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Year 2018 , Volume  50, Issue 3
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1

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is required for HPA1xoo (harpin protein fragment)-mediated salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana


S.L. Sang, L.L. Xie, X.W. Cui, N. Wang, M. Gao and Z.Y. Wang

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is required for HPA1xoo (harpin protein fragment)-mediated salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana


ABSTRACT:

Harpin induces salicylic acid and abscisic acid signaling in plants under biotic and abiotic stress, respectively. Our previous report showed that the effective harpin fragment Hpa1xoo enhanced H2O2 production and pathogen resistance in a transgenic Arabidopsis mutant. In this study, we examined contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), H2O2 and glutathione, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) enzyme activity in Hpa1xoo-expressing Arabidopsis under salt stress. The results revealed increased amounts of TBARS and H2O2 in wild-type (WT) compared to mutant plants under salt stress conditions. In contrast, increased levels were observed in the mutant under stress-free conditions. Moreover, a higher reduced glutathione (GSH) content and ratio of GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was observed in mutant compared to WT plants under bothstress-free and salt stress conditions. In addition, mutant plants exhibited significantly higher G6PDH, GR and GPX activity than WT plants under salt stress. Suppression of G6PDH activity via 6-aminonicotinamide (6-AN, a specific inhibitor of G6PDH) was partly reversed by L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO, a specific inhibitor of GSH regeneration) and aggravated by GSH. Combined with previous reports, these findings suggest that the G6PDH enzyme plays a key role in harpin fragment (Hpa1xoo)-mediated salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

 

841-845 Download
2

An investigation of some key morpho-physiological attributes and leaf proteome profile in canola (Brassica napus L.) under salinity stress


Soheyla Mohammadi Alagoz and Mahmoud Toorchi

An investigation of some key morpho-physiological attributes and leaf proteome profile in canola (Brassica napus L.) under salinity stress


ABSTRACT:

A serious abiotic stress in the world is salinity, which leads to great losses in the quality and quantity of products in agriculture. To investigate the tolerance mechanisms to salinity, a two-dimensional electrophoresis approach was adopted to visualize proteins achieved from the second-freshly-developed leaf of canola cv. Safi-7 seedlings, after plants had been treated with 0 and 300 mmol/L NaCl. Treatment with NaCl (300 mmol/L) significantly decreased the fresh and dry weights as well as the plant height, and promoted the proline content compared with the control group. Any changes were not significant neither quality nor activities of catalase and peroxidase. Out of 110 repeatable protein spots, 37 spots were differentially changed according to induction factor index. Among differentially changed proteins, five were significantly showed the changes. These proteins have roles, to produce the energy, and scavenge and suppress ROS, and in photosynthesis.

847-852 Download
3

Belowground responses of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa to salinity and water depth changes


Fang-Lei Gao, Yin-Hua Wang, Ashley A. Whitt, Hao-Dong Wang, Cheng-Cang Ma and Hong-Yu Guo

Belowground responses of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa to salinity and water depth changes


ABSTRACT:

Mesocosm experiments were conducted to examine belowground responses of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa to the combined stresses of increased salinity and water depth. The results demonstrated that: (1) belowground biomass of P. australis responded negatively to both increased salinity and water depth, whereas belowground biomass of S. salsa  mainly responded negatively to increased water depth; (2) belowground biomass of S. salsa negatively responded to increased water depth more strongly than that of P. australis, thus S. salsa  might disappear before P. australis in wetlands experiencing prolonged water-logging; (3) P. australis and S. salsa  responded to increased salinity and/or water-logging by shifting their resource allocations towards aboveground biomass; (4) belowground biomass of P. australis tended to have more negative responses to increased salinity and water depth at deeper versus shallower soil depths, hindering P. australis from utilizing resources in deeper soil; in contrast, belowground biomass of S. salsa  tended to have more negative responses to increased water depth at shallower versus deeper soil depths, greatly decreasing the overall root density and thereby increasing the chance of uprooting disturbance to S. salsa. These responses would accelerate sediment loss due to compromised sediment-binding abilities of P. australis and S. salsa, leading to an adverse positive feedback between environmental changes associated with sea level rise and performance of P. australis and S. salsa, resulting in faster deterioration of coastal wetlands than might otherwise be expected.

853-861 Download
4

Effects of NaCl on plant growth, root ultrastructure, water content, and ion accumulation in a halophytic seashore beach plum (Prunus maritima)


Li-Min Wang, Xiao-Li Bu, Jin-Lin Chen, Dong-Feng Huang and Tao Luo

Effects of NaCl on plant growth, root ultrastructure, water content, and ion accumulation in a halophytic seashore beach plum (Prunus maritima)


ABSTRACT:

A pot culture experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of NaCl on the growth, root ultrastructure, water content, and ion distribution in two - year - old beach plum (Prunus maritima) seedlings. The seedlings were subjected to different levels of NaCl addition (0, 50, and 150 mM) for 120 days under natural conditions. Under high salinity (150 mM NaCl), the ultrastructure of root cells in P. maritima showed the earliest sign of salt injury: including partial fuzzy nuclear membrane and plasma membrane invagination in the root cells of P. maritima. The root cells were unaffected by low salinity (50 mM NaCl). Their root cells exhibited complete karyotheca, obvious nucleolus, numerous organelles, and normal cell wall structure. However, P. maritima maintained higher water content in plant tissues under salinity conditions compared with that of the control. Meanwhile, the salt - treated seedlings also maintained high concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ in leaf tissues. Furthermore, high salinity led to an increase in K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+ and Mg2+/Na+ selectivity ratios from stems to leaves in P. maritima seedlings. In addition, the growth rate, fresh and dry weights of P. maritima were significantly promoted by low salinity, whereas the growth parameters were unaffected or even decreased at high salinity compared to that of the control. The results indicated that low salinity had a positive effect on the growth of P. maritima by keeping the normal ultrastructure of root cells and increasing the uptake of Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ ions, especially in leaf tissues. The negative effect of high salinity on plant growth could be ameliorated to some extent by increasing water content in leaves and selective transport of K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ from stems to leaves in P. maritima seedlings

