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Thursday, March 30, 2017

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Year 2018 , Volume  50, Issue 5
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1

Effects of hydro and hormonal priming on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seed germination under salt and drought stress


Ihsanullah Daur

Effects of hydro and hormonal priming on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seed germination under salt and drought stress


ABSTRACT:

An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of salinity and drought on germination of quinoa and to test the influence of priming treatments under these stresses. The stresses were built by different levels of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 and NaCl, respectively. Treatments consisted of a control (non-primed seed) and seeds primed in water with or without the addition of plant growth regulator (40 mg. L−1 gibberellic acid; 80 mg. L−1 kinetin). The treated quinoa seeds were tested for germination and seedling growth under the drought and salinity stresses with similar water potentials of  0.0, −0.3, −0.6, −0.9, and −1.2 MPa. The study found that the application of both PEG and saline solutions delayed germination, whereas germination was enhanced by priming treatments. It was noted that at equivalent water potentials, the adverse effect of salinity was less than the PEG solution for mean germination time (MGT), germination percentage, abnormal germination percentage, and root and shoot lengths. Moreover, seeds germinated at all salinity levels, but no seed germinated at −1.2 MPa of the PEG treatment. These results indicate that germination was inhibited by osmotic effect rather than salt toxicity at equivalent water potentials of PEG and NaCl

1669-1673 Download
2

Salinity tolerance threshold of berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) at different growth stages


Seyed Abdolreza Kazemeini, Hadi Pirasteh-Anosheh, Abdolrasol Basirat and Nudrat Aisha Akram

Salinity tolerance threshold of berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) at different growth stages


ABSTRACT:

The most crops are sensitive to salt stress, however, this sensitivity is varied among different growth stages. Therefore, in this study salt stress tolerance threshold at different growth stages was examined in berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.). The treatments included five saline irrigation levels: 0.62 (tap water as control), 3, 6, 9 and 12 dS m-1 and three growth stages at which salinity was applied: 2-leaf, 6-leaf and flowering. Growth parameters, ions accumulation and oxidative damage of berseem clover plants were evaluated. The results showed that salinity stress caused a significant reduction in plant shoot and root dry weights, root length, height, and potassium (shoot and root) concentration, but the impact of salinity varied from stage to stage. On the other hand, tissue sodium concentration and antioxidant enzymes activities were found to be enhanced due to salt stress. Higher levels of salinity had more negative effects on growth parameters and biochemical attributes. Salt stress imposed at the early growth stage had more severe effect on plant growth than that applied at the later growth stages. In view of salt tolerance threshold analysis worked out as 50% reduction based on Van-Genuchtan and Hoffman equation of berseem clover were 6.54, 7.99 and 10.00 dS m-1 at 2-leaf, 6-leaf and flowering, respectively. However, when salt stress was imposed at the 2-leaf stage, plants were able to recover in terms of ion accumulation and antioxidant enzymes, and they were as good as the non-stressed plants. Overall, it was revealed that berseem clover is a sensitive plant at early growth stage, but is relatively tolerant at the later growth stages.

1675-1680 Download
3

Rhizobial inoculation for improving growth physiology, nutrition and yield of maize under drought stress conditions


Muhammad Baqir Hussain, Sajid Mahmood, Niaz Ahmed and Hamid Nawaz

Rhizobial inoculation for improving growth physiology, nutrition and yield of maize under drought stress conditions


ABSTRACT:

Water scarcity is a potential effector restraining crop yield and economic returns to the farmers. This situation may be rescued by inoculating drought tolerant rhizobia owing to their plant growth promotion attributes and high root colonization efficiency. A pot experiment was conducted in sandy clay loam soil to assess the potential of four drought tolerant rhizobial strains Rhizobium phaseoli-RS-1, R. phaseoli-RS-3, Mesorhizobium ciceri-RS-8, and M. ciceri-RS-12 for ameliorating drought impact in maize. The stress was applied at five leave (vegetative) and silking (reproductive) stages. Rhizobial strain RS-8 significantly (p≤0.05) decreased electrolyte leakage and increased root/shoot dry biomass, 100-grain weight and ultimately the grain yield in normal and drought condition compared to respective uninoculated control. Differential response of rhizobial inoculation was observed on physiological characters and plant nutrient uptake under normal and drought condition, however, RS-1 and RS-8 was more promising for improving chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic/transpiration rate, intrinsic water use efficiency, stomatal/mesophyll conductance, relative water contents and nutrient uptake in maize subjected to normal and drought conditions. Moreover, root colonization capability of RS-1 (5.52×107 CFU cm-1 root) and RS-8 (5.89×107 CFU cm-1 root) was higher than control (2.3×104 CFU cm-1 root) and other strains under normal irrigation. Similarly, higher root colonization efficiency of RS-1 and RS-8 was observed under drought stress which seemed to improve plant yield by modulating physiological characters and nutrient uptake in stress conditions. Thus, the results are encouraging in the utilization of rhizobial strains (RS-1, RS-8) as biofertilizer for sustainable production of maize under water deficit conditions

1681-1689 Download
4

Enhancement in cotton growth and yield using novel growth promoting substances under water limited conditions


Mudassir Aziz, Muhammad Ashraf and Muhammad Mansoor Javaid

Enhancement in cotton growth and yield using novel growth promoting substances under water limited conditions


ABSTRACT:

To investigate the role of different growth promoting substances including glycine betaine, salicylic acid and ascorbic acid individually and in different combinations on the growth and yield of promising cotton cultivars viz. Lalazar and FH-142 under limited water supply, a pot study was conducted at research farm of University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha. Two watering regimes viz. well watered (normal irrigation condition) and irrigation at 60 % field capacity level (drought condition) was maintained at appearance of first true leaf of the cotton plant. Exogenous application of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on two cotton cultivars (Lalazar and FH-142) included: distilled water spray (control), distilled water spray + tween-20 (0.1%), glycine betaine @ 100 mg L-1 + tween-20 (0.1%), salicylic acid @ 100 mg L-1 + tween-20 (0.1%),  ascorbic acid at 100 mg L-1 + tween-20 (0.1 %), glycine betaine and salicylic acid @ 50 mg L-1 each + tween-20 (0.1%), glycine betaine and  ascorbic acid @ 50 mg L-1 each + tween-20 (0.1%), salicylic acid and ascorbic acid @ 50 mg L-1 each + tween-20 (0.1%), glycine betaine + salicylic acid + ascorbic acid @ 33 mg L-1 each + tween-20 (0.1%). Results indicated that different plant growth regulators significantly affected number of days to squaring, number of days to first boll splitting, number of monopodial and sympodial branches per plant, number of main stem nodes per plant, plant height, height to node ratio, membrane stability index, relative water contents, first fruiting branch node number, first fruiting branch node height, number of open bolls per plant, average boll weight, lint yield, cotton seed yield per plant and GOT (%). Yield attributes of cotton were enhanced with combined application of salicylic acid and ascorbic acid each at 50 mg L-1 each under drought conditions. However, above stated yield and yield attributes were enhanced with exogenous application of glycine betaine, salicylic acid and ascorbic acid each at 33 mg L-1 under normal irrigation conditions. FH-142 is suitable for good production under drought conditions with the tested PGRs

1691-1701 Download
5

Effects of different nitrogen forms on the nitrogen distribution and utilization of Tamarix ramosissima seedlings under water stress


Haohao Lv, Xiaodong Ma, Ruiqun Zhang, Xiaoli Zhong, Chengang Zhu and Yuhui Yang

Effects of different nitrogen forms on the nitrogen distribution and utilization of Tamarix ramosissima seedlings under water stress


ABSTRACT:

In order to explore the influence of drought stress and nitrogen supplementation on changes in growth, photosynthetic physiological traits, and nitrogen distribution and utilization in Tamarix ramosissima seedlings, four soil watering regimes (D1-20%, D2-35%, D3-50%, and D4-75% of relative field capacity) and supplementation with two nitrogen forms (15N-KNO3 and 15N-NH4Cl) were evaluated. The results indicated that 1) water was the main factor influencing seedling growth. 15N-NH4Cl was more easily absorbed by the roots for total biomass accumulation, while 15N-KNO3 absorption for total biomass accumulationwas promoted under D4. Under water deficient conditions, 15N-KNO3 increased the root/shoot ratio significantly, and this ratio was significantly increased by 15N-NH4Cl under D3. 2) The two different nitrogen forms significantly influenced the chlorophyll a content when the seedlings were subjected to severe water stress, while 15N-NH4Cl had a significant effect on the chlorophyll b content under D2 and D3. Nitrogen improved the photosystem (PS) II actual photochemical efficiency (φPS(II)) of the seedlings, with 15N-NH4Cl significantly effecting φPS(II) under D1 and D3, and 15N-KNO3 being more influential under D2. 3) The nitrogen absorption capacity was diminished under D1 and D4, and followed a trend of an initial increase followed by a decrease along with the increase in soil moisture. The distribution of 15N-KNO3 to the seedlings was higher in comparison to 15N-NH4Cl, whereas the utilization of 15N-NH4Cl was higher. The interactive effects of water and nitrogen thus influence the ability of seedlings to adapt to undesirable surroundings.

