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Year 2022 , Volume  54, Issue 5
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1

Effects of seeds priming with plant growth regulators on germination and seedling growth of Hargel (Solenostemma argel (Del.) Hayne) under salinity stress


Ebtehal Gabralla Ibrahim Salih, Guisheng Zhou, Ali Mahmoud Muddathir, Muhi Eldeen Hussien Ibrahim, Nimir Eltyb Ahmed, Adam Yousif Adam Ali, Guanglong Zhu, Xiurong Jiao, Tianyao Meng and Irshad Ahmad

Effects of seeds priming with plant growth regulators on germination and seedling growth of Hargel (Solenostemma argel (Del.) Hayne) under salinity stress


ABSTRACT:

Salt stress is a wide-reaching problem, and new strategies are required to alleviate this problem. This study was designed to define whether seed treated with plant hormones can reduce the negative impacts of salt stress on Hargel (Solenostemma argel (Del.) Hayne) during seeds germination and seedling growth. Hargel seeds were presoaked with plant hormones at the rate of 0.0 mM without hormone (CK), 0.144, 0.288 mM of gibberellic acid (GA3), 0.362, 0.724 mM of salicylic acid (SA), and 0.285, 0.571 mM of indole acetic acid (IAA). Seeds were treated with salinized water at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl. The research was designed in CRD as a factorial experiment while each treatment was replicated thrice. The interaction between salinity and growth hormones significantly influenced water uptake at 24 h, shoot length, root length and root fresh weight. At 100 mM NaCl, the dose of 0.288 mM GA3 increased root length by 19%; in addition, the dose of 0.724 mM SA increased shoot length by 57.5% and root length by 19.0%. However, the dose of 0.285 mM IAA increased by 139.2%, while the dose of 0.571 mM IAA increased water uptake after 24 h by 31.0% compared to 0.0 mM without hormone at 100 mM NaCl. These findings suggest that using 0.288 mM GA3, 0.724 mM SA, and 0.285 mM IAA in proper concentration might reduce inhibitory effects of salinity stress on Hargel.

 

1579-1587 Download
2

Effect of salt stress on growth and biochemical properties of little millet (Panicum miliare L.)


Muhammad Siddique Lashari, Bakht-Un-Nisa Mangan, Inayatullah Rajpar, Muhram Ali, Majid Sikandar Jogi and Tanveer Ali Sial

Effect of salt stress on growth and biochemical properties of little millet (Panicum miliare L.)


ABSTRACT:

The major proportion of chloride salts have been observed in the saline soils of Pakistan in the forms of chlorides of Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. The saline soils of coastal areas have plenty of chloride salts, which create physiological drought, osmotic imbalance and ion toxicity to various plant species. Nonetheless, the adverse effect of Cl- may vary with types of salt and species of plant. This pot experiment reports the effect of 120 mol m-3 concentration of different salts of Cl- on the growth, ion contents and yield of little millet crop. The salinity treatments consist of S0: Control (No salts), S1: NaCl, S2: MgCl2, S3: CaCl2, S4: mixture of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2, (1:1:1) and S5: salt efflorescence. The results indicate the adverse impacts of all chloride salts on plant growth, yield and internal chemical compositions of plant biomolecules. In comparison of control treatment (S0), the maximum decrease in plant height by 13.97%, number of tillers by 27.42%, root biomass by 45.92% and grain and straw yield by 31.78% and 14.83% respectively was observed in treatment S1. Moreover, the concentration of toxic elements like sodium and chloride were observed significant at (p<0.05) in S1 and S5 treatments. Similarly, the concentration of effective ion nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were suppressed and found lowest in S1, S2, S4 by 74.21%, 40.21%, 35%% respectively. It is concluded that, the chlorides of sodium at the concentration of 120 mol m-3 are highly toxic for growth and biochemical properties in comparison to other salts of the chlorides and salt efflorescence.

 

1589-1594 Download
3

Structural and functional plasticity in root and stem of Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf under salt stress


Amina Ameer, Farooq Ahmad and Mansoor Hameed

Structural and functional plasticity in root and stem of Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf under salt stress


ABSTRACT:

Naturally grown populations of Halophytic grass Dichanthium annulatum were collected from saline habitats for the evaluation of structural and functional adaptations in saline soils. Different populations of D. annulatum showed various adaptations i.e. decreased shoot length and shoot fresh weight, increased root length and root fresh weight in highly saline habitats. Increased epidermal thickness and cell area, enlarged storage parenchyma, broader metaxylem vessels, enhanced pith and phloem area observed in roots of highly saline populations. Thickest stem, well developed metaxylem vessels and broader cortical region was seen under severe salinity. Accumulation of organic osmotica i.e. Glycine betaine, proline, total soluble sugars and total soluble proteins contributed significantly to endure harmful consequences of saline conditions. This grass exhibited increased uptake of toxic ions like Na+, Cl- which is very harmful for growth under salt affected habitats

1595-1604 Download
4

Effect of foliar-applied aminopolysaccharide chitosan  on seedling growth characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activity, and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars under saline conditions
Mehtap Gursoy

Effect of foliar-applied aminopolysaccharide chitosan  on seedling growth characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activity, and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars under saline conditions
ABSTRACT:

Salinity is a major concern in agricultural areas all over the world. Aminopolysaccharide chitosan is a biopolymer that is known to increase plant tolerance against salinity by increasing various antioxidant enzyme activities. Less studies are available on the effect foliar application of chitosan on safflower plants (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in saline conditions in the greenhouse. In this study, the effects of foliar aplication of 0-0.6% chitosan (4 concentrations) on the resistance to 0-150 mM salt (4 concentrations) in 3 safflower cultivars (Balcı, Linas and Remzibey) were investigated under greenhouse conditions. Chitosan applications played a role in reducing the negative effects of salt stress on the examined morphological features. In addition, the positive effect of chitosan application on enzyme activities in chlorophyll, carotenoid, SOD and CAT was determined by increasing salt doses. However, any positive effect of chitosan on the reduction of MDA content could not be determined. It was concluded that chitosan can be evaluated as an effective natural biopolymer material that can be used to increase resistance and tolerance of plants against salt stress.

 

1605-1612 Download
5

Assessment of maize cultivars for salt tolerance based on physiological indices


Mohsan Ali, Sara Zafar and M. Yasin Ashraf

Assessment of maize cultivars for salt tolerance based on physiological indices


ABSTRACT:

Salinity is the main threat causing huge losses in crop production all over the world. To fulfill future food demands of increasing population around the globe, production of salt tolerant genotypes is essential. Reliable and fast screening methods would be helpful in the developing high yielding and salt tolerant maize genotypes. In the study, an effort to screen maize genotypes regarding salt tolerance was performed. Thirteen maize genotypes were assessed for salt tolerance under laboratory conditions using germination stress tolerance index (GSI), shoot length stress tolerance index (SLSI), root length stress tolerance index (RLSI), fresh weight stress tolerance index (FWSI), dry weight stress tolerance index (DWSI). The data so obtained was subjected to various multivariate practices comprising correlation and cluster analysis to evaluate the assortment for salt tolerance in maize genotypes. Highly significant and positive correlations were found between GSI, SLSI, RLSI, FWSI and DWSI. Cluster analysis classified the genotypes into divergent groups. Genotypes Sultan and Pearl exhibited adequate degree of salt tolerance, whereas, Sahiwal 2002, NMRI yellow, showed medium level of salt tolerance while Akbar and FH 963KH 15 were classified as sensitive genotypes. On the basis of multivariate analysis of the examined traits, physiological indices could be used as markers for the selection of genotypes for salt tolerance in maize

1613-1618 Download
6

Evaluating the effectiveness of boron on the growth of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under saline conditions


Muhammad Ali Abbas, Ghulam Sarwar, Sabir Hussain Shah, Sher Muhammad, Ayesha Zafar, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor, Ghulam Murtaza and Muhammad Latif

Evaluating the effectiveness of boron on the growth of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under saline conditions


ABSTRACT:

The present experiment was designed to monitor growth and yield responses of a cotton genotype after applying salinity and boron stresses either alone or in combination and subsequent estimation of sodium-boron interaction in the cotton genotype. Treatments were set under complete randomized design (CRD) with 3 replications. Results revealed that 37.00 number of flowers/plant were found in control which was decreased by 25.24 and 34.24% by salinity-1 (75 mM NaCl) and salinity-2 (150 mM NaCl), respectively compared to control. Number of flowers/plant was improved by 46.92% by the addition of 75 mM NaCl + 12 mM B (Boron) compared with control. Number of leaves/plant of 75.66% was found in control treatment which was decreased by 16.29 and 29.07% by salinity-1 (75 mM NaCl) and salinity-2 (150 mM NaCl), respectively compared with control. Number of leaves/plants was improved by 25.08% by the application of 75 mM NaCl + 12 mM B compared with control. Similarly, plant height, lint weight, fresh root weight, dry root weight, root length and shoot length were improved after boron applications. Concentration of Na+ (Sodium) ion in soil analyzed for control was 4.1 meq. L-1 that increased to the level of 4.40 and 4.89 meq. L-1 by salinity-1 (75 mM NaCl) and salinity-2 (150 mM NaCl), respectively. Under boron applications, the lowest Na+ in soil were recorded 3.91 meq. L-1 for 12 mM B and 4.26 meq. L-1 for 6 mM B respectively. Similarly, the lowest Cl- (Chloride) ion in soil was recorded under boron application, while boron contents in soil was reduced under both salinity stresses

1619-1628 Download
7

Evaluating the effects of biochar amendments on drought tolerance of soybean (Glycine max L.) using relative growth indicators


Summera Jahan, Sumera Iqbal, Fahd Rasul and Khajista Jabeen

Evaluating the effects of biochar amendments on drought tolerance of soybean (Glycine max L.) using relative growth indicators


ABSTRACT:

Drought is the extremely critical environmental limitation that restricts crucially the leaf growth, stem elongation and overall plant growth rate. In the agricultural lands biochar has its remarkable role for sustainable soil management strategies and potential tool for mitigating drought. In the present research work, the impact of acacia wood shaving (AWB), sugarcane bagasse (SBB), wheat (WSB) and rice straw (RSB) biochar at two amendment levels (i.e., 10 and 20 t/ ha) under three different moisture conditions i.e., optimum moisture (OM) at 75± 2% of FC, deficit moisture (DM) at 50 ± 2% of FC and severe moisture deficit (SMD) at 40 ± 2% of FC on growth parameters of soybean in poor sandy loam (SL) soil and clay loam (CL) soil were investigated. We focused on individual growth components along with specific growth measurements such as NAR (net assimilation rate) and RGR (relative growth rate) in different growth stages. Moisture deficit conditions reduced all shoot and leaf parameters during first harvest interval of vegetative growth and effects were more negative at reproductive growth during third harvest interval. Biochar in CL soil mostly caused higher increase in shoot and leaf growth parameters on relative basis than control. While, under water deficit conditions, most influential amendments were acacia (sp. nilotica) wood shavings biochar (10 t/ ha) and sugarcane bagasse associated with higher growth in shoot and increases shoot length, shoot fresh as well as dry biomass, number of leaves, leaf fresh and leaf dry biomass, leaf area, net assimilation rates and relative growth rates of soybean. Consequently, sugarcane bagasse and wood biochar can be valued as the most promising tools for recovery of growth under moisture deficit conditions

1629-1641 Download
8

Silicon foliar application improves water stress tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by modulating growth, yield and photosynthetic attributes


Annum Khalid, Muhammad Nawaz, Naeem Iqbal and Muhammad Yasin Ashraf

Silicon foliar application improves water stress tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by modulating growth, yield and photosynthetic attributes


ABSTRACT:

Silicon (Si), being an important fertilizer element, has been found effective in enhancing plant tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses. Despite many reports regarding miraculous effects of silicon fertilization on plants, the penetration ability and efficacy of silicon containing compounds by foliar application is still a challenging question for the plant scientists. The current study was carried out to investigate the effects of the foliar feeding of various soluble silicon sources on photosynthesis and related attributes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under water deficit condition. The results indicated that the plants which are subjected to drought showed 36% reduction in above ground shoot weight, 40% diminution in flag leaf area along with the decrease in 25% of total chlorophyll content and 62% reduction in grain weight. The foliar application of silicon containing compounds have remarkable positive effects on flag leaf gas exchange and related attributes under both normally irrigated and water deficit conditions. The foliar applications of silicon containing compounds such as 0.1mM of silicic acid reduced the negative effects of water shortage with increase in leaf area (12%), plant biomass (23%) and grain weight (12%) of wheat as compared to the potassium silicate and sodium silicate. It is concluded from the results of this study that silicic acid is an appropriate form of silicon for foliar application followed by potassium silicate and sodium silicate. Moreover, 0.1 mM silicic acid was found to be more effective for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency, biomass and yield of wheat under water deficit environment

1643-1652 Download
9

Memory response of pepper antioxidant system to cycles of drought and re-watering stress

 


Jinfen Wen, Kai Zhao, Junheng Lv, Jinlong Huo, Hongjian Wan, Shui Zhang, Xiang Zhang, Zhihe Xie and Minghua Deng

Memory response of pepper antioxidant system to cycles of drought and re-watering stress

 


ABSTRACT:

Stress causes a stress memory in some plants, which appears to play a vital role in responding to repeated stress conditions. However, it's uncertain whether pepper has drought stress memory and, if so, what the physiological process is. We investigated the creation of pepper drought memory following the half-wilting and re-watering treatment cycles and the induction of the reaction oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system by evaluating antioxidant content, activity, and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. The results indicated this treatment can significantly increase the ASA and GSH content in pepper seedlings under 5 cycles of drought and re-watering stress, and significantly increase the POD, SOD, CAT, APX, GPX, and GR activities and gene expression; This physiological and biochemical change improves the ability of pepper seedlings to remove ROS, so its ROS content is lower than that of untreated pepper seedlings under drought stress. In the end, the MDA content was remarkably lower than the untreated, indicating that the damage to the plants was less than that of the untreated. These results indicate that the antioxidant defence system is associated with memory response to circular drought and re-watering stress in pepper

1653-1661 Download
10

Evaluation of the response of indigenous cotton cultivars to low potassium stress in hydroponics system


Muhammad Naeem Akhtar, Tanveer-Ul-Haq and Fiaz Ahmad

Evaluation of the response of indigenous cotton cultivars to low potassium stress in hydroponics system


ABSTRACT:

The quantity and availability of potassium (K) are declining in soils of the world and becoming a serious issue for successful cotton production. Considerable variation for K acquisition has been reported in cotton germplasm. Therefore, exploiting the genotypic variation for K uptake and utilization could be useful for the development of K efficient cultivars. Nine pre-selected cotton cultivars were evaluated for their potassium use efficiency (KUE) and growth response under low (0.26 mM) and adequate (3.33 mM) K levels. Cultivars were grown for six weeks in a hydroponics system supplying with half-strength Hoagland’s solution with the above-mentioned levels of K.Cultivars showed variable response for biomass production, shoot tissue K concentration, K uptake, KUE at low and adequate K levels. Leaves, stalk and root biomass productions were significantly reduced due to low K stress. A significant positive correlation (R2= 0.95**, p<0.01) was found between shoot dry matter (SDM) and KUE at a low K supply level in cotton cultivars. Overall reduction of net photosynthetic rate (PN) in cultivars due to low K stress was 38.7% compared with adequate K level. Furthermore, the correlations of K utilization index and KUEwith the net photosynthetic rate (PN) were positive and highly significant (R2= 0.95**, R2= 0.85**, p<0.01), respectively, at a low K level. Therefore, the potassium utilization efficiency (KUTE) trait can be used as a criterion for the selection of K-efficient cotton cultivars. The results exhibit significant variability for K uptake and KUEin the indigenous cotton cultivars which can be exploited to develop promising cultivars for low K input environments

1663-1673 Download
11

Improvement of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) productivity with the applications of plant growth regulators


Iqra Iqbal, Khalid Hussain, Khalid Nawaz, Ejaz Hussain Siddiqi, Komal, Noshia Arshad, Mehreen Javeria, Usman Arif, Arifa Nazeer and Ghulam Yasin

Improvement of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) productivity with the applications of plant growth regulators


ABSTRACT:

Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are commercially used in many countries for the enhancement of growth and better yield in various crops including wheat but in Pakistan growers are reluctant due to non-availability of scientific information. In Pakistan, there is also a low yield of wheat as compared to many other countries that’s why there is need to improve the crop productivity. For this purpose, present research was conducted during 2019-2021 to evaluate the response of four wheat varieties (Watan-1994, Sehar-2006, Faisalabad-2008 and Galaxy-2013) to foliar applications of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) and Gibberellic Acid (GA3). There were different levels of IAA and GA3 i.e. 0, 25, 50 mmol.L-1 separately and combined treatments of GA3+IAA. Results showed that different levels of IAA and GA3 increased the morphological attributes of wheat i.e. shoots and roots lengths, shoot and root fresh and dry weights and leaf area. All the biochemical attributes also showed significant increase in response to IAA and GA3 including photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates and proteins contents. Catalases (CAT) and Peroxide dismutase (POD) activities were also increased with the applications of PGRs. Different levels of IAA and GA3 also increased the seed yield significantly in all the varieties of wheat.  It was concluded that 50 mmol.L-1 combined application of IAA+GA3 was best for the improvement of growth and yield of wheat as compared to other levels. Overall, GA3 treatments were more effective for the improvement of crop productivity in wheat than IAA applications.