863-869 Download
5

Copper-induced similar changes in growth and physiological responses of plants grown from dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa


Li Jiang, Lei Wang, Ke Zhang and Changyan Tian

Copper-induced similar changes in growth and physiological responses of plants grown from dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa


ABSTRACT:

There are few studies related to the responses of plants grown from heteromorphic seeds to heavy metals. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that plants grown from dimorphic seeds of the halophyte Suaeda salsa have high copper (Cu) tolerance but differ in physiological and growth responses. We examined the effect of Cu on plant growth, copper accumulation, chlorophyll content and other mineral elements of both types of plants via a pot experiment. The results demonstrated that, although dry weight, chlorophyll content and most of the mineral elements were significantly influenced by Cu, there were no significant differences in tolerance responses and copper accumulation between plants from dimorphic seeds. Dry weight and tolerance index did not significantly decrease until ≥ 800 mg kg-1 Cu. With increasing the content of Cu, chlorophyll content increased and then decreased. Roots accumulated higher levels of Cu than shoots. The bioconcentration and translocation factors were <1.0 under all Cu addition treatments. Our study is the first report of ecophysiological responses of plants grown from heteromorphic seeds to a heavy metal and suggests that both types of S. salsa plants are considered as Cu-tolerant halophyte and exhibit similar response to Cu.

871-877 Download
6

Root distribution pattern and their contribution in photosynthesis and biomass in Jerusalem artichoke under drought conditions


Darunee Puangbut, Sanun Jogloy, Nimitr Vorasoot and Kvien Craig

Root distribution pattern and their contribution in photosynthesis and biomass in Jerusalem artichoke under drought conditions


ABSTRACT:

Root length density and rooting depth have been established as drought resistant traits and these could be used as selection criteria for drought resistant genotype in many plant species. However, information on deep rooting and the root distribution pattern of Jerusalem artichoke under drought conditions is not well documented in the literature. The objective of this study was to investigate the root distribution pattern in Jerusalem artichoke genotypes under irrigated and drought conditions. This experiment was conducted within a greenhouse using rhizoboxes. Three Jerusalem artichoke genotypes were tested under two water regimes (irrigated and drought). A 2 × 3 factorial experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications over two years. Data were recorded for root traits, photosynthesis and biomass at 30 days after imposing drought. The drought decreased root length, root surface area and root dry weight, while increased the root: shoot ratio, root distribution in the deeper soil and the percentage of root length at deeper in the soil, when compared to the irrigated conditions JA-5 and JA-60 showed high root length in the lower soil profile under drought conditions, indicating these genotypes could be identified as drought resistant genotype. The highest positive correlation was found between root length at deeper soil layer with relative water content (RWC), net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and biomass. It is expected that selection of Jerusalem artichoke with high root length coupled with maintaining high RWC and their promotion to Pn could improve the biomass and tuber yield under drought conditions

879-886 Download
7

Effects of inhibition threshold in heavy metals on the growth and development of Arundinaria fortunei


Abolghassem Emamverdian and Yulong Ding

Effects of inhibition threshold in heavy metals on the growth and development of Arundinaria fortunei


ABSTRACT:

Extreme amount of heavy metals and the contamination in metropolitan areas caused by industrial sediments, factory pollution, and car exhaust lead to a negative effect on ornamental plants' growth. However, small amounts of some heavy metals as nutrients may help the plants to achieve a better growth. Our research was carried out to detect the effects of copper, lead, and zinc on enzymatic activity, lipid production, soluble protein, photosynthesis properties, and plant growth indexes on Arundinaria fortunei in Nanjing City, east of China. For this purpose, three heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn) at four concentrations (0.500, 1000, and 2000mg/kg) were chosen based on their dispersion in the district. The results showed an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity in low concentration that ultimately reveals a downward trend with excess of heavy metals; this trend continued in protein structure and led to an increase in MDA content and soluble protein. Moreover, the results obtained by photosynthesis indexes showed that the effects of heavy metals have a negative impact on photosynthesis properties. High concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn revealed toxicity symptoms, such as chlorosis, and reduced the plant growth indexes in Arundinaria fortunei, while low concentrations of heavy metals improved the plant growth. In this study, Arundinaria fortunei is introduced as one species that is sensitive to high doses of heavy metals, particularly to a high concentration of Pb, used to monitor the contamination of urban areas.