1703-1711 Download
6

Effect of dairy manure derived biochar on microbial biomass carbon, soil carbon and Vitis vinifera under water stress conditions


Saira Kanwal, Aniqa Batool, Muhammad Asad Ghufran and Azeem Khalid

Effect of dairy manure derived biochar on microbial biomass carbon, soil carbon and Vitis vinifera under water stress conditions


ABSTRACT:

Water is a key factor for plant growth and development and plants require an adequate amount of water for their optimum growth. But, in some cases plants grow better under a period of moderate water stress. Vitis vinifera is often subjected to severe water stress during hot, dry summers. Soil amendment is one of the methods to overcome drought stress. Biochar has been popularized due to its potential role in many fields like better crop yield, C sequestration, increasing microbial biomass carbon and soil carbon. In the present study, two rates of biochar (2g and 5g kg-1 soil) were investigated with two levels of water stress (35% and 70%). A considerable increase was observed in leaf area,  plant height, net photosynthesis, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance when 35% stress was maintained along with the addition of  large amount of bio char respectively. Moreover, highly significant results were found in plants treated with biochar as compared to control among all treatments. Vitis vinifera showed resistance having 5gkg-1 biochar with 35% water stress for all parameters. Soil carbon was 4.9% in 70 % stress and 5gkg-1 biochar except microbial biomass carbon which was 0.11% having moderate water stress (35%) and high biochar rate (5gkg-1). Results indicate that dairy manure derived biochar can be used to promote plant growth specifically of Vitis vinifera and increase microbial biomass carbon and soil carbon in soil. In future dairy manure derived biochar can be used for enhancing plant growth and improving soil properties under water stress conditions.

1713-1718 Download
7

Influence of zinc, copper and manganese on dry matter yield and physiological traits of three cassava genotypes grown on soil micronutrient deficiencies


Anon Janket, Nimitr Vorasoot, Thawan Kesmala and Sanun Jogloy

Influence of zinc, copper and manganese on dry matter yield and physiological traits of three cassava genotypes grown on soil micronutrient deficiencies


ABSTRACT:

Deficiencies of one or more micronutrients is a common cause of low yield in cassava. The aims of this research were investigated the effects of foliar applications of zinc, manganese and copper on cassava plant growth in soils where these micronutrients are often limiting. Three cassava genotypes (Kasetsart 50, Rayong 9 and CMR 38-125-77) were treated with foliar fertilizer applications varying in Zinc, Copper and Manganese. SPAD chlorophyll meter readings, visual ratings of plant nutrient deficiencies, leaf area, harvest index, and plant height significantly improved as a result of the micronutrient foliar applications. Shoot, tuber and total biomass dry weights were also improved by the foliar sprays. Foliar spray of 2% ZnSO4•7H2O increased biomass yield in all cassava genotypes by 30.6% to 75.7% compared to application of soil fertilizers alone. The information from this study is now being used to develop appropriate management guidelines for cassava production under micronutrient deficiencies conditions.

1719-1725 Download
8

Mitigation of cadmium toxicity induced stress in wheat by ACC-deaminase containing PGPR isolated from cadmium polluted wheat rhizosphere


Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye, Areeba Shahjahan, Subhan Danish, Muhammad Abid and Muhammad Farooq Qayyum

Mitigation of cadmium toxicity induced stress in wheat by ACC-deaminase containing PGPR isolated from cadmium polluted wheat rhizosphere


ABSTRACT:

Heavy metals induced stress is a serious threat to crop productivity all over the world. Heavy metals enter the food chain through their uptake by plants and thereby affect human health. Among all the heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) is ubiquitously toxic due to its high water solubility. Cadmium can cause cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neural abnormalities in humans when taken up in the form of food. Keeping in mind the importance of wheat as widely used staple food, a hydroponic glass jar experiment was performed under axenic condition for the screening of most efficient Cd tolerant ACC deaminase containing PGPR from Cd polluted (4.3 mg kg-1 Cd) wheat rhizosphere. Out of 20 strains, only nine strains were capable of growing at five mg L-1 Cd level. The most efficient Cd tolerant ACC deaminase containing PGPR that significantly enhanced morphological growth attributes in wheat plants under various levels of Cd (2.5 and 5.0 mg L-1) were identified as Agrobacterium fabrum (CdtS5) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (CdtS7). The photosynthetic pigments were also enhanced significantly in wheat seedlings where Agrobacterium fabrum and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were applied as an inocula. It is concluded that Agrobacterium fabrum and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are ACC-deaminase containing PGPR strains which are Cd tolerant, have ability to reduce the Cd uptake by the plant and enhance the wheat growth under Cd toxicity.

1727-1734 Download
9

Beneficial role of foliary-applied proline on carrot (Daucus carota L.) under saline conditions


Misbah Qirat, Muhammad Shahbaz and Shagufta Perveen

Beneficial role of foliary-applied proline on carrot (Daucus carota L.) under saline conditions


ABSTRACT:

A pot experiment was conducted to appraise the beneficial role of foliar application of proline on two cultivars of carrot (Daucus carota L.) cv. Arwa red long and cv. Red corl grown in pots under salt-stress conditions. There were two levels of salinity i.e. non-stress (0 mM) and NaCl stress (150 mM) and three levels of foliar applied proline (0, 5, 10 mM). Growth, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters decreased, while enzymes activities and proline contents increased in carrot plants under saline conditions. Proline treatment as foliar spray significantly enhanced growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, activity of peroxidase, root K+ and Ca2+ and shoot K+ contents, while decreased Na+ contents of root in both carrot cultivars. Arva Red Long showed better performance as compared to cultivar Red Corl due to improved growth, gas exchange characteristics, antioxidant enzymes activities (SOD, POD), high free proline and K+ and Ca2+ contents. 

1735-1744 Download
10

Dry matter remobilization, yield and yield components of durum (Triticum durum Desf.) and bread (Triticum aestivum L.) wheat genotypes under drought stress


Tofig Allahverdiyev, Atabey Jahangirov, Javanshir Talai and Irada Huseynova

Dry matter remobilization, yield and yield components of durum (Triticum durum Desf.) and bread (Triticum aestivum L.) wheat genotypes under drought stress


ABSTRACT:

Drought is a major limiting factor affecting wheat production in the world. We aimed to study the effect of soil water deficit on dry matter remobilization (DMR), grain yield (GY) and yield components of durum and bread wheat genotypes. Drought stress accelerated DMR. Lowest remobilization of dry matter into grains was detected in the tallest, late heading genotypes, which were also characterized by low harvest index (HI). Drought stress showed less affect on plant height (PH), peduncle length (PL), spike length (SL), spike width (SW), spikelet number per spike (SNS) but strongly affected the biological yield (BY), spike mass (SM), grain number per spike (GNS) and grain mass per spike (GMS), thousand kernels mass (TKM). GY positively and significantly correlated with spikes m-2 (SN), BY and HI under drought stress condition. We consider that wheat characteristics DMR, SN, BY, HI are good selection criteria under drought stress.

1745-1751 Download
11

Effect of potassium fertilizer on fruit quality and mineral composition of fig (Ficus carica L. cv. Brown Turky).


Soliman. S.S Alebidi A.I., Al-Obeed. R.S and Al-Saif A.M.

Effect of potassium fertilizer on fruit quality and mineral composition of fig (Ficus carica L. cv. Brown Turky).


ABSTRACT:

The impact of potassium fertilization on fruit quality and content of some nutrients of Brown Turky Fig grown in Dirab, Riyadh, King Saud University was studied during the 2015 and 2016 seasons. Results showed that applying K2O at a rate of 400 g per tree followed by an application rate of 200 g per tree increased the fruit weight, fruit volume, and fruit dimensions. Highest total acidity in the first season was observed in fruits from the control trees (no potassium fertilizer added) followed by fruits from trees treated with K2O at rate of 100 g per tree. Application of K2O at a rate of 400 g per tree followed by a rate of 200 g per tree led to higher values of TSS and total sugars in the fruits of both the seasons. It was noted that the K2O when applied at a rate of 400 g per tree increased reducing sugars and moisture content and when applied at a rate of 200 g per tree led to the highest non-reducing sugars in both the seasons. In addition, the results indicated that the N and K contents increased while P content decreased significantly with increasing rate of potassium fertilization in both the seasons. Treatments of K2O at a rate of 100 g per tree led to the highest P content in both the seasons

1753-1758 Download
12

Physiological and biochemical changes in leaves of radish (Raphanus sativus L. Cherry bella) seedlings treated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP)


Songul Canakci-Gulengül and Fadime Karabulut

Physiological and biochemical changes in leaves of radish (Raphanus sativus L. Cherry bella) seedlings treated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP)


ABSTRACT:

In the present study, SNP (0, 50, 100, 200, and 300 μM) was administered hydroponically to 10 –day-old seedlings of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cherry bella) through roots for 5 days and physiological and biochemical effects on leaves were examined. It was determined that compared to control; leaves had loss of pigment (chl a+b and carotenoid), soluble protein content was declined and MDA and GSSG contents were increased. In addition, GSH content and SOD activity was decreased whereas CAT activity was increased. While % rates of fatty acids in the leaf were declined and exceptionally decreased for palmitic, linoleic and palmitoleic acid, it showed an increase and an exceptional increase for stearic and linolenic acid.  Generally, high doses of SNP significantly triggered the toxicity

1759-1762 Download
13

Isoetes sinensis: a rare and endangered species, can absorb and accumulate lead (Pb)


Wei Wang, Chun-Ye Li, Bao-Dong Liu, Li Wang, Chun-Yu Chi and Guo-Hua Ding

Isoetes sinensis: a rare and endangered species, can absorb and accumulate lead (Pb)


ABSTRACT:

Isoetes sinensis Palmer (Isoetaceae) is listed as a Wild Plant of National Protection Grade I for its endangered status. The limited population of I. sinensis is thought to be caused by difficulty breeding and habitat pollution (especially heavy metal pollution). This research used a lead nitrate solution to treat I. sinensis and to analyze the characteristics of uptake, transportation and accumulation of lead in I. sinensis by measuring the concentration of Pb2+ in the roots, rhizomes and leaves. The results showed that I. sinensis could absorb lead from both the root system and the leaves and upward or downward transport, and then accumulate lead in all organs, especially in the leaves. Comparatively, the ability of leaf to absorb and to accumulate lead was the strongest among organs. In the treatment I, the lead content of the organs direct contacted with lead solution were 1190 mg kg-1, 3474 mg kg-1 and 95906 mg kg-1 in the leaves, roots and rhizomes, respectively. Although the ability of lead transportation between rhizome and leaf was stronger, the ability of lead translocation was weak on the whole in contrast to other heavy metals. Isoetes sinensis is a lead hyperaccumulating plant and can maintain the ability of leaf regeneration under 2000 mg kg-1 high concentration of lead stress after 30 days.

