to describe the allelopathic effect of Euphorbia hirta (Pig weed) on Cicer arietinum (black gram) The effect of weed extract and powder on different growth parameters were studied on seed germination, velocity of germination, seedling growth, plant height, fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll and protein contents of Cicer arietinum. In Petri plate experiments extract of different concentrations were used such as 3, 5 and 7 % and distilled water used as a control with their five replicates. The 7 % extract of E. hirta showed highest inhibitory effect on germination, velocity of germination, seedling growth and plumule length was more inhibited than the radicle length of test crop. In Pot experiments weed powder were taken in different amount such as 10, 15 and 20 g, mixed with uniform amount of soil (500 g) and control pots were filled only with soil, with their five replicates. Weed powder has non-significant effect on plant height of C. arietinum. Fresh and dry weight also indicates inhibitory effect was proportional to the amount of weed powder. Chlorophyll contents and carotene were gradually decreased in treated plants as compared to the control. The highest % inhibition was observed in 20g. The inhibition may be due to the allelochemicals present in E. hirta.

 

643-648 Download
27

On the value of apricot kernel in modern medicine and its future development 


Qian Hu, Ying-Ying Chen, Gao-Ying Zhu, Han Zhao, Lin Wang, Hui-Min Liu, Tana Wuyun, Fang-Dong Li and Gao-Pu Zhu

On the value of apricot kernel in modern medicine and its future development 


ABSTRACT:

Apricot kernels are one of the most regularly used traditional Chinese medicinal ingredients in Asia. The medical significance of apricot kernels is highlighted since Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) demonstrated its favourable impact when apricot kernels were used in the prevention and treatment of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Furthermore, apricot kernels are high in fat, protein, dietary fibre, and specific amygdalin, making them a new form of dried fruit in comparison to almond kernels, with a bigger market opportunity. This paper systematically reviewed the active components of apricot kernels and their application in medicine, especially for molecular mechanisms of anti-tumors of amygdalin, providing scientific theoretical foundations for modern medicine treatment with COVID-19-induced lung disease, and for the development of high value-added apricot kernels

649-655 Download
28

Optimizing the propagation techniques for Gardenia jasminoides Ellis


Bihua Chen, Juan Zhang, Junjie Wu, Jianmin Li and Huihua Fan

Optimizing the propagation techniques for Gardenia jasminoides Ellis


ABSTRACT:

In Fujian China the harvest time for Gardenia jasminoides fruit is generally from October to November each year. The seeds should be timely placed in the shade area or kept in the refrigerator (4-5°C), which could improve the seedling height increment, but could not improve the germination rate. 500 ppm 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA) was selected as the suitable plant growth regulator (PRG) and concentration for G. jasminoides cutting propagation by comparison of different PRG concentrations. G. jasminoides cuttings showed early flowering performance in seedling stage, and the fruiting would be advanced after afforestation. G. jasminoides explants were difficult to disinfect during explant initiation. The mother plants for taking explants should be pretreated with pesticides for reducing the contamination rate. Dark culture was needed and 5 mg/L Vitamin C (VC) was added into the medium to reduce the browning during the explant initiation culture. The medium that Murashige and Skoog basal medium (MS)+1.0 mg/L 6-benzyladenine (BA)+0.1 mg/L 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA)+50 mg/L VC and 30 g/L sugar were appended in the explant initiation medium. The average multiplication rate of subcultural medium MS+0.5 mg/L BA+0.1 mg/L NAA+5 mg/L Vitamin B2 (VB2) +50 mg/L VC was 6.25 times, the average shoot height was 3.83cm, and the shoot base had less calli and the shoots grew well. The rooting medium 1/2 MS+ 0.25 mg/L IBA supplemented with 20 mg/L sugar, the rooting rate achieved 100%, the average root length reached 4.46 cm and the average root number per plant reached 7.92 cm. The tissue-cultured seedlings were moved to the glass greenhouse for hardening, then washed the culture medium and transplanted to a greenhouse by covering the plastic film to keep humidity. 30 days after careful control of pests and diseases, the survival rate was more than 98%.