887-892 Download
8

Morpho-physiological responses of an aluminum-stressed rice variety ‘Liangyoupei 9’


Lisheng Qian, Ping Huang, Qingsen Hu, Yingying Qian, Shuhao Xu and Rongfu Wang

Morpho-physiological responses of an aluminum-stressed rice variety ‘Liangyoupei 9’


ABSTRACT:

This study explored the influence of aluminum (Al) stress on the growth of ‘Liangyoupei 9 (LYP9)’ rice variety. Seedlings were cultured under treatment with different concentrations of Al (0, 100, 500, and 1000 µmol/L; pH4.5) for 7 days and analyzed for their root Al accumulation, dehydrogenase activity, root H2O2 accumulation, antioxidant enzyme activity, and other relevant morphological indices. Results showed no significant differences between the rice seedlings treated with different concentrations of Al and those treated with the control, but the root length and relative root growth of the former decreased. Treatment with 100 µmol/L Al significantly led to the increase of fresh/dry weight and chlorophyll content of the rice seedlings. The increase in fresh weight and dry weight positively correlated with the increase in chlorophyll content. By contrast, treatment with 500 and 1000 µmol/L Al exerted inhibitory effects at different degrees. Hematoxylin staining showed that Al mainly accumulated at the apical meristematic and maturation zones, and its accumulation increased with increasing Al concentration. Treatment with 100 µmol/L Al stress significantly increased the root dehydrogenase activity of the rice seedlings, whereas treatment with 500 and 1000 µmol/L Al significantly decreased this parameter. Diaminobenzidine staining showed that Al stress induced root H2O2 accumulation in the rice seedlings and that the output of H2O2 demonstrated a dose-effect relationship with Al concentration. The activities of root superoxide dismutase(SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) initially increased and subsequently decreased. However, the activities of these enzymes significantly decreased under 1000 µmol/L Al stress. Treatment with 100 µmol/L Al did not significantly influence the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the roots, whereas treatment with 500 and 1000 μmol/L Al significantly increased this parameter. These findings show that the LYP9 rice variety has certain resistance to Al stress. However, this resistance is inhibited at Al3+ concentrations exceeding 500 µmol/L, and the inhibitory effect increases along with the concentration.

893-899 Download
9

Exogenously applied salicylic acid improved growth, photosynthetic pigments and oxidative stability in mungbean seedlings (Vigna radiata) at salt stress


Jabeen Farheen, Simeen Mansoor and Zainul Abideen

Exogenously applied salicylic acid improved growth, photosynthetic pigments and oxidative stability in mungbean seedlings (Vigna radiata) at salt stress


ABSTRACT:

Application of salicylic acid is known to resist the adverse effect of salinity on crop species. This study was aimed to assess the effect of salicylic acid (50 μM) as a soaking agent in (Vigna radiate) mungbean (NM19-19) before and after induction of 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl stress. The indicators of crop performance such as seedling length, fresh & dry biomass, relative water content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, total pigments, malonaldehyde content, total protein, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and superoxidase dismutase enzymes were studied. Salt stress caused a reduction in seedling growth and also modulated physio-biochemical attributes over untreated controls and SA treated seedlings. In contrast, the soaking of seedsin SA after salt stress; physiological changes such as growth, total proteins, pigments and oxidative stability were increased and led to improve biomass as compared to the exposure of salt alone. While the application of SA prior to salt stress (SA+NaCl) showed remarkably higher mean values for studied growth parameters and antioxidant enzymes activities compared to NaCl+SA soaking treatment. Therefore, it was concluded that application of SA prior to salt stress increased the capacity of mungbean seedlings in acclimating to salt stress and thus increased growth. Therefore, application of SA is an effective method of managing ROS at high salinity and therefore can alleviate salinity stress in mungbean seedlings that might enhance food supply and conservation of saline resources.

901-912 Download
10

Heat stress in filling stage confers distinct effect on starch granules formation in different thermo-tolerant wheat accessions


Ruiqiong Li, Lijiang Hou, Aihua Zhang, Yunze Lu, Weining Song, Wuletaw Tadesse, Xiaoming Wang, Manshuang Liu, Weijun Zheng and Shengbao Xu

Heat stress in filling stage confers distinct effect on starch granules formation in different thermo-tolerant wheat accessions


ABSTRACT:

Heat stress affects the accumulation of starch, which is responsible for the major loss in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield. Clarifying the changes of starch composition and granule particles in wheat grain under heat stress are required for understanding the heat adaptation of wheat. The investigation of starch granule morphology and the amylose/amylopectin ratio in seven spring wheat lines of varying levels of thermotolerance under heat stress revealed that A-type starch granules generally decreased and medium granules (between A-type and B-type granules) dramatically increased in the heat-sensitive wheat lines after heat stress compared with the heat-resistant lines. A remarkable decrease in amylopectin was also observed in the heat-sensitive wheat lines. Alterations in A-type starch granules and amylopectin deposition were found to be responsible for the reduction in grain width and weight following heat stress in the heat-sensitive wheat lines. These results provide new insights into the heat effect on wheat starch formation.

913-920 Download
11

Exogenous spermidine improves drought tolerance in Phyllostachys edulis seedlings


Shanlu Shao, Meseretchanie Abate, Xuhua Du and Yeqing Ying

Exogenous spermidine improves drought tolerance in Phyllostachys edulis seedlings


ABSTRACT:

Phyllostachys edulis is an endemic and dominant bamboo species in southern China. It suffers often from seasonal drought during the cultivation process. In the present study, the effect of exogenous spermidine (Spd) on the following parameters of leaves of Phyllostachys edulis seedlings under drought stress were studied: The generation rate of superoxide free radical, proline content, REC, MDA content, RWC, Chlorophyll content; and activities of POD, SOD and CAT. The drought stress was caused by 20% polyethyle glycol (PEG) and three concentrations of spermidine were applied (0.0l mmol/LSpd, 0.1 mmol/LSpd, 1.0 mmol/LSpd). Drought stress caused a decrease in growth rate which was related to several physiological changes: decreasing RWC and chlorophyll content and increasing generation rate of superoxide free radical, increasing MDA and REC, and increasing activities of POD and CAT. Foliar application with 0.01mM exogenous Spdincreased POD activity and RWC, but had no effect on SOD activity, Chl(a+b) or Chla/Chlb and also no significant effect on proline content, activity of P5CS, or generation rate of superoxide free radical. The 0.1 mM application with exogenous Spd significantly increased the chlorophyll content and RWC, inhibited the generation rate of superoxide free radical, reduced membrane lipid per-oxidation, returned the activities of antioxidant enzymes to the normal level, and minimized the increases in REC, proline, and MDA content. Application with the highest spermidine concentration (1.0mM Spd) has the same effects apart from the increase of H2O2 content. In conclusion, application with 0.1 mM exogenous Spd can effectively alleviate a series of physiological and biochemical changes caused by drought stress in the bamboo trees. This may provide more insight to the possible mechanisms of how exogenous polyamines can influence the drought resistance of Phyllostachys edulis and in this way facilitate the cultivation of this bamboo species under drought stress

921-928 Download
12

Analysis on variation patterns of Parmotrema tinctorum individuals under different environments


Yuliang Wang, Shoucheng Huang and Xing Jian

Analysis on variation patterns of Parmotrema tinctorum individuals under different environments


ABSTRACT:

Twelve Parmotrema tinctorum individuals were collected from the Yaoluoping national nature reserve of Anhui Province, China. The relationships between biological characters of lichen individuals and their environmental factors were analyzed by methods included Redundancy analysis (RDA). Based on the information, variation patterns of different individual’s biological characters were described. The analysis results manifested that the biological characters showed a certain extent stability in a individual, but exhibit more variation among all twelve individuals, of which the hyphae diameter and anatomical character, had minimum variation coefficients not only within a individual, but also between all the analyzed lichen individuals. Redundancy analysis showed that environment factor moisture had a significant negative correlation with illumination, had the most-positive correlation and the most-negative correlation with hyphae diameter and biological index medulla width, respectively; While environment factor altitude had the most-negative correlation with lower cortex width and the most-positive correlation with rhizoid density. The atranorine content could response to illumination condition sensitively; whereas the algae layer thickness could reflect comprehensive environment change very well. The nutriment investment strategy within different function parts of a lichen thallus deserve to investigate deeply, which is of great importance in revealing the response model of lichens to environment change

929-936 Download
13

Physiological response of spring wheat to seeding and potassium  application rates


Ghazanfar Ullah, Ejaz Ahmad Khan and Abdul Aziz Khakwani

Physiological response of spring wheat to seeding and potassium  application rates


ABSTRACT:

Potassium application to most of the crops including wheat is scarce in Pakistan, although it is a major element required by the plants. The present study was carried out during 2009-10 and 2010-11 on wheat variety Zam-04 to investigate the role of six potassium six levels i.e., 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 kg ha-1 along with six seeding rates i.e., 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 175 kg ha-1. Various physiological, qualitative and grain yield traits were studied including leaf area index, (LAI), leaf area duration (LAD), crop growth rate (CGR), net assimilation rate (NAR) and grain protein content. Increasing the rate of potassium beyond 120 kg ha-1with seed rate of 125 kg ha-1showed decreasing trend for crop growth rate and net assimilation rate, and thus reduced the grain yield. The highest level of leaf area index and leaf area duration could not contribute towards grain yield. However, protein content were increased with combination of highest potassium and lowest seeding rates. Application of potassium fertilizer @ 120 kg ha-1 and seeding @ 125 kg ha-1 resulted in maximum crop yield.

937-947 Download
14

Effect of nitrogen application on nodal root characteristics and root lodging resistance in maize


Shengqun Liu, Fengbin Song, Xiangnan Li, Yang Wang and Xiancan Zhu

Effect of nitrogen application on nodal root characteristics and root lodging resistance in maize


ABSTRACT:

Increased plant density has a greater risk of lodging than decreased plant density because of the changes in the root system structure. The root architecture and nutrition uptake of high-density populations can be regulated by nitrogen regimes in maize. In this study, the effects of nitrogen application on root system structure and lodging resistance of a high-density maize population was evaluated. Using the maize XY335 as an experimental model, lodging-related root traits and shoot parameters were evaluated under various planting densities [4.50 × 104, 6.75 × 104,and 9.00 × 104·hm-2 (LD, MD, and HD, respectively)] and nitrogen applications [0, 225, and 337.5 kg·N·hm-2 (N0, N1, and N2, respectively)]. The root failure moment (Rfm), root plate diameter (d), and the diameter and number of nodal roots per maize plant were measured. Results showed that nitrogen application increased Rfm, root plate diameter, and the number and diameter of nodal roots on stem node P6–P8. A significant positive linear relationship between Rfm and root plate diameter was found. In addition, the root plate diameter showed a significant positive linear relationship with the weighted mean of nodal root diameters on stem node P5–P8. In conclusion, nitrogen application significantly enhanced the lodging resistance by regulating the number and diameter of nodal roots in maize

949-954 Download
15

Trehalose-induced improvement in growth, photosynthetic characteristics and levels of some key osmoprotectants in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under drought stress


Firdos Kosar, Nudrat Aisha Akram, Muhammad Ashraf, Muhammad Sadiq and Fahad Al-Qurainy

Trehalose-induced improvement in growth, photosynthetic characteristics and levels of some key osmoprotectants in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under drought stress


ABSTRACT:

Accumulation of trehalose, a sugar rarely found in plants, is believed to be involved in improving drought stress tolerance in different plant species. To assess the influence of trehalose on regulation of different gas exchange attributes, chlorophyll contents and osmoprotectants of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants, an experiment was conducted under drought stress conditions. Fifteen day-old seedlings of two sunflower cultivars i.e. Hysun 33 and FH 598 were exposed to non-stress (100% field capacity) and water limited stress (60% field capacity). After 30 days of drought stress treatments, four levels of trehalose (0, 10, 20 and 30 mM) were applied to the plant leaves of both sunflower cultivars. Water deficit conditions suppressed shoot and root fresh and dry weights, chlorophyll a and b contents, photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), sub-stomatal CO2 concentration (Ci), and Ci/Ca ratio of both sunflower cultivars while it significantly enhanced the WUE as well as accumulation of proline and glycinebetaine (GB)contents in both sunflower cultivars. Foliar-applied different levels of trehalose significantly improved shoot fresh and dry weights, root dry weight, chlorophyll a and b, A, E, gs, Ci, Ci/Ca, WUE, proline and GB contents under water stress conditions. Of both sunflower cultivars, cv. Hysun 33 was superior in shoot and root fresh and dry weights, A, E, gs, Ci, Ci/Ca under water limited conditions, whereas cv. FH 598 in WUE. Of all trehalose levels used, 20mM and 30mMwere more effective for improving shoot fresh weight, chlorophyll b, gs, Ci, and Ci/Ca in both sunflower cultivars. Overall, exogenous application of trehalose was effective in enhancing drought stress tolerance in sunflower plants by improving osmoprotection and gas exchange characteristics

955-961 Download
16

A study of different parameters of osmotic potential compared with weed (Chenopodium album) on wheat and chickpea crop


Iram us Salam, Moinuudin Ahmed and Faisal Hussain

A study of different parameters of osmotic potential compared with weed (Chenopodium album) on wheat and chickpea crop


ABSTRACT:

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of osmotic pressure on germination and radicle growth of two test species wheat and chickpea along with the aqueous extract of different concentration of weed (Chenopodium album L.). In the first experiment two test crops were treated with the weed extract in the concentration of 1%, 3% and 5% while in the second experiment four levels of osmotic pressure (22 kpa, 33 kpa, 44 kpa, 66 kpa) were created artificially using mannitol and treated the seeds of two test crops. This study focus that the responses of seeds or seedling to plant extract is not only or entirely by allelopathy the possibilities also exist that the extract may also exert negative osmotic effect. Results showed that germination percentage was not affected by osmotic pressure as compared to weed extract. However, the radicle elongation of both species was significantly reduced in similar concentration of weed extract.  Generally the aqueous extracts were more effective in inhibition of seed germination, radicle growth and percent inhibition in radicle growth as compared to the mannitol solution. Results suggested that aqueous extract of C. album had an allelopathic effect on wheat and chick pea and osmotic pressure play little effect as C. album is concerned.  

963-967 Download
17

Discriminating Lamiaceae species of Saudi Arabia using allozyme and specific DNA markers


Shawkat M. Ahmed and Khalid H. Alamer

Discriminating Lamiaceae species of Saudi Arabia using allozyme and specific DNA markers


ABSTRACT:

For preliminary characterization and discrimination among four wild and three cultivated economic species of family Lamiaceae scattered in Taif governorate of Saudi Arabia, different molecular approaches were used. Nineteen loci from five enzyme systems were determined: twelve were monomorphic and the other (ADH-1, MDH-2, α-EST-4, α-EST-5, α-EST-6, α-EST-7 and PRX-2) were polymorphic in at least one species. The estimated observed heterozygosities were higher than those of the expected in 6 species. The negative values of the inbreeding coefficient referred to an excess in heterozygosity in the 6 species indicating some tendency to outcrossing selection against homozygosity. The UPGMA dendrogram grouped all individuals of the same species together revealing lower genetic diversity within each species. The seven DNA primers generated 16 bands of which 14 were polymorphic with polymorphism percentage ranging between 0.00 to 100% indicating a high level of polymorphism. The eleven unique bands identified were stable and specific for the four species of the two genera; Mentha and Lavendula. Results can be used for the DNA barcoding approaches and subsequently the conservation of these Saudi Arabian plant resources.

969-975 Download
18

Possibilities for identification of the genotype by phenotype in white lupine (Lupinus albus L. ) cultivars


Natalia Georgieva and Valentin Kosev

Possibilities for identification of the genotype by phenotype in white lupine (Lupinus albus L. ) cultivars


ABSTRACT:

The application of traditional analyses and methods in breeding-genetic researches is necessary to be combined with the study of the ecological-genetic model for organization of the quantitative trait revealing a new perspective in the plant breeding. The present study was conducted during the period 2015-2016 at the Institute of Forage Crops (Pleven) with 23 white lupine cultivars with different origin. The issue of breeding identification of the best white lupine cultivars from the available collection in their phenotype was examined. A rationale of the principle "background trait" was represented with purpose for effective breeding activity. Characteristic of the possibility of using the mean values of plant seed weight and crude protein content in seeds in the selection of parental forms for the needs of the combinative breeding was made.

The developed method of orthogonal regressions to identify phenotype by genotype has characterized BGR 6305, Tel Keram and Pflugs Ultra as cultivars having "strong" genetic systems regarding attraction and adaptability of seed productivity and crude protein content of the seeds.