 

1675-1684 Download
12

Molecular characterization of Botryosphaeriaceae causing stem end rot of mango in Pakistan

 


Sumera Abrar, Shazia Iram, Barira Bilal, Amna Butt and Rabia Shabbir

Molecular characterization of Botryosphaeriaceae causing stem end rot of mango in Pakistan

 


ABSTRACT:

In this study, molecular, morphological and pathological characterization of postharvest fungal pathogens associated with stem end rot of mango fruit was done. A systematic survey was conducted in the farmer (uncontrolled practices) and demo blocks (controlled practices) of 6 districts of Punjab and Sindh for the disease assessment of collected 25-30 samples of mangoes. The stem end rot disease was found 100% prevalent in all the locations while disease incidence was high in farmer blocks. DNA was isolated from the stem end rot isolated fungal strains and the amplified products from ITS-5.8S-rDNA were sequenced which showed 96-100% similarity with previously identified sequences in Genbank. As a result of molecular sequencing analysis, two species of Botryosphaeriaceae, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Botryosphaeria dothidea were detected. The pathogenicity tests were applied to determine the aggressiveness of postharvest fungal pathogens by plug placement method and found high toxicity on mango twigs and potato tubers but detached mango leaves showed no lesions. Results obtained through this work would be supportive to develop the management policies to reduce the afflictions in orchards caused by mango stem end rot.

 

1685-1696 Download
13

Physio-biochemical analyses of selected halophytes from the saline regions of Pakistan and their potential for biosaline agriculture in arid environments


Muhammad Adeel Ghafar, Nudrat Aisha Akram, Bilquees Gul and Hadi Pirasteh-Anosheh

Physio-biochemical analyses of selected halophytes from the saline regions of Pakistan and their potential for biosaline agriculture in arid environments


ABSTRACT:

Biosaline agriculture is used for growing of salt tolerant crops by using high saline water and soils, especially in the arid lands. Halophytes, due to their high salinity tolerance can be used directly as forage after multilateral evaluations. In Pakistan, many areas are highly salt affected including Salt Range (SR) and some areas of Faisalabad region. In the current study, different plant species such as Aeluropous lagopoides (L.), Cenchrus ciliaris (L.), Heliotropium crispum, Heliotropium curassavicum, Cyperus arenarius (Retz.), Heliotropium europaeum (L.) and Dichanthium annulatum were collected from the Salt Range as well as Faisalabad region. The results showed that C. ciliaris, C. arenarius and H. crispum exhibited higher biomass than the other plant species. Spatial variation between species of both regions was significant in terms of biomass production, chlorophyll contents, osmolytes production (glycinebetaine, proline) and activities of enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase). Specimens of Faisalabad region (Cenchrus ciliaris, Cyperus arenarius and D. annulatum) showed high fresh and dry biomass production than that of Salt Range area. On the other side, specimens of Salt Range showed elevated level of oxidative defense mechanism (SOD, POD, and CAT) due to high salt level in the soil. H. europaeum, Cyperus arenarius and Cenchrus ciliaris were highly responsive to saline conditions of Salt Range area. Above all, H. europaeum, Cyperus arenarius and Cenchrus ciliaris were highly adaptive to saline conditions in terms of plant biomass and oxidative stress tolerance.

 

1697-1706 Download
14

The influence of salicylic acid foliar spray on the growth, biochemical traits, and Cd-uptake in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)


Syed Hammad Raza, Fahad Shafiq and Sumera Anwar

The influence of salicylic acid foliar spray on the growth, biochemical traits, and Cd-uptake in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)


ABSTRACT:

Due to agricultural mismanagement, cadmium (Cd) enrichment in cultivated soils raises concern over crop growth, productivity, and edible safety. In this present field study, the influence of salicylic acid (SA) on some growth, biochemical, and ion attributes of locally cultivated radish (Raphanus sativus L.) variety Mino towards Cd exposure is reported. The Cd-stress (0, 0.5, and 1 mM CdCl2) was applied to 20-d old plants. The foliar application of salicylic acid (0 and 300 mg L-1) was performed after 10-days of Cd exposure, and data for various growth and biochemical traits were recorded after 15-days of spray treatments. The inhibition of radish root growth was recorded even at 0.5 mM CdCl2, and severe inhibition was evident at 1 mM CdCl2 stress. In contrast, an increase in the shoot growth characters was noticed in response to Cd and SA treatments. Furthermore, Cd-stress reduced the chlorophyll contents, and these were further reduced by SA spray. Moreover, the SA-treated plants exhibited higher Cd contents in the shoot leading to chlorosis. The shoot Cd contents ranged between 6-57 µg/g DW while, the Cd concentrations in root were below 6 µg/g DW. Based on the results, we conclude that radish concentrated a majority of Cd-fraction in shoot compared to the root with minimal values.

1707-1713 Download
15

Genome-wide association study of Yunnan-specific wheat varieties under conditions of drought stress


Ping Zhang, Li Li, Chuanli Zhang, Yongjiang Liu, Junna Liu, Qianchao Wang, Xiuju Huan, Kunda Gao, Xuesong Zhang, Shunhe Cheng and Peng Qin

Genome-wide association study of Yunnan-specific wheat varieties under conditions of drought stress


ABSTRACT:

Drought is associated with serious declines in crop yield. In this study, we investigated and analyzed the effect of drought on wheat yields. We considered 263,742 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained from genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using PH (plant height), DTM (days to maturity), TGW (thousand grain weight), NGS (number of grains per spike), EL (ear length), FLL (flag leaf length), and FLW (flag leaf width) as indices. We identified 60 significant SNPs associated with EL, 41 with PH, 24 with DTM, 17 with FLL, 5 each with NGS and FLW, and 3 with TGW. We further identified 77 putative and potential genes within 100 kb from the major SNPs. We found that these genes encode transcription factors and hormones and are involved in enzyme activity, transmembrane transport, signal transduction, epidermal wax synthesis, metabolism, growth and development, pigment, stomata, root hairs, and stress tolerance. Collectively, our results provide valuable insights into the genetic basis of drought resistance in bread wheat. Further studies that predict candidate genes will help interpret the drought resistance mechanism of wheat, and aid the selection and breeding of drought-resistant wheat varieties suitable for different environmental conditions

1715-1731 Download
16

Evaluation of upland cotton genotypes for stability over different locations using AMMI and GGE biplot analysis


Saifullah Abro, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Tahir Rajput, Mahboob Ali Sial and Zaheer Ahmed Deho

Evaluation of upland cotton genotypes for stability over different locations using AMMI and GGE biplot analysis


ABSTRACT:

Exploration of consistently high performing genotypes of cotton is important for sustainable production in major cotton growing areas of Sindh, Pakistan. In present study fifteen cotton genotypes were evaluated against three check varieties CRIS-342, CIM-496 and CRIS-134 over two years (2016, 2017). These genotypes were evaluated in advance line yield trial at five different locations. Two-way ANOVA was performed to find variation in genotypes and environments. Data were analyzed using AMMI analysis for residual multiplicative interaction. The genotypes stability was estimated by measuring different parameters like IPCA score, AMMI stability value (ASV), yield sustainability index (YSI) and genotype selection index (GSI). Genotypes and multi-locations provided an opportunity to find the best genotypes in the best environment on the basis of yield performance.The genotypes G3 (NIA-83), G13 (NIA-Bt-2) and G15 (Sadori) were found as high yielding with very high stability as compared to check varieties. Hence, recommended across the studied environments. Another genotype G2 (NIA-81) was more stable and can be used as breeding material in cotton breeding program for sustainable cotton production in diverse environments/areas of Sindh province, Pakistan

1733-1739 Download
17

Alteration in amino acid contents in different genotypes of bread wheat at different developmental stages


Murat Ardic

Alteration in amino acid contents in different genotypes of bread wheat at different developmental stages


ABSTRACT:

The aim of this study was to determine changes of amino acid levels in thirteen bread wheat genotypes during growth stages of wheat (tillering, flowering, maturity stages and seeds) in growing periods of 2018-2019. Results suggest that important variations and differences occurred among bread wheat genotypes and their growing stages. The amino acid content was found as higher in tillering and flowering, lower in maturity stage. Once changes in amino acid levels increase/ decrease depending upon biochemical activities and crop growth stages, genotypic capacity and features significantly control of amino acid levels in bread wheat. Amino acid levels are higher until the flowering period than during the maturation period indicates that amino acids are of vital importance in plant development. Especially amino acids responsible for growth and development are very important in bread wheat. In addition, differences between genotypes and plant growth stages indicate that amino acids are highly affected by the genotype x environment interaction.