 

657-664 Download
29

Selection of soybeans for adaptation through principal component analysis under different climatic factors at seedling stage


Bareera Nasir, Humera Razzaq, Hafeez Ahmad Sadaqat and Muhammad Ashfaq Wahid

Selection of soybeans for adaptation through principal component analysis under different climatic factors at seedling stage


ABSTRACT:

Soybean (Glycine max L.) is known as “Golden Beans” that is also called “meat that grows on plant”. It is a climate sensitive crop so adaptation under different climatic regimes is a permanent solution. The crucial factors for its adaptation are temperature, photoperiod and water. The right combination of these climatic factors allows soybean to avoid unwanted conditions for germination, growth and to maximize the yield. The present study was focused on selection of soybeans for adaptation under different climatic regimes. Three separate experiments were conducted. Eighty accessions were screened under three different water treatments (T0= 100% water holding capacity, T1= 60% water holding capacity and T2= 40% water holding capacity) photoperiod treatments (T0 = 10 hours, T1= 11 hours and T2 = 13) and temperature treatments (T0= 30°C, T1= 35°C and T2= 40°C) using Split Plot with Completely Randomized Design. Data of seedlings for water, temperature and photoperiod related traits were recorded. The recorded data were subjected analysis of variance, mean values (photoperiod) and Principal Component Analysis (water and temperature). Five best accessions (common in water, temperature and photoperiod experiments) were selected. Selected accessions can be used as potential parents for the development of breeding material and may be further evaluated under different climatic conditions to study their worth for adaptation.

 

665-678 Download
30

The potential of commercial composts in reducing heavy metals and metalloids phytoaccumulation in maize


Waqas Ahmed, Qamar Uz Zaman, Faisal Mehmood, Asim Abbasi, Kamran Ashraf, Komal Fatima, Saba Nazir, Nayab Komal and Muhammad Waqas

The potential of commercial composts in reducing heavy metals and metalloids phytoaccumulation in maize


ABSTRACT:

Plants uptake the heavy metals (HMs) from soil and accumulate in human body and biomagnifications via food chain causes both environment pollution and human health issues. Various amendments of organic and inorganic nature were applied to minimize the metal contamination of soil. Present study investigated the effects of composts for mitigation of metals and metalloids stress in maize. Experimental treatments were comprised of composts (GO-Organic composts and Lahore compost), metals and metalloids (Cd, As and Cr) and their levels (0, 25 and 50 ppm). Results revealed that as HMs and metalloids stress increased in soil, the physiological, growth, quality and yield attributes gradually decreased. Higher levels (50 ppm) of metals stress significantly reduced all attributes as compared to control (0 ppm). The decreasing order of metals and metalloids stress in all parameters was As > Cr > Cd. Maximum reduction in chlorophyll contents (23.1%), cob length (41.3%), cob diameter (32.6%) and grain yield per plant (26.8%) were observed at the 50 ppm of metals and metalloids compared to control. However, an increase of 70.5%, 118.4% and 43.9% in enzymatic activities of SOD, POD and CAT, respectively, was noticed at the same level. Whereas, by using compost, all attributes were significantly improved primarily due to the gradual decrease in accumulation of metals and metalloids in different parts of the plant which ultimately diminishes stress in maize plants with GO-Organic Compost more profound than Lahore Compost. In crux, heavy metals have detrimental effects on the growth, photosynthesis, enzymatic antioxidants, yield and quality of maize. However, compost can be applied safely for maize cultivation in soil spiked with metals and metalloids.