1763-1767 Download
14

Effects of hydrogen peroxide on initial growth and enzymatic antioxidant system of Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae)


Rodrigo Miranda Moraes, Marília Carvalho, Fernanda Carlota Nery, Plinio Rodrigues Santos Filho, Marina Lima Nogueira and Sandro Barbosa

Effects of hydrogen peroxide on initial growth and enzymatic antioxidant system of Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae)


ABSTRACT:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), can function as signaling molecules in basic cellular processes in plants, or cause oxidative damage to biomolecules when in excess. The objective of this study was to evaluate H2O2 phytotoxicity on germination, growth, initial development and cell cycle, in addition to the response of the enzymatic antioxidant system of L. sativa. For this purpose, L. sativa seeds were exposed to H2O2 solutions at the following concentrations: 0.0, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 mM for a period of 7 days. After 24 hours of exposure to H2O2, there was a significant reduction in germination percentage from 2.5 mM. With the increase in H2O2 concentration, there was a reduction in root length, and seedling fresh and dry biomass. However, dry biomass was more affected by H2O2 when compared to fresh biomass. H2O2 significantly reduced mitotic index, but did not induce significant chromosomal abnormalities. The treatment with 7.5 mM H2O2 led to a significant proline accumulation. On the other hand, the activity of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase increased significantly only at a concentration of 2.5 and above 5.0 mM, respectively. There was no significant activity of the enzymes catalase and guaiacol peroxidase. Therefore, the exposure to H2O2 resulted in proline accumulation, and an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity, in response to H2O2 increase to maintain redox homeostasis inside the cell

1769-1774 Download
15

Interactive effect of deficit irrigation and mulching on sugar beet productivity in Pakistan


Abdul Malik, Abdul Sattar Shakir, Naveedullah, Muhammad Jamal Khan, Muhammad Latif, Muhammad Shahzad Khattak and Taj Ali Khan

Interactive effect of deficit irrigation and mulching on sugar beet productivity in Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

In dry regions, irrigated agriculture is facing increasing demand for decreasing water resources. For sustainable and efficient use of the available water resources, field scale water saving strategies must be applied to enhance water productivity and crop yield. Deficit irrigation application along with suitable soil moisture conservation technique is one of the strategies and its successful application depends on crop response to different water stress levels. This research paper presents results of two years (2011–12 and 2012–13) study carried out at Sugar Crops Research Institute (SCRI) Mardan, to determine the effect of different irrigation deficit levels applied throughout the crop growing season and different types of mulching on productivity of sugar beet. The field experiments included four water stress levels designated as FI (full irrigation), DI20, DI40, DI60 (20, 40 and 60 percent deficit irrigation levels) and three moisture conservation practices; No mulch (NM), black polyethylene film mulch (BFM) and straw mulch (SM), respectively. Results revealed that different water stress levels and mulching combination produced significant effects on yield of sugar beet and its water productivity. The highest mean root yield was produced by FI– BFM combination and the highest mean sugar yield by DI20–BFM treatment. Results further revealed that the relative amounts of irrigation water saved by irrigation regimes and mulching interaction was ranged from 5.83 to 66.53% and the relative reduction in seasonal water used was ranged between 2 and 47%, respectively. The mean root and sugar water productivities observed in this study were lowest for FI and NM combination and the highest for DI60 and BFM. Overall finding of this study is that deficit irrigation and mulching can save water and improve its water productivity significantly.

1775-1783 Download
16

Effect of plant age and geographical location on active paeonol and paeoniflorin accumulation in the roots of Paeonia ostii


Faheem Afzal Shah, Yuan Ren, Ying Ju Yuan , Songling Fu, Ying Wang and Han Y.H. Chen

Effect of plant age and geographical location on active paeonol and paeoniflorin accumulation in the roots of Paeonia ostii


ABSTRACT:

Paeonol and paeoniflorin, available in Paeonia ostii roots, are active compounds applicable for curing breast cancer and neuropathic pain. We investigated the impacts of growing locations and plant age on paeonol and paeoniflorin contents of the roots in Paeonia ostii from 3 to 6-year-old plants growing in the south, middle and north latitude of Anhui province, China. Root samples were analyzed by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography (UFLC), and soil samples were analyzed by spectrophotometric methods. We found that both paeonol and paeoniflorin contents increased with plant age and also increased from south to north location in 6-years old plants but not in younger ones. We found that soil Mg2+, Ca2+, organic matter, and pH value had positive effects both on paeonol and paeoniflorin contents. Our study highlights the importance of plant age and geographical location on paeonol and paeoniflorin contents of Paeonia ostii roots

1785-1790 Download
17

Nutrient, mineral, antioxidant, and anthocyanin profiles of different cultivars of Syzygium cumini (Jamun) at different stages of fruit maturation


Asma Saeed, Shabana Kauser and Muhammad Iqbal

Nutrient, mineral, antioxidant, and anthocyanin profiles of different cultivars of Syzygium cumini (Jamun) at different stages of fruit maturation


ABSTRACT:

The study reports profiles of nutrients, minerals, bioactive phytochemicals, and anthocyanins in four cultivars of Syzygium cumini (jamun) fruit at four maturation stages designated as D1 (light-green: very early stage of fruit-set), D2 (dark-green: full-size unripe stage), D3 (pink: semi-ripe stage), and D4 (deep-purple: fully ripe stage). No previous study has investigated profiles of these constituents in jamun at different fruit maturation stages. The most significant findings of this study relate with anthocyanins, not reported heretofore, the biosynthesis of which started as the aglycones of delphinidin and cyanidin at as early as D1 stage when sugars as their glycone components were not yet detected, and the first-time report of pelargonidin in jamun. Further, a total of five anthocyanins were identified, namely, cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, malvidin 3-glucoside, and pelargonidin 3-glucoside. Yet another new information noted during the identification of anthocyanins was that all previous studies on jamun fruit had reported diglucosides as the major anthocyanins, whereas except for cyanidin diglucoside in the present study all other anthocyanins (also including cyanidin) were identified as monoglucosides. All cultivars showed high +90% DPPH scavenging ability, which may be attributed to the collective participation of several antioxidant components such as ascorbic acid, total phenols, and total anthocyanins, all present in high contents in the jamun fruit.

1791-1804 Download
18

Growth response of Pinus wallichiana to climatic factors from the Chiraah Karakoram region, Northern Pakistan


Fayaz Asad, Haifeng Zhu, Farooq Jan, Tabassum Yaseen, Ajmal Khan and Muhammad Khalid

Growth response of Pinus wallichiana to climatic factors from the Chiraah Karakoram region, Northern Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Pinus wallichiana is the most dominant evergreen species at upper treeline, which is naturally distributed in the Karakoram region of northern Pakistan. The age of this species is reaching up to 800-years old. However, little is known the impact of the climate on the tree growth. In the present study, we developed a long (1409-2015) tree-ring width (TRW) chronology from the upper Pinus wallichiana forest limit to investigate its response to climate change. The TRW was significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the winter (December-February) temperatures and had no significant correlations with precipitation and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). These findings confirmed that the Pinus wallichiana tree growth was mainly limited to temperature rather than precipitation and PDSI, and suggesting that this species had a potential for the past climate reconstruction in the study area.