 

1741-1748 Download
18

Transcriptomic characterization and analysis of key biological pathways associated with aphid resistance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)


Fei Zhang, Fulai Ke, Jiaxu Wang, Kuangye Zhang, Youhou Duan, Hna Wu, Jianqiu Zou, Feng Lu, Yanqiu Wang, Zhipeng Zhang and Kai Zhu

Transcriptomic characterization and analysis of key biological pathways associated with aphid resistance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)


ABSTRACT:

Aphid damage is one of the most critical biotic stresses limiting sorghum production, worldwide. In this study, two sterile sorghum lines having aphid-resistant (APT) and aphid-sensitive (APS) phenotypes, along with eight hybrid lines were used to study the infestation and natural attack rates of aphids in three ecological zones. The results show that sorghum has a dominant genetic effect on aphid resistance, with aphid incidence ranging from 93.2% to 96.6% in the F1 generation of crosses mated to APT sorghum sterile lines. APT vs APS transcriptome analysis suggested the ATP sorghum genotype may be able to stimulate defenses against aphid infestation, experienced less change in sugar and chlorophyll content than the APS genotype. The APT genotype also exhibited improved in vivo carbohydrate binding and endopeptidase inhibitor activity, which are two key biological metabolic pathways which are involved in inhibiting aphid feeding and growth, by converting glucose in organs to pyruvate in the cytoplasm via the glycolysis metabolic pathway, thereby reducing glucose content in tissues and creating an inhospitable environment for aphid growth

1749-1759 Download
19

Transcriptomic analysis of no trichome mutant and identification of new trichome related genes in Arabidopsis


Yong-Chang Liu, Xiao-Mei Ma, Ying Li, Zhi-Hui Yuan and Fu-Lin He

Transcriptomic analysis of no trichome mutant and identification of new trichome related genes in Arabidopsis


ABSTRACT:

Trichome is a typical single cell structure formed by the development of epidermal cells through cell fate determination, cell specialization and morphogenesis. Trichome not only protects plants from being injured by drought, high salinity, heavy metals, ultraviolet rays, and pests, but also secretes many kinds of metabolites. A mutant with almost no trichomes (ntm) on its leaves, stems, and inflorescence was identified. qPCR results showed that the expressions of GL1 and GL2 were significantly decreased, but the expression of GA1, GL3, TTG1, EGL3 and SAD2 was enhanced in ntm. RNA-seq was performed to explore the reasons for the difference between ntm and WT to help elucidate the mechanism of trichome development. The results showed that there were 275 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 75 up-regulated and 200 down-regulated genes. GO analysis showed that DEGs were mainly enriched in lipid synthesis, plant cell wall, and redox. KEEG analysis showed that DEGs were mainly enriched in three pathways: cytochrome P450 (ko00199), synthesis of cutin, wax and suberine (ko00073), and plant hormone signal transduction (ko04075). The findings of this study will help to clone the sequence of ntm and further understand the development of trichome

1761-1769 Download
20

Spectrophotometric determination of vitamin C in underground vegetables and kinetic modelling to probe the effect of temperature and pH on degradation of vitamin C


Muhammad Waheed Mushtaq, Shifa Tariq, Aisha Hameed, Shahid Bashir, Shamsa Bibi, Naveed Aslam Dogar, Aisha Batool and Saira Ishaq

Spectrophotometric determination of vitamin C in underground vegetables and kinetic modelling to probe the effect of temperature and pH on degradation of vitamin C


ABSTRACT:

Ascorbic and ascorbate, also known as Vitamin C, which is an essential dietary component. In present study, the concentration of vitamin C was determined in different vegetables such as beetroot (Beta vulgaris), carrot (Daucus carota), onion (Allium cepa), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) using a benign spectrophotometric method. The quantity of vitamin C in fresh vegetable such as beetroot, carrot, onion, potato and radish (25°C) as purchased from market was 212.74 mg/L, 148.27 mg/L, 139.19 mg/L, 155.13 mg/L and 248.22 mg/L respectively. To monitor the effect of temperature on chemical stability of ascorbic acid, all selected vegetables were stored under three different temperature (0°C, 25°C and 50°C) for up to 8 days. To evaluate the quantitative effect of temperature on degradation of Vitamin C, kinetic modeling was applied. The regression factor (R2> 0.99) and rate constant (k) values indicated that chemical instability of Vit. C follows first order kinetics. The effect of pH (2-12) on stability of Vit. C was also examined. It was analyzed that fresh vegetables at normal temperature (18°C±7) in optimum acidic medium (2.8±1.2) are good source of vitamin C compared to stored one.

 

1771-1775 Download
21

Assessing the fractional impact of municipal solid waste as a fertilizer on various attributes of plants


Asma Ashfaq, Kafeel Ahmad, Kinza Wajid, Zafar Iqbal Khan, Muhammad Nadeem, Humayun Bashir, Mudasra Munir and Ifra Saleem Malik

Assessing the fractional impact of municipal solid waste as a fertilizer on various attributes of plants


ABSTRACT:

During 2017, this study was carried out to see how various fractions of fertilizer (municipal solid waste) affected food crop development, yield, quality metrics, and macronutrient content, and also post-harvest physicochemical characteristics of soil. The experiment was set up in such a way that it was absolutely random (CRD). In comparison to their sole application, the fractional use of fertilizer resulted in the highest plant height (135.9 cm), stem girth (2.45 cm), leaf area (341.4 cm2), and number of leaves/plant (11.66). The maximum values of quality parameters such as ash (2.48%), crude fat (5.22%), crude fiber (2.62 5%), and crude protein (14.98%) were found at T2 treatment (50% loamy soil & 50% MSW), higher moisture contents (12.69%) were found in manure treatment. The values of nitrogen (2.39%) and potassium content (1.37%) were also higher in mix loamy soil and fertilizer treatment. Furthermore, post-harvest physicochemical parameters of the soil also improved by combined use of soil and fertilizers. Hence, combination of loamy soil and organic fertilizer is thus recommended to get better growth, yield and quality of plants

1777-1783 Download
22

Economic feasibility of supplementary foliar fertilization for wheat cultivars under rainfed conditions


Fathi A. Omer

Economic feasibility of supplementary foliar fertilization for wheat cultivars under rainfed conditions


ABSTRACT:

At the beginning of any growing season, farmers’ decision for selecting a profitable crop depends mainly on marketing and marginal rate of return. Selecting high yield and profitable wheat cultivar and production practices such as fertilization and in order to propose acceptable recommendations for farmers, a combination between soil and foliar application of fertilizers to investigate the growth and yield of different wheat cultivars in relation to economic feasibility and profitability was planned. Accordingly, this study was conducted during the growing seasons 2019/2020 in Duhok area to study the economic feasibility of supplementary foliar fertilization for different cultivars of wheat as well as studying their growth and yield performance under rainfed environments. Five wheat cultivars (Adana99, Ceyhan-99, Tamoz, Creso, IRIDE) and four forms of fertilization: control, conventional DAP, Foliar fertilizer EcoZink and both DAP plus foliar fertilizers were suggested as the study factors with four replications arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design and data were analyzed using computing application of GenStat program.