 

679-687 Download
31

Response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) F5:6 population of for earliness and yield traits


Muhammad Saleem Khan, Sardar Ali, Naushad Ali, Sher Aslam Khan, Rasheed Akbar, Mohammad Javed Ansari, Shah Fahad, Rahul Datta, Subhan Danish, Shah Hassan, Taufiq Nawaz, Shah Saud and Muhammad Adnan

Response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) F5:6 population of for earliness and yield traits


ABSTRACT:

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) is a widely cultivated vegetable crop all over the world. It is a rich source of protein. The genetic diversity of okra germplasm can play a significant role in developing its high yielding varieties. Selection of best parents for okra hybridization program and subsequent selection of transgressive segregants is an important strategy in this regard. That’s why the current study was conducted to investigate genetic variation among the okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) genotypes for yield and yield-related traits. The experimental material comprised fifteen F5:6 (SO1- SO15) okra cross combinations along with their 6 parents (Punjab Selection, Pusaswami, Arka Anamika, Super Green, Green Star and Subz Pari). Results showed that among okra parental populations, Punjab Selection took minimum days to 50% flowering (51.7 days), marketable fruit length (15.1 cm), marketable fruit girth (1.31 cm) and internode length (4.37 cm) while exhibited maximum, pods plant-1 (22.9 pods), physiological mature pod length (16.8 cm), physiological mature pod girth (2.18 cm) and pod yield (6.18 kg), respectively. Maximum internodes plant-1 (22.9 internodes) were observed for okra parental genotype Sabz Pari. Okra genotype SO8 and SO15 gave maximum pods plant-1 (27.6 pods) internodes plant-1 (19.5) and pod yield (7.10 kg), respectively. Based on excellent results okra parental genotypes, Punjab Selection and Sabz Pari along with F5:6 segregating populations SO8, SO12 and SO15 are recommended for future okra crossing programs.

 

689-695 Download
32

Formation characteristics of endosperm structures in different rice genotypes


Limin Yuan, Runqin Li, Lidong Fu, Zhiqın Wang and Jianchang Yang

Formation characteristics of endosperm structures in different rice genotypes


ABSTRACT:

To explore the formation characteristics of endosperm structures in different rice genotypes, different rice genotypes of (indica, japonica, and glutinous) were used and grown in the paddy field. The endosperm structures in the grain during the filling period were investigated. The results showed that the compactness of amyloplast arrangement was positively correlated with grain filling percentage. The endosperm structure varied with the position within a grain. At maturity, the structure was the best in the back, the intermediate in the center, and the worst in the belly of a kernel. However, the filling was better in the center than in the back and in the belly from 5 to 10 days after flowering (DAF). The endosperm structure was different among genotypes. From 5 to 25 DAF, starch accumulation was the earliest in glutinous rice genotypes, followed by indica and japonica genotypes. Gaps and pores in endosperm were closely associated with rice transparency. The starch crystallinity in endosperm was negatively correlated with amylose content. Among the three genotypes, glutinous showed the highest crystallinity, followed by japonica and indica rice. The starch crystallinity in a grain was lower on a primary branch than that on a secondary branch. Among all grains, the second grain on a primary branch showed the lowest starch crystallinity. The results indicated that the starch structure of endosperm not only differ between rice genotypes, but also varies with the location of a grain on the panicle, and that it affects the grain-filling, transparency and amylose content of rice.

 

697-710 Download
33

Effect of row spacing and harvest method on seed yield of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)


Ilker Inal

Effect of row spacing and harvest method on seed yield of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)


ABSTRACT:

The optimal seed yield achieving from forage legumes production on of the biggest challenge to modern farming system under changing of climate.   This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of row spacing and harvest method on the seed yield and yield components in alfalfa. The research was done at East Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute during 2012 and 2015 arranging in a split-plot design with four replications. Row spacings (25, 50, 75 and 100 cm) were assigned in the main plots and harvest methods (HM1: cutting with mower to form windrows to air dry and then threshing with plot combine, HM2: harvest directly with the plot combine, HM3: harvest with the plot combine after ethephon plus cyclanilide application as defoliant, and HM4:harvest with the plot combine after thidiazuron plus diuron application as defoliant) were in the subplots. Row spacing and harvest method significantly affected on the number of pods per plant, the number of seeds per pod and seed yield, but it was not significant influence on seed germination. The highest seed yield (829 kg ha-1) (three years average) was obtained with 25 cm row spacing with HM3, while the lowest yield (412 kg ha-1) was obtained with 100 cm row spacing with HM1. Generally, the results of the study showed that defoliant application with 25 cm row spacing and narrower row spacing (25-50 cm) with HM2 or HM3 were the most effective combinations of treatments for alfalfa seed production in the ukurova region of Turkey.