1805-1810 Download
19

Transformation of tomato variety Rio Grande with drought resistant transcription factor gene ATAF1 and its molecular analysis


Muhammad Awais, Rafiq Ahmad, Nadeem Khan, Prashanth Garapati, Muhammad Shahzad, Amber Afroz, Umer Rashid and Sabaz Ali Khan

Transformation of tomato variety Rio Grande with drought resistant transcription factor gene ATAF1 and its molecular analysis


ABSTRACT:

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) being an important vegetable is cultivated and used throughout the world. It not only contributes in fulfilling the basic nutritional requirements of the human body but also has many health benefits due to its rich biochemical composition. However, its production at large scale is hampered by many limiting factors such as biotic and abiotic stresses. Among the different abiotic stresses, drought poses drastic impact on tomato yield. Drought stress is genetically regulated by many transcription factors that not only regulate the stress responsive mechanism but also facilitate the growth and development of tomato plants. NAC is an important stress related transcription factor genes family, and the ATAF1 gene, a member of this family, is involved in ABA signaling and stress response. In this study, tomato variety Rio Drande was transformed with drought resistant ATAF1 gene via Agrobacterium mediated gene transformation method. The ATAF1 gene was first cloned in the pK7WFG2 vector having kanamycin selectable marker and then it was introduced in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 through heat shock method. The tomato cotyledon and hypocotyl ex-plants of variety “Rio Ggrande” were cultured on callus induction medium (MS + 2.5 mg/L IAA + 2 mg/L BAP). The calli were then infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 containing ATAF1 gene and selection was carried out on the kanamycin selectable medium (MS + 100 mg/L Kan), and were regenerated on MS medium with 1 mg/L IAA + 1 mg/L BAP. Out of 216 putative transformed calli, 13 calli were able to regenerate on the selection medium. Of the 13 calli, three transgenic tomato plantlets were recovered, and these were confirmed through PCR analysis for the presence of 432 bp fragment of ATAF1 gene. The transformation protocol reported here can be used to generate drought resistant tomato plants in future

1811-1820 Download
20

Evaluation of allelopathic potential of rice landraces (Oryza sativa L.) on the growth of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli P. Beauv) in different screening conditions


Tran Dang Khanh, Hoang-Dung Tran, Khuat Huu Trung, Le Hung Linh, Hoang Thi Giang, Do Minh Trung, Tran Van Khoa and Tran Dang Xuan

Evaluation of allelopathic potential of rice landraces (Oryza sativa L.) on the growth of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli P. Beauv) in different screening conditions


ABSTRACT:

The objectives of this study were to evaluate allelopathic potential of the total 51 Vietnamese rice landraces (Oryza sativa L.) collected from different ecosystems on the growth of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in the different screening conditions. In laboratory screening, Nanh chon, Lua Tho, Nang Quat Bien, Ble Blau and Vang Thom landraces exhibited the greatest weed suppressing against the shoot length (SL) and root length (RL) of barnyardgrass by over 60%. In greenhouse, 5 landraces, Vang Quat Bien, Nanh Chon, Lua Tho, Bulu Pan dark, Huong Chiem and Nang Quat Vang revealed significant inhibition from 60.0% - 70.0% on SL of barnyardgrass. In field trial, 8 landraces demonstrated SL inhibition over 70.0%. The highest average inhibition (AI) was found in 3 rice landraces including Ble Blau do, Huong Chiem and Vang Quat Bien by over 50.0%. Rice allelopathic activity is landraces ─ dependent and varietal groups ─ dependent, of which the traditional none sticky group landraces (TNS) were the highest, followed by the improved varieties (IV), while the least was the traditional sticky landraces (TS). The correlation coefficient showed strikingly different allelopathic potential values in laboratory – greenhouse and laboratory ─ field and field ─ greenhouse screenings. The results have provided useful information to further develop allelopathic rice lines via breeding program for sustainable weed management in this country.

1821-1830 Download
21

The seed atlas of Pakistan-XVI. Acanthaceae


Afsheen Ather, Rubina Abid and M. Qaiser

The seed atlas of Pakistan-XVI. Acanthaceae


ABSTRACT:

Seed macro and micro morphological characters of the 18 taxa belonging to the family Acanthaceae have been examined by using light and scanning electron microscopy. The family Acanthaceae is represented by 2 sub families viz., Acanthoideae and Avicennioideae. A remarkable variation has been observed in seed size, shape, colour and surface at various taxonomic levels. Seed morphological data was also analyzed numerically by clustering to trace out the phylogenetic relationship and the data was found useful as an additional tool to strengthen the recognition of taxa within the family Acanthaceae from Pakistan

1831-1841 Download
22

Proteomic study on growth promotion of PGPR inoculated aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar MR219-9 


Umme Aminun Naher, Qurban Ali Panhwar, Radziah Othman, Jusop Shamshuddin, Mohd Razi Ismail and Erxun Zhou

Proteomic study on growth promotion of PGPR inoculated aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar MR219-9 


ABSTRACT:

The plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) perform substantial growth enhancement of aerobic rice. Study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia using 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) strategy to identify mechanisms for rice plant growth promotion by PGPR inoculation. In this study, diverse expressed proteins were determined by mass spectrometry (MS). Aerobic rice seedling (MR219-9) was grown in the soil and PGPR strains of Stenotrophomonas maltophilla and Bacillus spp. were inoculated separately and or as combined bacterial consortium. Leaf sheath and other plant parts were collected after 45 d of transplanting for the analysis of proteins. A total of 153 spots were found and from which 12 proteins were identified. All proteins were varied in MS analysis and exposed the differential expression. The identified proteins were tolerant to abiotic stresses (13.2%), disease resistance (10%), oxidation reduction process (10%), photosynthesis (16.62 μmol CO2 m–2 s–1), involved in the protein synthesis (23.28%), metabolism (13.6%) and related to internal plant physiological functions (13.29%). Beside protein identification, phenotypic characters, such as plant height and photosynthetic activity were measured. The highest plant height and length of root, tiller numbers and nutrients uptake were observed in PGPR inoculated treatments. PGPR inoculation increased leaf chlorophyll contents and net photosynthesis rate of inoculated aerobic rice. Hence, using plant proteomic approach it is proved that various designated proteins are responsible for the plant growth promotion of PGPR inoculated aerobic rice cultivar MR219-9.  

1843-1852 Download
23

Application of leaf epidermal anatomical technique for identification of some grass species from district Bhimber of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan


Muhammad Ishtiaq, Mehwish Maqbool, Tanveer Hussain, Khizar Hayat Bhatti, Waheeda Mushtaq and Asif Nadeem

Application of leaf epidermal anatomical technique for identification of some grass species from district Bhimber of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Grasses are main source of food (cereals), fodder of livestock and good source of therapeutics and cosmetics in traditional medicine systems of the world. It is rather difficult to identify and classify grasses properly. As these plants are ethnobotanically important and have been used for treatment of different disease in traditional cultural therapeutics for dyspepsia, burning sensation, piles, sexual weakness, gynecological troubles, respiratory troubles, Kidney stones, acid reflex, blood impurity, debility, diarrhea, lecuoderma, allergy, anemia, anuria, anticancer and antidiabetic. It is pertinent that identifying grass species is very difficutl task if based on only morphological features. The key purpose of this research was to identify the selected taxa of grasses by using morphometric analysis and leaf epidermal anatomical approach from District Bhimber of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK). Following species grasses: Cynodon dactylon L., Saccharum spontanium L., Saccharum ravennae L., Poa annua L. and Poa nemoralis L. were selected for this study. In morphometric analysis; cluster was formed which divided relevant species into distinct groups (taxon). Genetic distance (GD) was calculated to explore inter and intra-species variation. It was found that taxa from Bhimber area had highest GD (135) while species from Barnala showed least GD (83). From Leaf epidermal anatomy (LEA) study, stomatal index (SI) was calculated and among Saccharum genus: Saccharum spontanium showed highest SI (23.6) while Saccharum revennae  had SI value of 12.6. In other genus Poa: Poa nemoralis depicted SI of (20.4) and while Poa annua had SI of 12.5. Other genus Cynodon (out group): Cynodon dactylon showed stomatal index of (15.0). Taxonmic keys has been devised for proper identification of all taxa under this study.

1853-1863 Download
24

Foliar epidermal morphology of some members of subfamily Dodonaeoideae – Sapindaceae


Temitope Olabisi Onuminya and Ismaila Gbadebo Adediran

Foliar epidermal morphology of some members of subfamily Dodonaeoideae – Sapindaceae


ABSTRACT:

Dodonaeoideae Burnett is a subfamily of flowering plants in the soapberry family Sapindaceae Juss. Leaf epidermal characteristics of some species in the subfamily Dodonaeoideae were studied with the aid of a compound light and scanning electron microscopes in order to evaluate their reliability as taxonomic markers. Both qualitative and quantitative assessments were carried out using standard methods and the species studied included Zanha golungensis Hiern, Dodonaea viscosa (L) Jacq. and Majidea fosterii (Sprague) Radlk. Both Z. golungensis and M. fosterii are hypostomatic with stomata restricted to the abaxial surface while D. viscosa is amphistomatic. Their epidermises are composed of cells of various shapes from polygonal in Z. golungensis and adaxial surface of D. viscosa species, to irregular M. fosterii and abaxial surface of D. viscosa. The anticlinal wall patterns vary on abaxial and adaxial surfaces of each species, from straight in D. viscosa to undulate in M. fosterii. Anomocytic stomata are present in M. fosterii and D. viscosa species while paracytic stomata type is found in Z. golungensis. There is variation in the stomata size, number, length and width of the three species. Stellate trichomes were observed on the adaxial surface of Z. golungensis while epicuticular wax is granular in all taxa and mainly especially on the adaxial surface. Also, striations were observed on both surfaces of Z. golungensis. The range of variation in the epidermal characters between the species under investigation renders them of value for taxonomic purposes. An artificial dichotomous key for identifying the species is presented

1865-1869 Download
25

Effect of different growth regulators on In vitro propagation of Brassica napus L.


Sarwat Naz, Muhammad Faheem Siddiqui and Saboohi Raza

Effect of different growth regulators on In vitro propagation of Brassica napus L.