The assessment of ecological stability showed that the cultivars Tel Keram, Bezimenii 2, Pflugs Ultra and Solnechnii were stable, highly productive and suitable for growing in a wide range of environmental conditions. Cultivars BGR 6305, Tel Keram, Pflugs Ultra, Horizont and Solnechnii exhibited stability of their genetic systems under changing the environmental conditions and can be used as donors in regard to attraction and adaptiveness to develop hybrid forms with high seed productivity and crude protein content in the seeds

977-981 Download
19

Phylogeny of Tamaricaceae using psbA-trnH nucleotide sequences


Farah Naz Channa, Zabta Khan Shinwari and Syed Irtifaq Ali

Phylogeny of Tamaricaceae using psbA-trnH nucleotide sequences


ABSTRACT:

Phylogenetic relationships within Tamaricaceae particularly for genus Tamarix were studied using chloroplast intergenic spacer sequences of psbA-trnH. A total of nine species (four collected from Pakistan and five retrieved from Gen Bank) were utilized for construction of generic tree while thirteen accessions representing other genera of this family were retrieved from GenBank and used to construct family tree. The trees were constructed using Bayesian inference analysis by BEAST software. A strong supported generic monophyly was observed followed by pairing of few species at strong support within the genera than the rest of the accessions. Our data has provided molecular evidence to the previously establishedmorphological treatments.

983-987 Download
20

Cloning and expression analysis of JcAACT, JcMDC and JcFPS, involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in Jatropha curcas L.


Yaoyao Huang, Jinfen Wen and Minghua Deng

Cloning and expression analysis of JcAACT, JcMDC and JcFPS, involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in Jatropha curcas L.


ABSTRACT:

To better understand the functions of key genes involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in Jatropha curcas, we cloned and characterized three genes, namely acetyl CoA acyltransferase (JcAACT), diphosphate mevalonate decarboxylase (JcMDC) and farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (JcFPS). The opening reading frames (ORFs) of JcAACT, JcMDC and JcFPS were 1239 bp,1248 bp and 1029 bp, respectively, encoding a 412-amino acid, 415-amino acid and 342-amino acid polypeptide, respectively. Results of homology analysis showed that JcAACT, JcMDC and JcFPS encoded proteins that all had the highest identity and closest relationship with the corresponding genes in Hevea brasiliensis, with identities of 89%, 92% and 93%, respectively. JcAACT, JcMDC and JcFPS were expressed in all organs tested of J. curcas; the highest expression level for each gene occurred in seeds. In the early growth stage of seeds, the expression level of each of these three genes increased with time, with JcAACT and JcMDC expression level reaching a peak at the late stage of seed development (50 d), while JcFPS expression level reached a peak at the mid-late stage (40 d). Following the peak, the expression of each gene then declined. The expression level of JcAACT was the highest of the three genes, regardless of the organ or the stage of seed growth, indicating its important role in J. curcas. This study lays the foundation for a better understanding of the important role of the JcAACT, JcMDC and JcFPS genesin the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway of J. curcas.

 

989-998 Download
21

Genetic diversity and population structure of the dvel’s tongue arum (Amorphophallus konjac) in South-Western China


Yong Gao, Guofang Yuan, Chaojie Niu and Lizhou Tang

Genetic diversity and population structure of the dvel’s tongue arum (Amorphophallus konjac) in South-Western China


ABSTRACT:

Amorphophallus konjac, also known as the devil’s tongue arum, is the most widely utilised Amorphophallus species in China. To evaluate its genetic diversity and population structure, genetic variation in 18 wild A.konjac populations (182 individuals) from south-western China was assessed with 13 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs). In total, 107 alleles were obtained from 13 loci in 18 populations. A moderate to high genetic diversity was detected (NA varied from 1.308 to 3.846, HO ranged between 0.256 and 0.615, HE ranged between 0.145 and 0.516, I ranged between 0.205 and 0.947). The pair wise genetic distance was significantly correlated with geographic distance in the mantel test, suggesting that isolation by distance was one of the reasons for the genetic variation in A. konjac populations. Genetic structure analysis divided the 18 populations into three groups, which were significantly related to their geographic origins. When developing conservation strategies, these genetic groups should be treated as distinct evolutionarily significant units. The results of our study suggest that the devil’s tongue arum in south-western China contains a high level of genetic variation. There is much potential in these materials for the genetic improvement.

999-1004 Download
22

Impact of low-alternate furrow irrigation and zinc sulfate foliar application on grain yield and enrichment of sweet corn hybrids


Babak Peykarestan, Mehrdad Yarnia, Hamid Madani, Varahram Rashidi and Hossein Heidari Sharif Abad

Impact of low-alternate furrow irrigation and zinc sulfate foliar application on grain yield and enrichment of sweet corn hybrids


ABSTRACT:

These experiments were carried out at the IAU research farm, Arak, Iran, in 2014 and 2015. Treatments involved two sweet corn (Zea mays L. convar cv.Chase and Chalenger) hybrid varieties and low water irrigation methods arranged in the main plots and zinc foliar application levels as factoraial in sub-plots. Irrigation (I) levels were complete furrows irrigation (CFI), fixed furrows irrigation (FFI), and alternating furrows irrigation (AFI) arranged in sub-plots and non-foliar application (control), application of Drop® Zinc sulfate (0.2%), Fast® zinc sulfate (0.2%). The results demonstrated the impact of irrigation methods, zinc spraying, hybrid plants and their interaction on the grain yield and other parameters was significant at the 1% probability level. The interactive effects of treatment indicated the highest canable grain yield in the AFI treatment with an application of zinc fast in the Challenger hybrid of 8873 kg.ha-1 had an increased yield of 45.03% compared to the least treatment. Most WUE (water use efficiency) in the AFI treatment with zinc fast application in the Challenger hybrid with a value of 0.62 kg.m-3 had twice the increase than in the least treatment. The highest grain zinc content in AFI and application of zinc fast in the Challenger hybrid had a 64.83% increase compared to the least treatment with a value of 28.22 mg.g-1. Based on the findings of this research, the application of zinc sulfate in the form of zinc fast with the AFI method decreased water consumption by 24% and caused the enrichment of grain zinc content of the Challenger hybrid by 64.83%, which is very necessary for fresh use, especially for the nutrition of children and teenagers.