Results showed promising findings. All growth and mainly spike characters were improved differently by fertilizer application and also reflected positively on the final grain yield. The final grain yield was increased significantly by fertilization in which DAP plus Foliar fertilizer recorded highest grain yield (5.59 t.ha-1) followed by Foliar and DAP fertilizers and each gave 5.22 and 4.82 compared to 3.87 for control treatment respectively. It’s also observed that the revenue or outcome for all wheat cultivars was high in all fertilizer treatments compared to non fertilization of control treatment; DAP plus Foliar gave highest revenue (1930.97 $.ha-1) followed by Foliar and then DAP fertilizer treatments. On the other hand, higher outcome not meaning higher profitability and according to the economic and marginal rate of return analyses, spending every single unit of US$ from Foliar fertilization gained 182.91 $ compared to 13.8$ and 12.2$ for each of DAP plus Foliar and DAP treatments, respectively. Based on the spike characters and yield improvements by foliar fertilization and high marginal rate of retune, supplementary application of Foliar EcoZink alone or with DAP fertilizer is highly recommended for the farmers and also further studies are suggested in similar conditions and on other types of foliar fertilization to support the obtained findings in this study.

 

1785-1792 Download
23

Evaluating the combined effect of compost and mineral fertilizers on soil health, growth and mineral acquisition in maize (Zea mays L.)


Javeed Iqbal, Ghulam Sarwar, Sabir Hussain Shah, Noor-Us-Sabah, Mukkram Ali Tahir, Sher Muhammad, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor, Ayesha Zafar and Imran Shehzad

Evaluating the combined effect of compost and mineral fertilizers on soil health, growth and mineral acquisition in maize (Zea mays L.)


ABSTRACT:

This research study was conducted to sort out the beneficial effects of combined use of compost with mineral fertilizer on soil properties as well as growth and nutrient acquisition of maize. Therefore, after selection of normal soil, 10 kg soil was filled in each pot. For layout of study, 11 treatments with three replications were applied using Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The results revealed that the maximum plant height, plant dry matter (49.32 g), root length (29.58 cm) and organic matter (1.73%) of maize plants were recorded for recommended dose of NPK + compost @ 12 t ha-1 (T8) whereas the minimum plant height, total biomass (23.67 g), root length (14.17 cm) and organic matter (0.68%) were noted in T3 (compost @ 4 t ha-1) compared to others. Maximum nitrogen contents in soil (0.087%), phosphorus concentration in soil (16.67 ppm), potassium concentration in soil (203 ppm) were recorded in T8. The highest nitrogen contents of plants (3.17%), the highest phosphorus concentration of plants (1.05%) and the highest potassium concentration of plants (2.80%) were noted for T8. Similarly, the maximum value of nitrogen concentration in maize root (3.11%), the maximum phosphorus concentration in root (0.97%) and the maximum potassium concentration in root (2.78%) were recorded in T8. Alone use of compost and chemical fertilizer remained the least effective, while the integrated use of compost@ 12 t ha-1 and mineral NPK (T8) proved to be the best treatment.

 

1793-1801 Download
24

Soil aggregates, distribution characteristics and organic carbon protection mechanism of Pinus massoniana forests of different ages


Hongzao He, Zhenming Zhang, Deyan Li, Wei Zhou and Yunchao Zhou

Soil aggregates, distribution characteristics and organic carbon protection mechanism of Pinus massoniana forests of different ages


ABSTRACT:

Soil aggregates are an important component of soil and a special organic–inorganic complex. It is an important method of soil carbon sequestration, having positive effects on stabilizing productivity and coping with climate change. This paper, by taking the soil of Pinus massoniana forests of different ages as the object, researched the soil aggregates’ distribution characteristics and carbon sequestration mechanism. The results show that for the 20-year-old Pinus massoniana forest, the content of soil aggregates decreases with the decrease of aggregates’ particle size in different soil depths; for the 60-year-old Pinus massoniana forest, the overall percentage content of soil aggregates is similar to that of the 40-year-old Pinus massoniana forests in terms of distribution, but has some differences in the value. The percentage of aggregates with a particle size of 2.00 mm changes significantly, from approximately 16.00% to more than 20.00% (except for the 60-80 cm soil layer). The soil aggregates with different particle sizes are mainly dominated by aggregates with a particle size of 10.00 mm, followed by aggregates with a particle size of 2.00 mm. The new organic matter in Pinus massoniana forests promotes the formation of coarse aggregates, and the particulate organic matter in coarse aggregates helps the formation of fine aggregates. The coarse aggregates can physically protect the newly added organic carbon in Pinus massoniana forests, but the protection has a saturation limit. With increasing forest age, the saturated limit of coarse aggregates would be broken under the combined action of internal and external forces, and fine aggregates would then be released. The research results will provide theoretical and methodological support for the study of aggregates’ organic carbon and promote the sustainable development of forest soil carbon sequestration and emission reduction technology.

 

1803-1812 Download
25

Isolation of endophytes that suppress pathogen growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)


Ahmad Nadeem, Teresa L. O’keeffe, Andrew J. Cal, Jeffrey D. Palumbo, Rubina Arshad, Noreen Bibi and Charles C. Lee

Isolation of endophytes that suppress pathogen growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)


ABSTRACT:

Plant microbial pathogens destroy a significant percentage of the world’s crops annually. The most common method of combating these pathogens is with chemical microbicides which can have toxic effects upon human health. Our objective was to isolate microbial biocontrol agents that had the ability to suppress plant pathogens. In this study, we isolated endophytic bacteria from leaves of tomato, potato, and pepper plants. Three of the strains were found to have antimicrobial activities and were identified as Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus caprae based on 16S rRNA sequencing. All three strains were tested for agar-based antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and antifungal activity against pure isolates of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium verticillioides.  B. subtilis had the most robust antimicrobial potential, followed by S. caprae and B. megaterium. Both B. subtilis and S. caprae conferred antifungal resistance to chickpea seeds. HPLC analysis of cell-free supernatants (CFS) from the endophytic bacteria cultured in different media demonstrated production of acetic, lactic, and propionic acid at various levels. Biochemical profiling by Biolog phenotypic microarray demonstrated that B. subtilis could utilize a wider range of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids as carbon sources compared to S. caprae. These endophytes can potentially be used as a pretreatment of chickpea seeds to reduce common fungal infections

1813-1820 Download
26

Estimation of wood volume, carbon stock and rotation age in subtropical pine forests of Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

 


Bilal Ahmad, Anwar Ali, Fazli Rabbi, Naveed Alam, Mammo Siraj, Kaleem Mehmood, Mamoona Wali Muhammad and Sami Ullah

Estimation of wood volume, carbon stock and rotation age in subtropical pine forests of Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

 


ABSTRACT:

This study was conducted in subtropical pine forests of Malakand, situated at an elevation of 762 to 1165 m asl (34˚34 ́ North-latitude & 71º54 ́ East-longitudes) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The study was aimed at estimating wood volume and carbon stock in the target area and determining a proper rotation age for Sub-tropical pine (Pinus roxburghii) forests. Using a simple random sampling technique, a total of 20 sample plots (with plot size of 50m×50m) were laid out in the forest area. Data was recorded for tree Diameter at breast Height (DBH), tree height, radial increment in the last 10 years, tree density and tree age for each age class. The results indicated that the tree DBH and height shows a logistic type of relation with stand age, i.e., first increase slowly then at faster rate and later-on the tree growths decline or level-off at higher ages. The average stand basal area and stand volume were 11.8 m2/ha and 85.04 m3/ha respectively. Tree density was 117 trees/ha, above and below ground tree biomass were 54.05 and 14.05 t/ha respectively. The aboveground carbon and belowground carbon were estimated as 27.02 and 7.03 t/ha respectively and the total tree carbon stock was determined as 34.05 t/ha. The proper economic rotation age for Sub-tropical pine forests was suggested as 90 years to get relatively maximum wood production. The study concluded that Sub-tropical pine forests have high potential for wood production and carbon sequestration if managed properly

1821-1826 Download
27

Anthropogenic threats and their impact assessment on medicinal flora of Western Himalaya-Neelum valley (Azad Jammu & Kashmir)


Shabir Ijaz, Anjum Perveen and Saima Ashraf

Anthropogenic threats and their impact assessment on medicinal flora of Western Himalaya-Neelum valley (Azad Jammu & Kashmir)


ABSTRACT:

The goal of this study was to observe anthropogenic (human) threats and evaluate their Overall Threat Impact (OTI) on 44 high-valued medicinal plants of Neelum Valley, located in the Western Himalayan range (Azad Jammu & Kashmir). According to the findings, there are currently 28 anthropogenic threats to medicinal plants that belong to the 10 primary threats categories. The major threats observed in the local ecosystem were traditional uses, commercial uses, weak law enforcement, social issues, deforestation, habitat loss, soil erosion, over grazing by livestock, water deficit, and development. Among the total (44) examined species, 14 species are endemic to the Himalayas; of these, 2 species show the narrow distribution and are restricted to W. Himalayas. All reported medicinal taxa were assessed for their Overall Threat Impact (OTI). Of these, 23 species (52.27%) were facing very high OTI, followed by 11 species (25%) in high OTI, 8 species (18%) with low OTI, 2 species (4.5%) with medium OTI. Among all observed threats, the leading threats to plants were unsystematic overcollection, social issues and habitat loss respectively. The medicinal flora, which is graded from high to very high OTI, requires more attention on a priority basis for their long-term survival and sustainable utilization

1827-1839 Download
28

Evaluation of morphological characteristics of leaf, flower and pod in Vietnamese cocoa cultivars


Lam Thi Viet Ha, Truong Trong Ngon and Ha Thanh Toan

Evaluation of morphological characteristics of leaf, flower and pod in Vietnamese cocoa cultivars


ABSTRACT:

This study examined the morphological traits of sixty-three (63) cocoa varieties that have been imported and cultivated in Vietnam. These cocoa varieties were collected from five regions in Southern Vietnam. The morphological features were individually evaluated and analyzed, including the leaf characteristics (leaf and stem anatomy) and flower features (ligule shape, anther number, pollen, stamen and ovule, fruit, seed). The results of this study showed a large variation across all morphological characteristics of the evaluated cocoa varieties. The Vietnamese cocoa flower showed a diversity of morphological characteristics including five shapes of ligule (oval, broad, deltoid, elliptic, and sub-lanceolate) and each stamen also had dithecous anthers with the exception of tri-thecous anthers for TD11. Furthermore, the shape of pollen grains was found homogeneous in all 63 varieties. The colour of the stamens and ovules was purple and white respectively for all examined samples. Three kinds of fruit shapes were identified, namely Angoleta, Amelonado and Cundeamor, and these were of varied colours. The Vietnamese cocoa cultivars were classified into three groups based on their fruit morphology characteristics (Trinitario-Criollo, Trinitario-Forastero, and Trinitario). Additionally, an anatomical analysis on the midrib structure of the leaves from 63 varieties showed high similarities, likewise the stem structure. The colour of young leaves was observed as being green and red. This primary research scrutinizes the morphological biodiversity of Vietnamese cocoa varieties during the three-decade development of the Vietnam cocoa project. The results provide practical applications for cocoa cross breeding and botanical taxonomy

1841-1848 Download
29

A comparative anatomical study on genus Pulicaria Gaertn.  (Compositae) from Turkey and its taxonomic implication


Bahar Gürdal and Ebru Özdemir Nath

A comparative anatomical study on genus Pulicaria Gaertn.  (Compositae) from Turkey and its taxonomic implication


ABSTRACT:

The genus Pulicaria Gaertn. belongs to the tribe Inuleae Cass. and it is represented by six species P. arabica (L.) Cass., P. armena Boiss. & Kotschy ex Boiss., P. dysenterica (L.) Gaertn., P. odora (L.) Rchb., P. sicula (L.) Moris, and P. vulgaris Gaertn. in Turkey. P. armena is endemic to Turkey. A comparative anatomical study on Puliaria species growing in Turkey is presented. Cross-sections of stem, leaves, and surface sections of leaves of all species were taken. Anatomical description of Pulicaria species was given and species were compared. Noteworthy anatomical features were glandular and non-glandular trichome type, mesophyll cells, stomatal index, and stomata structure. Thirteen anatomical characters were quantified, organized in a data matrix, and analyzed with UPGMA methods. It is shown that leaf and stem anatomy data provide characters that are taxonomically useful.

 

1849-1858 Download
30

Micromorphology of leaf epidermis of eleven species in Pimpinella (Apiaceae) from China


Zhixin Wang, Limin Cao and Jianhui Liu

Micromorphology of leaf epidermis of eleven species in Pimpinella (Apiaceae) from China


ABSTRACT:

The present study is the first to investigate the micromorphology of leaf epidermis of 11 species of Pimpinella in China by SEM. Several species examined are covered with unbranched epidermal hairs on the adaxial epidermis. Adaxial leaf epidermal cells are usually polygonal or irregular. The patterns of anticlinal walls of the adaxial leaf epidermal cells are straight or arched mostly. Primary waxy ornamentations are mainly dense stripes. In addition, secondary ornamentations of most samples are single or double ridges. Stripe ornamentations are usually distributed on the abaxial epidermis uniformly. Stomatal shape is usually ellipse. Inner margin of smooth outer stomatal ledge is mainly sinuolate. In the face of such a complex group which is difficult to understand, comprehensive taxonomic and phylogenetic investigations of Pimpinella will undoubtedly benefit from these micromorphology data of leaf epidermis examined

1859-1864 Download
31

Geospatial surveillance of urban influence on the green gold of federal capital of Pakistan using contemporary ordination and remote sensing-based approaches


Amna Butt, Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa, Sheikh Saeed Ahmed, Muhammad Talha Ahmed, Amna Zafar and Javeria Rashid

Geospatial surveillance of urban influence on the green gold of federal capital of Pakistan using contemporary ordination and remote sensing-based approaches


ABSTRACT:

Understanding the consequences of urban influence on urban green gold is of paramount significance yet very complicated. The amalgamation of remote sensing and ordination techniques in the present research made it possible to appraise the extent of risk urban influence posed on these ecological amenities over the past two decades (1998-2018). The research outcomes highlighted that the urban expansion in the federal capital was mostly at the expense of vegetation where the urban green gold covered areas of Islamabad shrunk from 70% in 1998 to 60.7% by 2018 with significant losses observed in the vicinity of Margalla hills and Rawal watershed. This landscape change had a severely negative connotation on the species distribution primarily in the planned and rudimentary developments where environmental stresses introduced due to massive construction activities favored dominance of species instead of diversity. The progressive decline in biomass of the local vegetation over the years, as determined by all the indices, is an indication of a very unsustainable future in the absence of strong policy interventions.

 

1865-1870 Download
32

Analysis of protein fraction content and peptide activity of Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf (Poaceae) from different regions of China


Yuqing Ouyang, Haoyu Shi, Yi Zhao, Yanyan Yin, Fuzhen Zhu, Zujun Chen and Lingzhi Wang

Analysis of protein fraction content and peptide activity of Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf (Poaceae) from different regions of China


ABSTRACT:

Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf has been used for the treatment of edema, dysuria, and diarrhea in traditional Chinese medicine for many years. Main components and the protein fractions content, including albumin, globulin, prolamin, and glutelin, of 11 batches of this plant collected from different regions of China were studied. Small molecular peptides were generated by hydrolyzing glutelin with pepsin. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of the peptides and triolein, the main active pharmaceutical ingredient, were evaluated by UV-HPLC and ELSD-HPLC, respectively. In the protein fractions, glutelin content ranged from 35.48% to 40.81% with significant differences among batches. Diversity in ACE inhibitory activity was also detected. HCA results showed that samples Y1 from Liaoning Muren, Y5 from Yunnan Qujing, and Y6 from Yunnan Lancang manifested great antihypertensive potential. The data generated from this study revealed the characteristic diversity of Coix collected from different locations, which will facilitate the utilization of antihypertensive peptides from glutelin.

 

1871-1878 Download
33

In vitro micropropagation of siamese rosewood Dalbergia cochinchinensis Pierre, a timber yielding tree


Supapas Potchara, Chareonsap Piyarat Parinyapong and Poeaim Anurug

In vitro micropropagation of siamese rosewood Dalbergia cochinchinensis Pierre, a timber yielding tree


ABSTRACT:

Dalbergia cochinchinensis, a woody legume, is a high-value timber-yielding tree that is important for both ecological and commercial purposes. To allow efficient In vitro micropropagation, we evaluated the efficiency of plant growth regulators (including kinetin, gibberellic acid, and thidiazuron), different basal media (¼ Murashige and Skoog medium (MS), ½ MS, 1 MS, 2 MS, ¼ woody plant medium (WPM), ½ WPM, 1 WPM, and 2 WPM), gelling agents (phytagel, crystal agar gel G180, food grade agar powder, and bacteriological grade agar powder), and carbon sources (sucrose and glucose) for shoot induction in D. cochinchinensis. Nodal segments, derived from the shoots of 1-year old trees, were surface sterilized and used. Shoots induced by gibberellic acid showed the highest shoot length (17.28 ± 0.20 mm) but were thin, pale green, and displayed shoot tip necrosis. However, shoots induced by kinetin were shorter (15.20 ± 0.41 mm) but were greener and more vigorous. The best conditions for improving shoot induction and elongation were 30 g/L sucrose and 2.6 g/L phytagel. In vitro microshoots were rooted on half-strength WPM augmented with 0.05 mg/L indoleacetic acid. After 1 month of culture, the highest number of roots per shootlet was 6.8 ± 0.58, with an average root length of 54.76 ± 5.22 mm. The plantlets were acclimatized in coconut husks with an 80% survival rate.