ABSTRACT:

A large amount of foreign exchange is expending to import the edible oil in Pakistan. The improvement of local oil producing varieties such as canola may play a vital role for better socio-economic condition of Pakistan. Plant tissue culture technique is one of the methods for crop improvement through somaclonal variation. The present study was conducted to evaluate the response of different explants including hypocotyl, leaf, node and cotyledon of canola (Brassica napus L.) on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2,4-D, NAA, IBA, BAP, 2,4-D+BAP at various concentrations. Each explant responds differently in the presence of phytohormones. The best callus was obtained at 0.1 mg/l 2,4-D with hypocotyl explants. The optimized calli was further shifted to different shooting media supplemented with BAP (0-3mg/l), without or with silver nitrate (5mg/l) and BAP (2mg/l) with or without Kinetin (0-3mg/l). The maximum number of shoots was formed on MS media containing 5mg/l silver nitrate and 2mg/l BAP. The elongated shoots were inoculated on different rooting media containing half MS media augmented with or without IBA at different concentrations. The maximum root regeneration was noticed on hormone free half MS media. The present study will be useful for indirect propagation of Brassica napus, which could be utilised for crop improvement of via somaclonal variation

1871-1876 Download
26

Morpho-anatomical plasticity of Stylosanthes viscosa (Fabaceae) in response to different soil and light conditions of Restinga environments


Jessica Stefani Dirksen and Joao Carlos Ferreira De Melo Junior

Morpho-anatomical plasticity of Stylosanthes viscosa (Fabaceae) in response to different soil and light conditions of Restinga environments


ABSTRACT:

Structural plasticity is an important ability of plants to acclimate to different environmental conditions, especially in limiting environments such as restingas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morpho-anatomical plasticity of Stylosanthes viscosa (L.) Sw. (Fabaceae) populations based on the hypothesis that edaphic and luminous factors cause different structural adjustments, such that, in the restinga, herbaceous plants would be more xeromorphic than shrub-tree plants. The study area included formations of herbaceous and shrub-arboreal restinga of Acaraí State Park, located in São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Morpho-anatomical attributes of 10 individuals per formation were compared with the t-test. Principal components analysis was used to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on S. viscosa (L.) Sw. populations. In both formations, organic matter content had the greatest influence on adjustments exhibited by the species, with greater emphasis on plant height, stem diameter, fresh mass, dry mass, leaf area and specific leaf area. Morphological attributes exhibited greater plasticity than anatomical attributes. The population of the herbaceous restinga was observed to be more xeromorphic, exhibiting greater investment in mechanical tissues, as opposed to the shrub-arboreal restinga population, which exhibited greater investment in photosynthetic tissues. The results demonstrate the strong influence that soil and light have on the morpho-anatomical plasticity of S. viscosa (L.) Sw. in restinga environments.

 

1877-1884 Download
27

Estimation of critical period of exotic invasive weed Alternanthera philoxeroides interference in maize


Asif Tanveer, Muhammad Nadeem, Abdul Khaliq, Tasawer Abbas, Rizwan Maqbool and Muhammad Ehsan Safdar

Estimation of critical period of exotic invasive weed Alternanthera philoxeroides interference in maize


ABSTRACT:

Alternanthera philoxeroides, a quickly spreading troublesome invasive weed of summer crops, is causing substantial yield losses in maize and other crops in Pakistan. Influence of A. philoxeroides at different weed free (full season, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks after crop emergence (WAE) and weedy periods (full season, 3, 4, 5 and 6 WAE) on maize was estimated during two consecutive years (2013 and 2014). The increasing weed competition periods increased weed dry biomass (up to 646%) and nutrient uptake (876-1377%). Weed competition caused reduction in maize plant height (14%), 100-grain biomass (22%), number of grains (31%) and grain biomass per cob (30%). Different A. philoxeroides competition periods caused up to 37% and 45% biological and grain yield losses of maize, respectively. Relative weed competitive index range was 3.14-45.10%. Four parameter logistic model predicted 0.26-6.04 WAE and 0.35-5.86 WAE as critical period of competition for A. philoxeroides to avoid 5% to 10% maize grain yield losses, respectively. The comparatively narrow window for competition period might be due to its fast and prostrate growth habit, high nutrient uptake and strong allelopathic potential. Appropriate management strategies would help to condense anticipated spread of A. philoxeroides and maize yield losses

1885-1892 Download
28

Phtyto-chemical composition, antimicrobial and phyto-toxic activity of Angelica glauca (Apiaceae)


Khaleeq-Uz-Zaman, Jehan Bakht, Mohammad Shafi and Iqbal Munir

Phtyto-chemical composition, antimicrobial and phyto-toxic activity of Angelica glauca (Apiaceae)


ABSTRACT:

Medicinal and aromatic plants produce different bio-compounds which are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and drug industries. In vitro phytotoxic, antibacterial activities as well as phytochemical screening of various fractions from the root of Angelica glauca were investigated. The data revealed that all the extracted fractions showed variable antibacterial activities. Klebsiella pneumonia was the most resistant bacterial strain and Xanthomonas compestris was the most sensitive. Ethyl acetate, chloroform, methanol and petroleum ether fractions showed inhibitory activities against all the tested strains. Chloroform fraction showed highest activity followed by ethyl acetate while butanol and aqueous extracted samples were found least responsive against the tested strains. Ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts measured maximum antifungal activity. Butanol and n-hexane extracted samples showed maximum phytotoxic activity while water fractions showed lowest phytotoxic activity. Phyto-chemical analysis revealed the presence of proteins and carbohydrates in all the extracts, however, the presence of tannins was not confirmed in any fraction. Alkaloids were reported in different fractions excluding n-hexane, water and ethyl acetate. Similarly, saponines were present only in butanol and water extracted samples. Lipids were found in all the extracted samples except methanol, water and petroleum ether extracted samples while sterols were found in all extracts except butanol and water.

1893-1898 Download
29

Ethnobotanical indices based ethnoveterinary plant profile of Jabban hills, Malakand and Hindukush range, Pakistan


Barkatullah, Muhsin Khan, Habib Ahmad, Muhammad Saleem Khan and Abdul Razzaq

Ethnobotanical indices based ethnoveterinary plant profile of Jabban hills, Malakand and Hindukush range, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Seventy-one plant species of ethnoveterinary usage were reported during the survey conducted in 2016-17, from Jaban Hills, District Malakand, hindukush range, Pakistan.  Highest usage value (8.66%) was found for plants used for relieving skin problems and as galactagogue in cattles. 7.87% of reported plant species were used for wound healing followed by species used as anti-dyspepsia (7.08%), anti-constipation (5.51%), anti-diarrheal, antitussive and anthelmintic (4.72% each), as diuretic and carminative (3.93% each). The percentage of plant used other veterinary usage like general tonic, febrifuge, analgesic, coolant, abortifacient, curing eye and udder disorders and releaving problems during after birth processes in cattles were ecorded a total of 40.15%. The most frequently used part was shoot (21.21%), followed by leaf (12.12%), whole plant (10.10%), fruit (9.09%), root (8.08%) and seeds (7.07%). Species with highest RFC values were Ailanthus altissima (0.5), Ajuga bracteosa (0.43), Rumex hastatus (0.33), Dodonaea viscosa (0.23), and Melia azedarach (0.21). Species with highest Use values include Ailanthus altissima (0.87), Rumex hastatus (0.73), Ajuga bracteosa (0.44), Melia azedarach (0.45) and Dodonaea viscosa (0.39).  As this area is blessed with high number of ethnomedicinal plants and high usage of herbal drugs used for veterinary purposes may be accompanied with certain adverse effects therefore, further investigation is required to explore more informations and to determine safe usage of the herbal drugs

1899-1905 Download
30

Quercus robur (English oak) seed: a potential energy, oleic and cis-linoleic acid rich nutritional supplement in South Africa


Ellis Ayayee and Eliton Chivandi

Quercus robur (English oak) seed: a potential energy, oleic and cis-linoleic acid rich nutritional supplement in South Africa


ABSTRACT:

Although plentiful in the South African urban areas where it is used as an ornamental tree, Quercus robur (Q. robur; English Oak), is not indigenous. The tree produces an abundance of fruit (acorns) which contain seeds that are left to decay despite their potential as sources of biomass. To establish the potential of the tree, we determined the proximate, mineral, fiber, amino acid, fatty acid and phytate-phosphate content of dehulled Quercus robur seed. The seed had a dry matter (DM) content of 91.56% and a gross energy content of 17.38 MJ kg-1. Of the DM content 88.65% was organic matter, 8.77% crude protein (CP) and 4.55% lipid. Calcium (0.07%) and phosphorus (0.11%) concentration were low. Amino acids constituted 94.86% of the CP. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) constituted 18.18% of the lipid content with palmitic acid the dominant SFA while the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) made up 42.04%. Oleic acid (OA) constituted 97.66% of the MUFAs. Polyunsaturated fatty acids made up 30.22% of the lipid content with cis-linoleic acid (28.71%) dominating. Due to the high energy content, a preponderance of OA and cis-linoleic acid and a low phytate-phosphate and fiber content, Q. robur seed could potentially be exploited as an energy dense and healthful nutritional supplement

1907-1912 Download
31

Antioxidant activity and mineral ingredient assessment of different solvent extracts of Paronychia chionaea


Yasemin Sunucu Karafakioğlu, Laçine Aksoy and Mustafa Kargioğlu

Antioxidant activity and mineral ingredient assessment of different solvent extracts of Paronychia chionaea


ABSTRACT:

The present study was conducted to determine total phenolic content, DPPH free radical scavenging properties, total antioxidant/oxidant status and mineral substance content of methanol and acetone extracts of endemic Paronychia chionaea species. The findings indicated that the phenolic substance content was higher in acetone extract (112.76 ± 8.4 μg GAE / mg extract) when compared to the methanol extract (98.72 ± 6.06 μg GAE / mg extract). It was observed that the radical scavenging effect of Paronychia chionaeamethanol extract (70.5%) was similar to that of the synthetic antioxidant BHT (74.8%) and higher than the effects of the acetone extract (59.8%). The total antioxidant and oxidant status of the Paronychia chionaeamethanol extract were 2.84 ± 0.3 μmolTroloxEq/g and 6.56 ± 0.8 μmol H2O2Eq/g, respectively and the total antioxidant and oxidant status of acetone extract were 2.68 ± 0.4 μmolTroloxEq/g and 6.22 ± 0.6 μmol H2O2Eq/g, respectively. Due to its Mn, Fe, and Cu content, which are minerals that are incorporated in the enzyme structure, its total phenolic substance levels, its antiradical properties and antioxidant/oxidant status, Paronychia chionaeawas with high bio-value. The present study is considered to provide information for future studies.