 

711-717 Download
34

The effects of different biodegradable mulches on weed population and fruit yield in watermelon production field


Ramazan Gurbuz and Pinar Gul

The effects of different biodegradable mulches on weed population and fruit yield in watermelon production field


ABSTRACT:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of various biodegradable mulch materials on watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) yield and weed control over two consecutive crop seasons in Iğdır, Türkiye (2019-2020). Crimson Sweet, the region's most widely cultivated watermelon variety, was used. A randomized complete block design with 9 treatments and 4 replications was used for the experiment. Organic mulch materials included oat straw, peat, sawdust, fresh lawn clippings, decayed lawn clippings, flax, and felt. Each block had two distinct controls, a weedy and a weed-free (hoeing) treatment. The researchers looked into the effects of mulch materials on weed control, fruit yield (kg/da), average fruit weight (kg), fruit diameter (cm), and soluble solids concentration (SSC - percent brix). Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, Heliotropium europeum, Chenopodium botrys, and Atriplex hortensis were the top five weeds with the highest density. The most effective mulch materials in terms of weed control were obtained from flax cover and felt applications in both years of the study, where weed growth was not observed in these parcels. The weed-free parcel produced the highest yield in both years. The weed-free parcels produced the highest yield in both years, 5.339 tons/da in 2019 and 4.839 tons/da in 2020. Fresh lawn clipping (3.718 tons/da) and oat straw (3.434 tons/da) yielded the highest yields after weed-free treatments in 2019. The same treatments were found to provide the two highest yields in the second year experiments, but in reverse order: oat straw (4.309 tons/da) and fresh lawn clipping (4.193 tons/da). Similarly, the weed-free parcels had the highest fruit weight, fruit diameter, and SSC. Fresh lawn clipping and oat straw treated parcels produced the second and third best results for each test parameter. Aside from these treatments, all other mulch applications yielded significantly better results than the weedy parcels, indicating that mulch applications are very beneficial in controlling weeds and improving fruit yield and quality.

 

719-725 Download
35

Fruits of micropropagated strawberry (Fragariaananassa) plants exhibited higher antioxidant metabolites as compared to in vivo grown plants


Muhammad Irshad, Shah Rukh, Ghulam Nabi, Muhammad Israr, Shamsher Ali, Fazal Munsif, Muhammad Suhail, Sher Mohammad and Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan

Fruits of micropropagated strawberry (Fragariaananassa) plants exhibited higher antioxidant metabolites as compared to in vivo grown plants


ABSTRACT:

Berry crops have the highest concentrations of antioxidant metabolites, which have a considerable potential to reduce the risk of a variety of degenerative diseases. This work aimed to provide a standardized protocol for microporpagation of Fragaria ananassa from stem segment explants and to compare the antioxidant metabolites of aqueous extracts of fruits from In vitro and In vivo derived plants. Earliest callus induction (7.33 days) with maximum response (93.33%) was observed on MS medium containing 0.5 mg L-1 2,4-D + 0.5 mg L-1NAA. The earliest shoot induction (within 13.33 days from callus masses), maximum shooting frequency (80.33%) and highest number of shoots (a mean of 5.67 shoots per callus) was obtained on MS media supplemented with 1.5 mg L-1TDZ. Earliest rooting (8.67 days), maximum rooting response (66.33%) and highest number of roots (6.33 per individual shoots) was noted on MS half strength media containing 1 mg L-1IBA. Number of fruits and yield per plant was higher In vivo as compared to micropropagated plants. In contrast, total anthocyanin, total phenolic and ascorbic acid content were found higher in micropropagated plants as compared to In vivo plants. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the anthocyanins pigments from fruits of micro propagated plants were identical with field grown plants, and appeared on the ODS-column HPLC with higher retention time than the main pigments of field grown crop.These findings suggest that the fruits of micropropgated strawberry plants could be utilized as a source of bioactive substances with antioxidant properties in industrial applications