 

1879-1884 Download
34

Investigation of Alkanna orientalis var. Orientalis (L.) boiss in terms of macro- and micro- nutrient elements: a case study in Aksaray


Aynur Demir, Bulent Eskin and Adeleh Rashidi

Investigation of Alkanna orientalis var. Orientalis (L.) boiss in terms of macro- and micro- nutrient elements: a case study in Aksaray


ABSTRACT:

In this study, Alkanna orientalis var. orientalis (L.) BOISS was analyzed to determine its nutritional contents and phytoremediation potential. The plant and soil samples were collected from Mahmutlu Hill in Aksaray in May (2019). The mineral contents of soil and plant samples (Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, S, Zn) were determined by ICP-MS, and the obtained data were statistically analyzed and  evaluated. K value in the soil was below the optimal value whereas Mg, Mn and Ni values were above the optimal values. On the other hand, the concentrations of Al, Ca, Cu, K, Mn and Zn in the plant were around the optimum values, while Fe, Mg, Ni were above. The results of the analysis  showed that Fe and Ni concentrations were at a toxic level. Therefore this plant can be used in phytoremediation studies.

 

1885-1891 Download
35

Arabinoxylans of hard wheat cultivars in relation to crop year and environmental conditions


Salman Khurshid, Saqib Arif, Qurrat-Ul-Ain Akbar, Shahid Yousaf, Hafiza Mehwish Iqbal, Saba Iqbal and Abid Hasnain

Arabinoxylans of hard wheat cultivars in relation to crop year and environmental conditions


ABSTRACT:

Eight hard wheat varieties grown at different locations over three cropping years were studied for arabinoxylan (AX) contents, in terms of total arabinoxylans (TAX), water extractable arabinoxylans (EAX) and water unextractable arabinoxylans (UAX). The levels of TAX, EAX and UAX were found to range between 46.3 to 77.8; 8.8 to 9.0; and 39.9 to 67.7 mg/g, respectively. The percent EAX in TAX and EAX/UAX ratios were found to be independent of the amount of AX. The EAX levels showed a similar pattern to TAX in all varieties. The influence of variety, location, and crop year on the AX contents was also studied. Variety was the main source of variation that influenced the AX content and percent EAX in TAX and EAX/UAX ratio. Location and Variety × Location interactions, were both found to significantly (p<0.001) influence the AX content. Variety × crop year interaction also showed a significant (p<0.001) impact on the percent EAX in TAX and EAX/UAX ratio. The impact of weather conditions on AX levels across the crop year and near the harvest period also showed significant relationships. The AX content across crop year was significantly and positively correlated with average minimum temperature (r=0.68-0.72) and average relative humidity (r=0.64-0.68). Compared to this, the AX level showed a significant negative relationship with maximum temperature (r=0.67) during the period approaching harvest

1893-1902 Download
36

Intra-and interspecific competition of endangered plant Tetracentron sinense Oliv.


Lijun Chen, Wenqiang Jiang, Yuepan Geng, Yang Chen and Xioahong Gan

Intra-and interspecific competition of endangered plant Tetracentron sinense Oliv.


ABSTRACT:

Tetracentron sinense Oliv., is the East Asian endemic species, broad-leaved tree distributed in south-central China. The current intra- and interspecific competition of T. sinense is unknown, but is vital to its conservation. Based on a field investigation of 56 subject trees and 626 associated trees in Tetracentron sinense communities, the intra- and interspecific competition intensity of T. sinense was analyzed using the competition indices model for individual tree. The intraspecific competition index of T. sinense (53.10) was far less than the interspecific competition index (170.50), indicating a striking effect of interspecific competition. At the community level, the maximum competition intensity was detected for intraspecific competition of T. sinense, followed by that of Pterocarya stenoptera, Acer pictum, A. franchetii, Davidia involucrata, Padus brunnescens, Cercidiphyllum japonicum, Bothrocaryum controversum, Betula utilis, and Euptelea pleiospermum, whereas the minimum intensity was in Aesculus wilsonii. The competition intensity of T. sinense decreased inversely with increasing diameter at breast height (DBH) above 20 cm. The relationships between the competition intensity and DBH of T. sinense individuals followed the strength function (CI = AD-B), which could effectively predict the intra- and interspecific competition intensities of this species. To promote natural regeneration of T. sinense populations, forest gaps should be introduced to stimulate seed germination, and selective cutting of rival trees should be adopted at DBH < 20 cm to lessen interspecific competition. It provides a theoretical basis for revealing the community status of endangered plants and predicting the development trend of population competition

1903-1908 Download
37

An efficient and improved micropropagation method of Rumex nervosus: a valuable medicinal plant from Saudi Arabia


Norah S. Alfarraj, Fahad Al Qurainy, Mohammad Nadeem, Mohamed Tarroum, Saleh Alansi, Abdalrhaman M. Salih, Norah Alenezi, Hassan O. Shaikhaldein, Asma R. Alanazi and Latifah A. Al-Humaid

An efficient and improved micropropagation method of Rumex nervosus: a valuable medicinal plant from Saudi Arabia


ABSTRACT:

Rumex nervosus, a large annual herb is a member of the Polygonaceae family, It is an edible medicinal plant that shows antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments. In this study, a new and improved in vitro propagation protocol was developed for R. nervosus. After 1 week of inoculation on plant growth regulator-free Gamborg's B-5 basal (B5) medium, significant seed germination reached 90%. The highest shoot multiplication rate was observed on B5 medium supplemented with 0.5-µM benzylaminopurine (BAP); 7.8 shoots per explant). The maximum mean number of roots was obtained on B5 medium with 0.5-µM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (maximum number of roots: 29; mean value of root length: 5 cm). Plants were successfully acclimatized into plastic pots containing sterile soil and sand at a 1:1 ratio. Callus induction was best supported on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.5 µM) and BAP (0.1 µM).

 

1909-1917 Download
38

Molecular phylogenetics and optimization of growth conditions of indigenous edible and therapeutically significant Pleurotus floridanus from Pakistan


Abdul Rehman Niazi and Aneeqa Ghafoor

Molecular phylogenetics and optimization of growth conditions of indigenous edible and therapeutically significant Pleurotus floridanus from Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Poor agricultural practices and unavailability of nutritious food have developed a need to look for some non-conventional way of food production. Mushrooms and their cultivation are the best alternative way to achieve zero hunger and no poverty. In the present study, native Pleurotus floridanus a potentially edible and nutritious mushroom was characterized and evaluated for its cultivability and cultivation potential. P. floridanus is a new record for Pakistan. Maximum cultural growth was observed on the Compost Extract Agar (CEA) medium at 28ᵒC followed by Potato Dextrose Agar medium (PDA) and Malt Extract medium (MEA). Cultured strains on CEA medium were used for the spawn production, Sorghum grains at 28found as the best combination for spawn production. Cultivation potential was investigated on the mixed substrate of wheat straw and sawdust and pure wheat straw only. A mixed substrate was found better than pure substrate. Cultivation was only successful at 16ᵒC that showed that P. floridanus is a lower temperature strain. These results showed that P. floridanus can grow on various types of substrates and medium and its cultivation on large scale can solve one of the major concerns of growing population that is the lack of nutritious and healthy food

1919-1926 Download
39

Isolation and identification of a novel leaf necrotic pathogen of Vigna radiata in Pakistan