 

1913-1916 Download
32

Chemical constituents of essential oils of Boesenbergia armeniaca and B. stenophylla (Zingiberaceae) endemic to Borneo


Noor Atiekah Md Nor and Halijah Ibrahim

Chemical constituents of essential oils of Boesenbergia armeniaca and B. stenophylla (Zingiberaceae) endemic to Borneo


ABSTRACT:

Boesenbergia armeniaca and B. stenophylla are two endemic wild gingers from Borneo. Limited information are available on these wild species. The aim of this study was to identify the leaf essential oil constituents using hydrodistillation and analysed via GC-FID and GC-MS. The essential oil yields of leaves obtained from B. armeniaca and B. stenophylla were 0.01% and 0.08% respectively. The leaf oil of B. armeniaca was dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (47.95%), while the leaf oil of B. stenophylla was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (85.12%). The main volatile constituents in the leaf oil of B. armeniaca were Nerolidol (42.55%), Linalool (11.63%) and β-caryophyllene (6.25%) while in the leaf oil of B. stenophylla, methyl cinnamate (83.17%) was most abundant. To date, this is the first report revealing the essential oil components of Boesenbergia armeniaca and B. stenophylla from Sabah, Borneo

1917-1922 Download
33

Genome size and morphological variations in Brachypodium distachyon L. along altitudinal levels


Signem Oney-Birol and Selma Tabur

Genome size and morphological variations in Brachypodium distachyon L. along altitudinal levels


ABSTRACT:

Brachypodium distachyon is an attractive model species for biological, physical, genomic and functional studies of the Triticeae. Altitude is an abiotic factor such as latitude/longitude, temperature, humidity and water conditions affecting the plant life. Many researchers have been working on changes in genome size and morphology to highlight the relation of elevational gradients. In this study, genome size and morphological variations was determined in Brachypodium distachyon L. (Poaceae) accessions collected from Turkey. Flow cytometric analysis was performed with 547 individuals representing 89 accessions of B. distachyon from different altitudinal habitats (from 0 to 1219 meters). 2C nuclear DNA content (± SD) of B. distachyon was estimated to be 0.736 ± 0.02 pg. In cytogenetical analysis, all the individuals from every accession were found to have diploid chromosome numbers (2n = 10). To determine the association with genome size (GS), morphologic traits and altitude obtained data were statistically analysed for ANOVA (p<0.005), pearson correlations (p<0.005), principal component analysis, factor analysis, discriminant analysis in Minitab 17 and SPSS 22 versions. The correlation analysis shows that there is no correlation between genome size and altitude. To see the changes of the morphological variations, 5 morphological features such as plant height (13.26± 5.39 cm), plant stature (mostly erect), seed height (7.34± 0.89 mm) and awn length (10.57± 2.24 mm), and 1000- seed weight (4.21± 1.00 mg) was used. We have not found any correlation with changing altitudinal gradients and morphology. However, when we grouped the altitudes from 0 to 600 meters in a collected gradient which represented first group and from 601 to 1219 meters which was the second collected group, we have found a positive correlation between genome size, seed height, awn length, 1000-seed weight and altitude. A negative correlation was only found in plant height along increasing altitudinal levels

1923-1933 Download
34

Genetic characterization of selected genera of family Rhamnaceae based on rps 11 gene


Sadia Jehangir, Zabta Khan Shinwari and Tariq Mahmood

Genetic characterization of selected genera of family Rhamnaceae based on rps 11 gene


ABSTRACT:

Rhamnaceae family is geographically distributed all over the world; its representation both in tropical and subtropical regions presents difficulties in tracing out its history of origin. Rhamnaceae contains 58 genera enclosing a total of 984 species. In the present study, eleven species (Z. mauritiana, Z. spina- crhristi, Z. jujuba, Z. mauritiana var. spontanea, Z. oxyphylla, Z. nummularia, S. thea, S. filiformis, R.pentapomica, R. purpurea and H. lanceolatus) representing different genera of family Rhamnaceae were investigated for the assessment of genetic variability. Genomic DNA from all the selected species was isolated, used as template for the amplification of rps11 gene by a set of rps 11 primers and amplified fragments was sequenced. Sequence data was analyzed by molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA 6). It was observed that S. thea and S. filiformis in cluster I sharing same genus exhibited 99 % bootstrap value while Z. jujuba and H. lanceolatus of two different genera also showed 99 % homology manifesting close kinship among them. The value of evolutionary divergence was found to be in the range of 0.073-0.407 among the investigated species. Furthermore, genetic characterization by use of molecular markers would help in better understanding of diversity among plant species at different taxonomic ranks. 

1935-1939 Download
35

Screening of five plant species for macro/micro nutrients and heavy metals at various phenological stages


Asghar Ali, Lal Badshah and Farrukh Hussain

Screening of five plant species for macro/micro nutrients and heavy metals at various phenological stages


ABSTRACT:

This study presents the results of chemical analysis of five plant species. A total of 15 minerals were analyzed in these species at pre-reproductive and post-reproductive stages. These included 5 macronutrients i.e. P, K, Mg, Ca and S; 7 micronutrients i.e. Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Mn and 3 trace elements i.e. Na, Si and Ba. Highest values were recorded for Ca while Co and Mo were below detection range in all samples. Based on mean values of all minerals the trend for all minerals in descending order for Aristida cyanantha was Ca > K > S > Mg > P > Fe > Si > Na > Zn > Cu: Ba > Mn, for Andrachne cordifolia Ca > K > Mg > P > S > Fe > Na > Mn > Zn >Ba > Cu > Si > Ni, for Quercus baloot it was found to be Ca > K > Mg > S > P > Fe > Mn > Ba > Si > Na > Zn > Cu > Ni, for Indigofera heterentha var. heterantha  it stood as Ca > K > Mg > S > P > Fe > Si > Na > Ba > Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni and for Cotoneaster nummularia it was recorded as Ca > K > Mg > S > P > Fe > Si > Ba > Na > Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni. Factorial analysis confirmed that these minerals varied significantly in both phenological stages.

1941-1949 Download
36

Heterotic and genetic effects in intra-specific populations of Brassica napus L.


Samrin Gul, Razi Uddin, Naqib Ullah Khan, Mohammad Sayyar Khan, Shahid Ullah Khan and Rabia Goher

Heterotic and genetic effects in intra-specific populations of Brassica napus L.


ABSTRACT:

Eight parents viz., Rustam Canola, Abasin-95, NIFA Gold, Durr-e-NIFA, Punjab Sarsoon, Faisal Canola, Rainbow and Dunkled were crossed in a complete diallel fashion in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). The resultant 56 F1 hybrids along with eight parental genotypes were grown in a randomized block design with two replications and evaluated for genetic variability, heterosis and combining ability through earliness, morphological and yield traits. The F1 hybrids and their parental cultivars revealed highly significant differences for all the traits which revealed that breeding material has greater genetic variability and scope for further improvement through intensive selection. Mean squares due to general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal combining ability (RCA) were found highly significant (p≤0.01) for days to maturity, secondary branches per plant, pods per plant, seeds per pod and seed yield per plant which signifying the equal shares of both additive and dominance genetic effects. However, the variances due to σ2SCA were higher in magnitude than σ2GCA, and the ratios of σ2GCA/σ2SCA were also below than unity which revealed the predominance of non-additive gene action for inheritance of all the traits. Parental cultivars Punjab Sarsoon and Dunkled were identified as best general combiners and performed better for the majority of the traits. Therefore, these general combiners produced some best specific cross combinations with the promising mean performance which involve high × high, low × high and high × low GCA parental genotypes. The F1 hybrids Dunkled × Rainbow, Abasin-95 × NIFA Gold, Durr-e-NIFA × Punjab Sarsoon, Rustam Canola × Punjab Sarsoon and Punjab Sarsoon × Abasin-95 revealed best mean performance for earliness, morphological and yield traits hence these genotypes could be used in the future breeding programs.