727-737 Download
36

Effects of different numbers of buds per unit trunk cross-section area on growth, yield and quality in the ‘Prima’ grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar


Hamza Celebi and Onder Kamiloglu

Effects of different numbers of buds per unit trunk cross-section area on growth, yield and quality in the ‘Prima’ grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar


ABSTRACT:

In this study, the effects of varying numbers of winter buds left per trunk unit cross-section area were observed in the Prima grape variety. The treatments were determined by the trunk cross-section areas of vines as 2.0 bud.cm-2, 2.5 bud.cm-2, 3.0 bud.cm-2, 3.5 bud.cm-2, and 4.0 bud.cm-2. The control vines were left as 20 buds for the initial 500 g of cane weight and 10 buds for every subsequent 500 g. The effects of the treatments on certain phenological and physiological characteristics, as well as vegetative development, grape yield, and quality, were researched in the vines. It was determined that the bud burst percentage and the coefficient of bud fertility in the vines were reduced as the number of buds increased (14-32 buds). There was no significant change between the treatments in terms of their numbers of water sprouts and shoots arising from secondary dormant buds. It was determined that the increase in the number of buds left on the vine caused an increase in the number of shoots up to a certain level, and this effect reduced shoot length and shoot diameter development. No significant difference was determined in leaf N, P, K contents or chlorophyll measurements. Grape yield was higher than 3.5 tons in the treatments of 3.0 buds, 3.5 buds, and 4.0 buds per cm2. During the study, no significant difference was observed between the treatments in terms of cluster properties, berry properties (except for berry size), and berry color, or TSS and pH contents in juice. Increased numbers of buds in the study led to an increase in yield, without causing a significant loss in quality, except for the control treatment. According to the results of this study, the recommended number of buds to be left per trunk unit cross-section area, in addition to yield and quality, crop load, which can be recommended with minimal need for summer pruning in terms of vegetative balance, is 3.0 bud.cm-2

739-748 Download
37

Herbicidal effectiveness of wild poisonous plant Rhazya stricta using different media by the sandwich method


Tauseef Anwar, Huma Qureshi, Nusrat Parveen, Saqib Mahmood, Muhammad Zulqurnain Haider, Sahar Mumtaz, Humera Nawaz, Said Akbar Khan, Aqsa Hafeez, Muhammad Imran Tipu, Ibrahim H.A. Abd El-Rahim, Sadeq K. Alhag and Ahmed Ezzat Ahmed

Herbicidal effectiveness of wild poisonous plant Rhazya stricta using different media by the sandwich method


ABSTRACT:

Heavy doses of synthetic weed control chemicals have facilitated herbicide resistance in weeds as well as predicted to possess toxicities. Natural compounds can be screened as potential herbicides which are more cost effective, efficacious, selective and environmentally safe. Experiments were conducted on selected weeds (Rumex dentatus, Euphorbia helioscopia, Chenopodium album, Avena fatua, Phalaris minor) to study allelopathic potential of Rhazya stricta. Experiments were performed using a medium of 0.75 % (w / v) agar, filter paper and soil. Parameters studied for assessing allelopathic effects were germination inhibition (%) along reduction in radicle and plumule length (cm). Results showed that seed germination of R. dentatus, P. minor and C. album is inhibited by R. stricta allelochemicals. Minimum germination for C. album was noted whereas non significant effect on the germination of E. helioscopia, T. aestivum and A. fatua was observed. Leaf extract of R. stricta on the agar, filter paper, and the soil inhibited the radicle and plumule length (cm) of all the test species. Results have indicated that even though radicle length and germination of T. aestivum is not affected by leaf extract of R. stricta, the plumule length was substantially decreased. The retarding effect of growth on wheat seedlings indicates that R. stricta might not be an acceptable candidate for weed control under field conditions