Sobiya Shafique, Ume Attia, Naureen Akhtar and Shazia Shafique

Isolation and identification of a novel leaf necrotic pathogen of Vigna radiata in Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), a herbaceous, annual legume pulse crop, has high nutritive and clinical values. Amongst the factors damaging to the growth and productivity of this pulse, fungi are the largest and the most important cause affecting the plants at all growth stages. In the present study, a field survey was conducted to isolate the leaf spot pathogen from mung beans. Firstly, the disease symptoms were recorded and infected leaf samples were collected. The pathogen, namely Phoma herbarum, was isolated and identified on the basis of its morphology as well as genetic characterization by nucleotide sequence analysis of the rDNA internal spacer sequence (ITS) gene. The test plants were subjected to detached leaf assay as well as intact plant trials in order to confirm the pathogenic potential of the isolated pathogen. Afterward, Koch’s pathogenicity potential of the identified pathogen was confirmed by the occurrence of the same disease symptoms and re-isolation of the same pathogen from artificially inoculated leaves in both trials. To our knowledge, the study represents a novel isolation of P. herbarum as a leaf spot pathogen of mung beans in Pakistan. The pathogen could result in a serious economic impact on mung beans or possibly on other pulses if not managed in time

1927-1933 Download
40

Encapsulation of medicinal seeds powder to control root pathogenic fungi by ameliorating the physiology and growth of oil yielding crops


Kamran Ashraf, Asma Hanif, Shahnaz Dawar, Muhammad Umar and Zamin Shaheed Siddiqui

Encapsulation of medicinal seeds powder to control root pathogenic fungi by ameliorating the physiology and growth of oil yielding crops


ABSTRACT:

Oil yielding crops have incredible significance which influences the agribusiness of Pakistan. Present research was designed to investigate the encapsulation of medicinal seeds powder in the management of root deteriorating fungi. Ethanolic extract of seed powders were obtained from twenty plant species and was used at 10,000ppm and 5,000ppm, while DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide) and Metiram (fungicide) taken as control to check the antifungal activity In vitro against root pathogenic fungi (Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina). Among the tested seeds, Acacia nilotica seed powder showed excellent inhibition of fungal pathogens at 10,000ppm in paper disc and well methods and was selected In vivo experiment. Capsules of Acacia nilotica seeds powder was amended in soil not only improved the growth of oil yielding crops but also increased the photosynthetic process and chlorophyll content

1935-1945 Download
41

A checklist of macrofungi of Pakistan published from 1998–2020


Abdul Nasir Khalid

A checklist of macrofungi of Pakistan published from 1998–2020


ABSTRACT:

A checklist of macrofungi of Pakistan published/cited in literature after 1997 is given. More than two hundred published articles were reviewed. In total 338 macrofungal species belonging to Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes reported from Pakistan are given. Most of the species were collected from the Himalayan temperate forest of Pakistan which is one of the biodiversity hotspot in the world. Lichens are not included in this list.

 

1947-1962 Download
42

Integrated management of Fusarium wilt of chilli caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Capsici through different management approaches


Noor Muhammad, Nasir Ahmed Rajput, Muhammad Atiq, Shahbaz Talib Sahi, Abdul Rehman, Akhtar Hameed, Ghalib Ayaz Kachelo and Siraj Ahmed

Integrated management of Fusarium wilt of chilli caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Capsici through different management approaches


ABSTRACT:

Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. capsici) of reduces the yield of chilli annually. For management of this destructive disease, five plant extracts (Moringa oleifera, Zingiber officinale, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera, and Allium sativum) @ 10 and 15% and four chemicals (Carbendazim, Topsin-M, Capnazol and Aliette) @ 300 and 500 ppm were evaluated by poisoned food technique. Among all treatments, M. oleifera and Carbendazim showed maximum reduction in mycelial growth. Furthermore, six different plant activators were evaluated under the field condition @ 0.5, 0.75 and 1% concentrations respectively. Salicylic acid showed minimum disease incidence followed by benzoic acid, citric acid K2HPO4, KH2PO4 and ascorbic acid respectively. M. oleifera, salicylic acid and carbendazim were evaluated alone and in combination against Fusarium wilt under field conditions. Minimum disease incidence was shown by salicylic acid + M. oleifera + carbendazim followed by Salicylic acid + Carbendazim, Moringa oleifera + Carbendazim, Carbendazim, Salicylic acid + Moringa oleifera, Salicylic acid and Moringa oleifera respectively as compared to control. It is concluded that combination of salicylic acid + M. oleifera + carbendazim showed minimum disease incidence under field conditions.

 

1963-1970 Download
43

Evaluation of plant extracts against post-harvest rotting fungi from tomato fruits


Sher Wali Khan, Azhar Hussain, Qammar Abbas, Ghulam Raza, Amjad Ali and Shahnawaz Qasim

Evaluation of plant extracts against post-harvest rotting fungi from tomato fruits


ABSTRACT:

The most common postharvest concern is fungus-caused tomato fruit rot. Produce rotting occurs between harvest and eating due to the fungus. The goal of this study was to see how well five plant extracts worked against the three most common rotting fungus species that cause tomato fruit rot (Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Fusarium oxysporum). Results showed that all plant extract exhibited antifungal activity (p<0.05) against tested pathogens. The radial colony fungal growth is decreased with increasing concentrations of the plant extracts. All plant extract at 2000ppm concentration showed ≥80 % mycelial growth reduction for all the three rotting fungi respectively. Overall Aspergillus flavus is more sensitive rotting fungi against plant extracts followed by Rhizopus stolonifer and Fusarium oxysporum. Plant wise highest antifungal potential has appeared in Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia brevifolium while least in Salvia nubicola. The outcome of the current endeavor indicates that plant extract can be used to control tomato rot fungal species

1971-1975 Download
44

Antibacterial activity of ethanolic plant extracts on multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates


Qurat Ul Ain, Sadaf Naeem and Asma Naim

Antibacterial activity of ethanolic plant extracts on multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates


ABSTRACT:

Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important human pathogen frequently recovered from different clinical samples and responsible for nosocomial infections. A. baumannii contains a repertoire of antibiotic resistance mechanisms including drug modification enzymes, alteration of target sites, efflux pumps and others. There are increasing reports of infections caused by MDR A. baumannii, which limits the availability of suitable antibiotics. The present study evaluates the Anti-Acinetobacter activity of different plant extracts. The ethanolic extract of 10 different plant materials was screened by agar-well diffusion method and the minimal inhibitory concentration was also determined using broth-macrodilution technique against 15 clinical MDR A. baumannii isolates. Our results show that the ethanolic extract of Piper betle L. (Betel leaf) has a very strong anti-bacterial activity against MDR Acinetobacter baumannii strains, producing a mean zone of inhibition of 31.33 mm±1.799 and MIC90 of 16 µg/ml. The ethanolic extract of garlic also exhibited considerable effect against few isolates, producing zone of inhibition ranges from 9-13 mm and the MIC90 was 32 µg/ml. However, the ethanolic extract of the remaining plant materials did not show any antibacterial activity against the tested strains. These results suggest that ethanolic extract of Piper betle L. leaf can be a suitable alternative or adjunct for the treatment of MDR A. baumannii infections.

 

1977-1980 Download
45

In vitro anticancer, antioxidants, and phytotoxic efficacy of the Hedera helix  and Moringa oleifera extracts


Khushnood Ur Rehman, Muhammad Hamayun, Zahid Ali Butt, Tabassum Yaseen, Sabir Hussain Shah and Sher Wali

In vitro anticancer, antioxidants, and phytotoxic efficacy of the Hedera helix  and Moringa oleifera extracts


ABSTRACT:

In this research work, key biological activities such as the anticancer, antioxidant, and phytotoxic potential of H. helix (common ivy) and M. oleifera (drumstick tree) were confirmed. For phytotoxic activity plant materials were used in (10, 20, and 40 mg) powder form. The phytotoxic results of these plants were very significant, with the value of P = 0.000289 which carried promising effects on the germination of the test plant Lactuca sativa. The outcomes of the antioxidant activity of the selected plants were very encouraging and significant with a value of P= 0.002333 in the ANOVA test and displayed a small IC50 value for scavenging DPPH, hence showing sufficient scavenging potential. Amongst the well-known fractions Ethyl acetate 16.14±0.259 μg/ml, and 21.55±0.158 μg/ml, Cr. Methanol extracts scavenged DPPH with 19.61±0.978 μg/ml and 26.65±0.149 μg/ml, for H. helix and M. oleifera respectively confirming strong antioxidant activities. The anti-tumor activity of DCM fractions restrained the cancer cell (Colon cancer cells: HT-29) development to 69.08%, and, 68.69%, with value of P = 0.000299 for Hedera helix and P = 5.1x 10-06 for M. oleifera.

 

1981-1986 Download
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