1951-1963 Download
37

Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure of endangered Camellia chekiangoleosa Hu using ISSR markers


Yun Xie, Jiyuan Li and Donglin Zhang

Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure of endangered Camellia chekiangoleosa Hu using ISSR markers


ABSTRACT:

The genetic diversity of 210 individuals from seven Camellia chekiangoleosa Hu populations was analyzed using ISSR markers. Results revealed an extraordinarily high level of genetic diversity at the species level. The total percentage of polymorphic loci (P) was 96.88%. Shannon’s information index (I) and Nei’s gene diversity (h) were 0.4966 and 0.3331 in the species, respectively. At the population level, the genetic diversity of C. chekiangoleosa Hu was relatively low. The mean values of P, I, and h were 59.79%, 0.3106, and 0.2077, respectively. The level of genetic differentiation among populations was lower than that within populations, and a certain level of genetic differentiation (GST = 0.3758) was observed among the populations. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that among-population, among-region, and within-population components accounted for 28.0%, 12.0%, and 60.0% of the total variations, respectively. Genetic differentiation was high (0.6242), and the gene flow was low (0.8304). These results suggested that population isolation and inbreeding regression played major roles in genetic differentiation among the C.chekiangoleosa Hu populations. The pair-wise mean genetic distance among the populations was 0.1696

1965-1970 Download
38

Potential of Ulva lactuca extract on growth, biochemical constituents and activity of PEP carboxylase of Zea mays seedlings


Amani Abdel-Latif, Badr Reem, Hassan Injy and Gamal Osman

Potential of Ulva lactuca extract on growth, biochemical constituents and activity of PEP carboxylase of Zea mays seedlings


ABSTRACT:

The effect of applying Ulva lactuca aqueous extract (ULAE) with different concentrations on the growth of maize seedlings was studied. The extract was applied as foliar spray and in other experiment was incorporated in the growth nutrient solution. Growth parameters, mineral nutrients, photosynthetic pigments, protein profile, and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEPCase) activity were monitored. Presoaking maize grains in different ULAE was an effective technique to obtain better growth. Seedlings sprayed with 0.5% or 1% ULAE showed a significant increase in growth and biochemical parameters. Higher concentration (5%) showed inhibitory effect. There were variable peptides with different low molecular weights that were synthesized in all treatments except for the control one (100% H). For example, in seedlings sprayed with 5% ULAE proteins as 27, 24, 23, 12 and 10 KDa were synthesized. Similar low molecular weight protiens were synthesized in all other treatments but with different band intensities. Furthermore, treatments with ULAE as a foliar spray or supplemented in the growth medium differentially affected protein expression in Z. mays seedlings. New proteins were expressed in the treated seedlings which could be due to the action of components in the extract that are bioactive for growth. PEP carboxylase activity in Z. mays seedlings grown in different combinations of Hoagland’s solution and ULAE was higher than that of seedlings sprayed with ULAE alone. There was a gradual decrease in enzyme activity in response to increasing ULAE applied as foliar spray and the least activity was recorded in seedlings sprayed with 5% ULAE

1971-1978 Download
39

Two methods in evaluating soil fertility in semi-natural larch-spruce-fir (Larix olgensis-picea jezoensis-abies nephrolepis) plantations in northeast China


Yue Wang, Hai-Yan Wang, Guo-Dong Ding and Xu Li

Two methods in evaluating soil fertility in semi-natural larch-spruce-fir (Larix olgensis-picea jezoensis-abies nephrolepis) plantations in northeast China


ABSTRACT:

The objective of this study is to compare two methods in evaluating soil quality, and to find the change regulation of soil quality with varied stand density. The result will provide a theoretical basis for local forest management. Study area was Jingouling forest farm, Jilin Province, northeast China. A total of 10 temporary circular sample plots with different stand density ranging from 488 trees/hm2 to 930 trees/hm2 were set up in semi-natural larch-spruce-fir plantations. Principal component analysis and particle size distribution were used to evaluate soil quality under different stand densities. Although the result did not show a change pattern following stand densities, soil quality showed the same tendency using these two methods. Soil particle structure is more sensitive to soil moisture and it is much easier using particle size distribution (PSD). Therefore, we could use PSD to evaluate soil quality in similar stands in the future research

1979-1984 Download
40

Seed blending of oat (Avena sativa L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) under variable seed proportions enhanced forage productivity and nutritional quality


Asif Iqbal, Muhammad Aamir Iqbal, Imtiaz Hussain, Muzamml H. Siddiqui, Muhammad Nasir, Jamshed Ahmad and Yasir Ali

Seed blending of oat (Avena sativa L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) under variable seed proportions enhanced forage productivity and nutritional quality


ABSTRACT:

Optimization of the proportionate share of component crops in mixed intercropping systems is vital for achieving the added advantage. This field study investigated the productivity of seed blended crops of oats and canola under different seed ratios (80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 50:50%), while their solitary crops were kept for comparison. The agronomic yield attributes, forage biomass and nutritional quality were taken as response variables. The yield attributes of oat in intercropping decreased significantly (p≤0.05) in comparison to the monoculture. Green forage yield and dry matter biomass of component crops decreased with the reduction of their seed proportion in mixtures. However, the maximum productivity (92 t ha-1) of intercropping system was noted for oat and canola sown in 60:40 seed blending ratio, which was closely followed by 80:20 seed proportion. The crude protein (p≤0.01) and total ash (p≤0.05) contents of mixed forage were improved with increased share of canola seed in binary mixtures, while the pure stand of canola yielded the highest quality forage. However, seed blending of oat and canola in 60:40 seed proportion may be preferred owing to higher productivity (19%) and improved nutritional quality of mixed forage

1985-1990 Download
41

Bio-agronomic evaluation of forage sorghum-legumes binary crops on haplic yermosol soil of Pakistan


Muhammad Aamir Iqbal, Asif Iqbal, Muzammil Hussain Siddiqui and Zahid Maqbool

Bio-agronomic evaluation of forage sorghum-legumes binary crops on haplic yermosol soil of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The proportionate share of binary crops in mixed intercropping systems is crucial for boosting the productivity and nutritional quality of forage. This field trial aimed to investigate the response of seed blended crops of forage sorghum and legumes (soybean, cowpea and cluster bean) to varying seed proportions (100:35, 100:65 and 100:85), while their solitary crops were planted for comparison. Agronomic, physiological and agro-qualitative traits were taken as the experimental variables. Sorghum sown as a binary crop with legumes resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease of green biomass yield (15-38%) compared to the solo sorghum. In intercropping, soybean recorded 44% less yield, while green forage biomass of cowpea was decreased by 27%. However, the seed blended crop of sorghum-cowpea in 100:65 seed proportion recorded significantly (p<0.01) higher biomass (30%) than the mono culture of sorghum. The mixed seeded crop of sorghum and soybean in 100:85 seeding ratio was instrumental in improving the crude protein and lowering the crude fiber content of mixed forage. Sorghum-cowpea binary crop gave the maximum ether extractable fat and total ash of mixed forage, while the solo sorghum had the lowest nutritional quality. Thus, seed blending of sorghum and cowpea in 100:65 seed blending ratio may be suggested owing to higher productivity in irrigated Haplic Yermosols soil under semi-arid climatic conditions

1991-1997 Download
42

Evaluating the potential of botanical extracts and fractions as substitutes of chemical antioxidants in edible oils


Shahid Waheed, Abid Hasnain and Abdullah Ahmad

Evaluating the potential of botanical extracts and fractions as substitutes of chemical antioxidants in edible oils


ABSTRACT:

In this study, extracts of Camellia sinensis (green tea), Trigonella gracecum foenum (fenugreek), Trachyspermum ammi (ajwain), Nigella sativa (black cumin seed), Viola odorata (sweet violet) and green tea fractions were evaluated for substitutes of chemical antioxidant in edible oils. All extracts/fractions were tested for free radical scavenging assay by 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picryl hydroxyl (DPPH) in different dilutions. Fenugreek, green tea and ajwain extracts had maximum DPPH values (91.5, 86 and 85.75%) and were significantly better (p<0.05) than others. Each botanical extract/fraction was used (0.1%) in 100 ml samples of soybean, canola, sunflower and fish oil, stored for three months. In canola oil, green tea anthocyanin fraction (GTAF) proved to have least FFA (0.8%) followed by ajwain extracts (1.25%) and both were significantly different (p<0.05) than other antioxidants. FFA values for GTAF were best among extracts used in sunflower oil and soybean oil. After 3 months, canola oil peroxide value (POV) of untreated sample reached to 10.72 meq/kg, which was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by all extracts, especially GTAF (0.85 meq/kg). GTAF was equally leading oxygen scavenger in sunflower oil significantly (p<0.05) reducing POV of un- treated oil from 8.65 to 1.65 meq/kg. Soybean and fish untreated oils POV elevated to 11.53 and14.74 meq/kg respectively, which were reduced down by all antioxidant sources used (p<0.05).

1999-2004 Download
43

Megaspore morphology of Chinese Selaginellaceae and its taxonomic significance


Yanshuang Liu and Jiaxi Liu

Megaspore morphology of Chinese Selaginellaceae and its taxonomic significance


ABSTRACT:

The megaspore morphology of 15 species of the genus Selaginella P. Beauv. (Selaginellaceae Willk.) using scanning electron microscopy was carried out. Of the 15 species, megaspore morphology S. arbuscula and S. drepanophylla are reported for the first time. On the basis of megaspore surface ornamentations five major megaspore types are recognized: granulate, tuberculate, verrucate, verrucate-rugulate and reticulate. The morphological characteristics of megaspores are useful in the subgeneric classification. However, the classification using megaspore morphological characteristics showed disagreement with the classifications reported in the literature. Therefore, the subgeneric relationships of the genus Selaginella need to be further studied

2005-2017 Download
44

In silico phylogenetic analysis of fungal lipase genes and harnessing the inherent potential of Aspergillus niger IBP2013 for extracellular triglycerol acyl-hydrolase production under solid state fermentation


Durr-e-Nayab, Muhammad Zulqurnain Haider, Qasim Ali, Tehreema Iftikhar, Noman Habib, Mubashir Niaz, Shamim Akhtar and Sumreena Shahid

In silico phylogenetic analysis of fungal lipase genes and harnessing the inherent potential of Aspergillus niger IBP2013 for extracellular triglycerol acyl-hydrolase production under solid state fermentation


ABSTRACT:

Mesophilic fungi have evolved inherently thermostable/thermophilic enzyme production potentials over the years. To explore this potential, fungal colonies were isolated from rotten food items and screened, based on their extracellular triglycerol acyl-hydrolase (lipase) potential over lipid-rich agro-wastes. Hyper-lipase producing fungus was identified by comparing with standard fungal morpho-graphs as Aspergillus niger (A. niger) IBP2013. In present study, coconut meal was found a potential medium for fungus to produce higher extracellular lipase enzyme (lipase activity (la), 23.7±0.25 U/mL min-1; lipase specific activity (lsa), 97.4 U/mg) under solid state fermentation. This inherent potential of the fungus was enhanced up to 41.1±0.4 U/mL min-1 (la) and 169.5 U/mg (lsa) by eco-cultural optimization like substrate (coconut meal) and adequate concentrations (10g), inoculum level (1mL), incubation period (72h), temperature (40º C) and pH (7). Moreover, the concentrations of organic (peptone, 1% w/v) and inorganic nitrogen (ammonium acetate, 1% w/v) and carbon (lactose, 0.8% w/v) supplements were found essential for optimal lipase production. Three known fungal genes (Lip1, Lip2 and Lip3) were utilized for in silico phylogenetic analysis. Hence, A. niger IBP2013 with optimized cultural conditions could be potential candidate for lipase production at commercial scale

2019-2029 Download
45

Antifungal potential of Trichoderma strains originated from north western regions of Pakistan against the plant pathogens


Muhammad Anees, Rashid Azim, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Muhammad Jamil, Salah E. El-Hendawy and Nasser A. Al-suhaiban

Antifungal potential of Trichoderma strains originated from north western regions of Pakistan against the plant pathogens


ABSTRACT:

Trichoderma spp. is an important genus of fungi because of its potential biocontrol and catalytic ability. Here, we isolated Trichoderma spp. from the North Western areas of Pakistan with the prime target to investigate their antagonistic potential. We tested them against different strains of phytopathogenic Fusarium oxysporum using different In vitro antagonistic assays. In total 22 strains out of 29 were evaluated against different F. oxysporum strains (FO. 866, FO. 899, FO. 1025) by dual culture, volatile inhibition, and culture filtrate inhibition tests. Moreover, the experimental set up also allowed us to suggest the probable mechanisms involved in the observed inhibition. Three strains (TMK22, TMK19, and TMK20) could completely inhibit the growth of F. oxysporum strains. The volatile metabolites and culture filtrates of the selected antagonistic Trichoderma strains were inhibitory. Twenty five percent concentration of the culture filtrates showed the maximum inhibition. More than 60% inhibition was achieved using 5% concentration of culture filtrates of Trichoderma. Trichoderma strains were identified based on morphology and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. All the strains belonged to only 3 species (T. longibrachiatum, T. brevicompectum and T. virens) although they were picked from spatially and climatically diverse areas. The present study, established the antagonistic abilities of the indigenous strains that can further be used to develop an efficient biocontrol system that may uphold in the prevalent environment.

2031-2040 Download
46

Salicylic acid collaborates with gene silencing to tomato defense against tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)


Yunzhou Li, Tayeb Muhammad,, Yong Wang, Dalong Zhang, M. James C. Crabbe and Yan Liang

Salicylic acid collaborates with gene silencing to tomato defense against tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)


ABSTRACT:

Antiviral research in plants has been focused on RNA silencing (i.e. RNA interference), and several studies suggest that salicylic acid (SA)-mediated resistance is a key part of plant antiviral defense. However, the antiviral defense mechanism of SA-mediation is still unclear, and several recent studies have suggested a connection between SA-mediated defense and RNA silencing, which needs further characterization in TYLCV infection. In this study, both SA-mediated defense and the RNA silencing mechanism were observed to play an important role in the antiviral response against TYLCV. First, we found that SA application enhanced the resistance to TYLCV in tomato plants. The expression of RNA-silencing-related genes, such as SlDCL1, SlDCL2, SlDCL4, SlRDR2, SlRDR3a, SlRDR6a, SlAGO1, and SlAGO4, were significantly triggered by exogenous SA application and inoculation with TYLCV, respectively. Furthermore, silencing of SlDCL2, SlDCL4 in tomato resulted in attenuated resistance to TYLCV, and reduced the expression of defense-related genes (SlPR1 and SlPR1b) in SA-mediated defense after infection with TYLCV, particularly in SlDCL2/SlDCL4-silenced plants. Taken together, we conclude that SA collaborates with gene silencing in tomato defense against TYLCV

2041-2054 Download
47

Penicillium imranianum, a new species from the man-made solar saltern of Phetchaburi Province, Thailand


Fatima Sharaf Ali, Ali Akbar, Sehanat Prasongsuk, Ponlada Permpornsakul, Benjawan Yanwisetpakdee, Pongtharin Lotrakul, Hunsa Punnapayak, Mudassir Asrar and Imran Ali

Penicillium imranianum, a new species from the man-made solar saltern of Phetchaburi Province, Thailand


ABSTRACT:

Penicillium imranianum was isolated along with other halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms from a man-made solar saltern in Phetchaburi province, Thailand. Morphological and molecular identifications were performed along with characterization studies, which proved it to be new as well as halophilic species. The name was obtained and released from mycobank (MB812859) after getting the accession ID (KP780293) from NCBI. The species is indexed in index fungorum and available as EMCB-HF08 and TISTR 3655 for public access. The species is found to have immense biotechnological potential.

2055-2058 Download
48

Root-to-shoot communication and its signal cross talk in plants: a physiological and agronomic perspective


Asfa Batool, Nudrat Aisha Akram, Guang-Chao Lv, Jun-Lan Xiong, Tao Tian, Jian-Yong Wang, Zheng-Guo Cheng, Yan Yi, Jing Wen and You-Cai Xiong

Root-to-shoot communication and its signal cross talk in plants: a physiological and agronomic perspective


ABSTRACT:

The plant roots perceive and can respond to drying soil by transferring nHRS (non-hydraulic root-sourced signal) to aboveground plant parts deprived of any noticeable changes in water status of leaves. The nHRS has therefore been confirmed as a distinctive positive ‘‘quick-alert’’ reaction to soil drying in plants, triggering sequential physiological and molecular signalling pathways. Cross-talk infers to as occurrences where single or more constituents of a signal transduction pathway affect the others and might be accomplished via many pathways. We summarize the current progress regarding ABA-led root-to-shoot signals in relation to signalling cross-talk. Across signalling cross-talk, nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, soil moisture threshold and others are broadly documented as conciliator of cross-talk throughout stress signalling. Here, we introduce a description of nHRS on stimulating the onset and process of signal cross-talk such as nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, organic osmolytes, anti-oxidants, minerals and phytohormones. In particular, we have attempted to sketch out a flow chart of drought stress signal crosstalk with abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinins (CTK/CK) as the center to describe eco-physiological link with multiple long-distance signalling pathways in plants. Eco-physiological framework and mutual interplay of complex signal elements in agronomic perspective during the operation of nHRS are also reviewed.

 

2059-2067 Download
49

Molecular characterization of Fusarium moniliforme and its management by methanolic extract of Coronopus didymus


Arshad Javaid, Umair Latif, Naureen Akhtar, Dildar Ahmed and Shagufta Perveen

Molecular characterization of Fusarium moniliforme and its management by methanolic extract of Coronopus didymus


ABSTRACT:

Bakanae disease caused by different species of Fusarium, is one of the most emerging diseases of rice in Asia which is responsible for significant yield losses of this staple crop. The present study was designed to isolate and identify causal fungus and then the pathogen management by methanolic extract of a brassicaceous weed, Coronopus didymus. Based on cultural and morphological studies, isolated pathogen was identified as Fusarium moniliforme J. Sheld. Identity of the isolated pathogen was further confirmed by analysis of rDNA Internal Spacer Sequence (ITS) analysis. For preparation of extract, 200 g of C. didymus was soaked in 1.0 L of methanol for 14 days. Thereafter, material was filtered, filtrates were evaporated on a rotary evaporator and different concentrations (0.5 to 4%) of methanolic extract were prepared. These concentrations caused 23-48% reduction in the fungal biomass as compared to control. The inhibitory effect of 1.5% and higher concentrations was significant. Methanolic extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis and thirteen compounds were identified. Benzyl nitrile (34.22%), Eucalyptol (23.62%), 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (12.80%), n-Hexadecanoic acid (9.40%), Benzoic acid (6.89%), and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, (Z,Z,Z)- (5.18%) were the major constituents among the identified compounds.

2069-2075 Download
50

Potato production in Pakistan: challenges and prospective management strategies - a review


Abdul Majeed and Zahir Muhammad

Potato production in Pakistan: challenges and prospective management strategies - a review


ABSTRACT:

Potato is an important agricultural crop widely grown in different agro-climatic conditions of Pakistan and throughout the world. It is one of the four major staples which has a significant contribution to national domestic consumption and food needs. Despite the ease in cultivation and fewer labor requirements, potato productivity in Pakistan is not yet promising as compared to neighboring India and Bangladesh. Low productivity of the crop in Pakistan is due to several biotic, abiotic stresses and the relatively limited allocation of land. Different biotic constraints, including pathogenic diseases such as late blight, early blight, bacterial wilt, viral infections and nematodal parasites have a tremendous impact on potato production. Temperature extremes, nutrient deficit soil, drought, salinity, poor irrigation water, lack of availability of quality seed potatoes are among the abiotic stresses which pose challenges to potato productivity. Moreover, the allocation of the significantly lower area for the harvest to potato cultivation than other crops is also among the important underlying issues which result in substantial low yields of potato in Pakistan. The aim of this review is to highlight factors influencing potato production in Pakistan and to suggest prospective measures which can manage the challenges associated with yield and production and crop losses of potato in the country.

2077-2084 Download
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