749-754 Download
38

Effect of different treatment methods on Hypericum monogynum nutrient composition


Chen Xu, Ke Wu, Shoucheng Huang, Yanli Cheng and Yuanbing Zhang

Effect of different treatment methods on Hypericum monogynum nutrient composition


ABSTRACT:

A Hypericum monogynum (H. monogynum) variety was chosen and exposed to six pretreatment methods: vacuum drying, natural air drying, hot air drying, sugar solution, acid solution, and salt solution to understand its physical and chemical properties and nutrient content. After drying and avoiding light for two months, the samples were tested and analyzed for their nutrients, including their moisture content, soluble sugar content, soluble protein content, total flavonoid content, carotenoid content, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) content, and the contents of nine mineral elements, including N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, and Fe. It was found that the nutrient content of H. monogynum was affected by the different treatment methods. Among them, the content of soluble sugar, soluble protein, L-ascorbic acid, metal elements, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) was significantly higher for the vacuum dried samples than for the other treatment methods. Vacuum drying may be utilized as an ideal method for retaining H. monogynum nutrients. The natural and hot air-drying treatments were cheaper and simpler to operate, and what's more, they were second only to vacuum drying in terms of improving soluble sugar and soluble protein concentrations. Although the carotenoid concentration of H. monogynum in the acid solution treatment was substantially higher than for the other treatments, it impeded the total flavonoid accumulation. The sulfur (S) content was much higher for the sugar solution treatment than for the other treatments. By analyzing the variations in the nutrient composition of H. monogynum for these different treatments, this study provides a scientific reference for H. monogynum research

755-761 Download
39

In-silico analysis of turmeric as an anti-inflammatory agent against ACE2 receptor


Namal Khan, Sahar Fazal, Rabbiah Manzoor Malik, Shumaila Azam, Attiya Kanwal, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Afnan Khan Shinwari and Sohail Ahmad Jan

In-silico analysis of turmeric as an anti-inflammatory agent against ACE2 receptor


ABSTRACT:

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizome containing the perennial plant of the ginger family. Turmeric is used for its medicinal properties in almost all diseases. With the increasing drug resistance problem, the interest to explore natural products with medicinal properties is increasing. The purpose of this research work is to find out the compounds from turmeric that can be used as anti-inflammatory agents. These compounds of turmeric were found in the literature that reported their presence in the treatment of inflammation. Protein PDB ID is 1R42. 1R42 was selected from studying its role in inflammation in humans for this research work. A protein three-dimensional structure was prepared for molecular docking. Molecular docking was performed for this purpose and after that selected compounds of turmeric for Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein were tested against the pharmacokinetics properties. Selected turmeric compounds that pass Lipinski’s rule for oral bioavailable drugs for inflammation are Curcumin, Demethylcurcumin,1-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-7-(4-Hydroxy-3-Methoxyphenyl) Hepta-1,6-diene-3, 5-Dione, (E)-Ferulic Acid, Vanillic Acid, Carvacrol, (E)-Carveol, E-4-(4-Hydroxy-3-Methoxyphenyl)-3-Buten-2-One, Vanillin, (Z)-Ferulic Acid, Thymol and Terpinen-4-Ol. These 12 compounds can be further validated on animal models to provide new treatment for inflammation in the body

763-778 Download
40

Role of mycorrhizospheric fluorescent Pseudomonas in suppressing the root rot disease, enhancement of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) population and phosphorus uptake in sunflower


Syeda Sadia Bokhari, Hafiza Farhat, Syed Abid Ali, Faizah Urooj, Afshan Rahman, Jehan Ara, Muhammed Irfan and Syed Ehteshamul-Haque

Role of mycorrhizospheric fluorescent Pseudomonas in suppressing the root rot disease, enhancement of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) population and phosphorus uptake in sunflower


ABSTRACT:

The vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) symbiosis is known to improve nutrient uptake by plants particularly phosphorus, and suppress soilborne plant pathogens. However, mycorrhizospheric bacteria also affect VAM fungi and their host plant. A total of 87 isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas (MRFP) were isolated from the mycorrhizosphere of 15 plant species in this study. These isolates were initially identified on the basis of biochemical tests. Molecular biology tools (16S rDNA gene sequencing) were used to confirm the identification of promising isolates. These isolates were evaluated against root rot pathogens, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, F.oxysporum  and Rhizoctonia solani and Meloidogyne javanica, a root knot nematode in vitro, suppressed growth of most of the fungi and demonstrated strong nematicidal activity. Performance of promising isolates of MRFP were evaluated on sunflower in pots and field plot experiments showed significant suppressive effect on root rot pathogens resulting in the production of taller plants having greater shoot weight and flower weight as compared to control plants. Application of MRFP both in pots and field plot experiments significantly increased VAM population around roots and generally improved phosphorus uptake by plants. MRFP was found very effective in ameliorating activity of native VAM. It seems that MRFP plays some role in the stimulation and proliferation of VAM fungi in plant-fungus interaction

779-790 Download
41

Anti-microbial activity of Jordanian plant extracts against Helicobacter pylori


Ahmad S. Alkofahi, Karem H. Alzoubi, Majed M. Masadeh and Zaina Abu Rashed

Anti-microbial activity of Jordanian plant extracts against Helicobacter pylori


ABSTRACT:

Helicobactor pylori (H. pylori) is a widespread disease. Medicinal plants provided an important source of many products for the eradication and the treatment of H. pylori. The aim of the current study is to assess the efficacy of various fractions from crude extracts of selected plants that grow in Jordan to inhibit the growth of H. pylori strains. The ethanol (95%), water, chloroform, methanol, and hexane fractions of the following plant extracts were tested. Plant extracts were from Artemisia inculata Delile (Asteraceae), Inula viscose (L.) Ait (Asteraceae), Tecoma stans (L.) Kunth ex HBK, Atriplex halimus L., Marrubuim vulgare L and Varthemia iphionoids Boiss (Asteraceae). The antimicrobial efficacy of crude extracts obtained from the above plants were tested in vitro on clinically isolated strains of H. pylori using the disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was measured by the serial dilution method. We found that for all the six studied plants, ethanol extracts showed high ability to inhibit the growth of the isolated strains of H. pylori. From the various studied plants, the most effective fractions against the isolated H. pylori strains were the chloroform fraction from A. inculata, and I. viscose and the ethanol extracts from M. vulgare, and T. stans. For V. iphionoids, and A. halimu, the methanol fractions showed highest activity. In conclusion, considering the efficacy of the tested plants in treating several infections due to their antimicrobial properties, Jordanian plants can be used as a raw material for starting the synthesis of new medications against H. pylori.

791-797 Download
42

Utilization of fruit peels to inhibit aflatoxins synthesis by Aspergillus species: a biotreatment of two pulses Cicer arietinum and Vigna radiata for safe long–term storage


Samina Sarwar, Malka Saba, Muhammad Hanif, Amina Abrar, Mobina Ulfat and Hajra Khalil

Utilization of fruit peels to inhibit aflatoxins synthesis by Aspergillus species: a biotreatment of two pulses Cicer arietinum and Vigna radiata for safe long–term storage


ABSTRACT:

Aflatoxins are assembly of nutrition poisons which are lethal, cancer–causing metabolites mostly transmitted by specific strains of micromycetes. Aflatoxins are produced during storage of grains. Reduction of aflatoxins productions in chick pea (Cicer arietinum) and mung bean (Vigna radiata) was analyzed during stockpiling of selected cereals utilizing peels of Citrus sinensis and C. limon. For this reason, C. arietinum and V. radiata were inoculated with fungal spores and balanced out by lemon and orange peels powder by using various trials. Test samples were stored at 30°C for six months. Aflatoxins were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) which demonstrates that these natural products are intense preventer of aflatoxins production in pulses and show decrease of aflatoxins. Lemon peels showed maximum inhibition of 20% in chick pea than mung bean whereas orange peels showed more inhibition of 28% in mung bean than chickpea.

 

799-805 Download
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