1005-1011 Download
23

A comprehensive view of expression profiles dynamics of capsaicinoid biosynthesis-related genes during pepper fruit development and under MeJA treatment


Minghua Deng, Jinfen Wen, Kai Zhao, Jinlong Huo, Zhuqing Zhang, Haishan Zhu and Xuexiao Zou

A comprehensive view of expression profiles dynamics of capsaicinoid biosynthesis-related genes during pepper fruit development and under MeJA treatment


ABSTRACT:

Capsaicinoids are a group of secondary plant metabolites which are synthesized and accumulated only in the fruits of peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). In this paper, the fruits of nadao chili peppers were used as experiment materials and the mechanism of capsaicinoid biosynthesis was studied. HPLC studies revealed that capsaicinoid accumulation in the developing fruits initially occurred at 24 days after pollination (DAP), was increasing at 36 DAP, and peaked at 48 DAP. Eleven genes that encoded enzymes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis were isolated and characterized. Gene expression with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that capsaicin synthase (CaCS) was expressed only in the placenta of the fruit, while the other ten genes were expressed in all tissues tested, with nine of the eleven genes (with the exception of cinnamic acid-4-hydroxylase [CaCa4H] and p-coumaric acid-3-hydroxylase [CaCa3H]) being strongly expressed in placenta tissue. Spatial expression analysis demonstrated that the 11 genes could be grouped into four categories, based on the patterns of relative expression of the genes during fruit development. Category I contained two genes, which displayed a bell-shaped expression pattern, with peak expression at 24 DAP. Category II contained five genes, the expression of which increased steadily from 0 to 36 DAP, peaking at 36 DAP. Category III comprises two genes, expression of which peaked at 48 DAP. Category IV consists of two genes, which were not expressed from 0 to 12 DAP, but then showed a high level of expression at 36 and 48 DAP. Treatment of the developing fruit with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) resulted in upregulation of the expression of each of the 11 genes. These results provide the first information on capsaicinoid biosynthesis and regulation during pepper fruit development.

1013-1022 Download
24

Physiochemical impact of a magnetic field on Artemisia annua L. alters its genomic profile and enhances artemisinin content


Pravej Alam, Mahmoud A. Sharaf-Eldin, M.Z. Abdin, Shereen F. Elkholy and Parvaiz Ahmad

Physiochemical impact of a magnetic field on Artemisia annua L. alters its genomic profile and enhances artemisinin content


ABSTRACT:

Seeds of the Chinese herbal plant Artemisia annua L. were treated with a magnetic field (MF) prior to sowing in order to observe the effects on germination, height, growth, artemisinin content and change in genome profile. A. annua seeds were exposed to a magnetic field (MF) strength of 75 mT for different time intervals of 15, 30 and 45 min under laboratory conditions. The MF altered seed germination (87%), shoot length (63%), and artemisinin content (66%) in T45. The MF increased the seedling dry weight by 24.12 fold in T45. MF treated plants (T15, T30, and T45) also exhibited clear differences in PCR-RAPD profile; i.e. the genomic pattern as recorded in phylogenetic trees are 51%, 44%, and 44% for T45, T30 and T15, respectively. The most significant changes were observed in plants treated with a MF for 45 minutes, but all the recorded parameters were higher in treated seed raised plantlets. The increased germination, seedling growth and related chemical and molecular attributes could possibly enhance the artemisinin productivity of the plants. In future more research into the application of MF before sowing seed is needed to see if these results can be replicated in the field.  

1023-1028 Download
25

Bacillus cereus: a competent plant growth promoting bacterium of saline sodic field


Tamoor Ul Hassan, Asghari Bano and Irum Naz

Bacillus cereus: a competent plant growth promoting bacterium of saline sodic field


ABSTRACT:

The effects of Bacillus cereus were investigated on wheat in the presence or absence of L-tryptophan, in a saline sodic field. An aqueous solution of L-tryptophan was added to the rhizosphere soil at 1 µg/L, after 8d of seeds germination with irrigated water. The survival efficiency measured as colony forming unit revealed that B. cereus was salt tolerant to rhizosphere soil filtrate and in NaCl.  Bio-inoculation of B. cereus significantly decreased Electrical conductivity (EC), Na and Cl contents by 35%, and increased K, NO3-N, P, and organic matter by (25%) over control. Tryptophan addition assisted B. cereus to further decrease Na, Cl, sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and Na/K by 80%. Inoculation of B. cereus alone and with tryptophan significantly increased proline, antioxidant enzymes, phytohormones and yield attributes. The results revealed that tryptophan addition augmented the potential of B. cereus in improving crop growth and productivity which was mediated by the salinity alleviation. 

1029-1037 Download
26

Genetic divergence in Brassica napus L. germplasm as determined by quantitative attributes


Muhammad Ilyas, Ghulam Shabbir, Malik Ashiq Rabbani, Saad Imran Malik, Nasir Mehmood Cheema, Muhammad Ansar and Sohail Ahmad Jan

Genetic divergence in Brassica napus L. germplasm as determined by quantitative attributes


ABSTRACT:

Brassica napus L., a candidate with high yield and good quality oil potential was evaluated for genetic divergence for two years on two locations. A collection of 328 lines belonging to various origins along with a check variety Faisal Canola was sown in the field following augmented design and phenotyped for eighteen quantitative traits. The recorded data when statistically analyzed inferred that, days to flower initiation, 50 % flowering, flower completion, 50 % maturity were main contributors of variations in the germplasm and were highly related with pod dehiscence and yield. Furthermore, BN328, BN371, BN494, BN618, BN625 and BN627 were found diverse lines in both years. The outcomes from this study are very helpful to proceed for any Oilseed rape breeding programs to improve yield.

1039-1045 Download
27

Transcriptome analysis of Schisandra sphenanthera discovers putative lignan biosynthesis genes and genetic markers


Sen Wang, Zhen Zhang, Wan-Ling Song, Ni-Hao Jiang, Feng-Xia Shao, Sheng-Chao Yang, Fang-De lv, Guang-Hui Zhang, Chun-Hua Ma and Jun-Wen Chen

Transcriptome analysis of Schisandra sphenanthera discovers putative lignan biosynthesis genes and genetic markers


ABSTRACT:

Based on the transcriptional analysis of Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. Et Wils., a total of 129,951 assembled unigenes were obtained. This article found some cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP450), such as CYP81Q1 (piperitol/sesamin synthase, PSS), CYP719A24 and CYP71923 catalyze the formation of two methylenedioxy bridges in sesamin and podophyllotoxin biosynthesis, respectively.

The candidates of these CYP450s and O-methyltransferase (OMT) genes that catalyze lignanO-methylation have also discovered from the transcriptome database of S. sphenanthera, indicating that dibenzocyclooctadiene-type lignan might be biosynthesized in the similar pathways of sesamin and podophyllotoxin. Moreover, cloning and functional characterization of those genes will help us to illuminate the biosynthesis mechanisms of dibenzocyclooctadiene-type lignan. Additionally, twenty sets of primers for SSR were chosen in random for validating the polymorphism and amplification. The results showed that 18 (90.00%) primer pairs could be amplified successfully and 15 (83.33%) primer pairs exhibited polymorphisms.This study represents the first report to analyze the transcriptome of S. sphenanthera using high-throughput RNA-seq technology. These data will enrich the genomic data and provide a solid evidence for functional genomics and molecular genetic researching in this herb.

1047-1059 Download
28

Influence of application of different proportions of substrates and biogas slurry-based fertilizers on the growth and quality of purple rape – Brassica campestris L. SSP. Chinensis (L.) Hanelt


Juan Jiaxiang, Zhao Hong, Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Bilal, Gao Zhaoliang, Huang Danfeng and Tang Dongqin

Influence of application of different proportions of substrates and biogas slurry-based fertilizers on the growth and quality of purple rape – Brassica campestris L. SSP. Chinensis (L.) Hanelt


ABSTRACT:

Purple rape is a widely used leafy vegetable in china which exhibits an enormous nutritional value. In this study, different proportions and ratios of substrates, including turf as the main ingredient, coconut coir dust and perlite as raw substrate in combination with varying ratios of biogas slurry (BGS), were applied to cultivate purple rape. Several morphological, physiological and yield indexes were studied to provide an experimental background for more efficient growth of purple rape. Results revealed that the morphological attributes of treatment groups were found to be significantly (p<0.05) different from control groups, under different BGS ratios. Notably, T4-10 treatment in combination with 10% BGS, registered the highest total chlorophyll content. The highest plant fresh weight and aboveground fresh weight were recorded in T5-10 treatments. Proportions of compound substrates and slurry among different groups also exhibited marked effects on the biochemical parameters, and substantially improved the quality of purple. Overall results demonstrated that the T4 (turf: coir dust: perlite at a ratio of 2:4:2) in combination with 10% BGS exhibited the most significant positive effects. In conclusion, our findings may offer a new insight to the sustainable and productive organic agriculture.

 

1061-1068 Download
29

Pomological and biochemical profiling of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) during different fruit maturation phases


Muhammad Salman Haider, Iqrar Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Jafar Jaskani, Summar Abbas Naqvi, Sajid Mateen, Umbreen Shahzad and Haider Abbas

Pomological and biochemical profiling of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) during different fruit maturation phases


ABSTRACT:

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is an important part of human diet due to the impressive panel of sugars, polyphenols, antioxidants and essential elements. In this study, ten elite indigenous Pakistani date palm cultivars were characterized for their fruit morphological and biochemical traits at three fruit ripening stages. Results depicted significant distinction in size, shape and fruit dimensions during their different softening patterns. Moreover, the moisture contents, soluble protein contents, total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant activity (AA), specific activity of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were high at khalal stage, followed by rutab stage, and lowest at tamar stage. On the converse, pH and reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) increased up to the full-ripe stage in all the investigated cultivars. Pearson’s test was also established in fruit morphological parameters and sugar components. The disparity in nutritional composition mainly depended on the type of cultivar and fruit maturation stages. Our findings revealed that the indigenous date palm germplasm was the potential source of sugar contents and variety of antioxidants and could possibly be used as functional food components.

1069-1076 Download
30

Accumulation of terpenoid indole alkaloids in jasmonic acid elicited Catharanthus roseus plants before and during flowering


Qifang Pan, Mohd Zuwairi Saiman, Robert Verpoorte and Kexuan Tang

Accumulation of terpenoid indole alkaloids in jasmonic acid elicited Catharanthus roseus plants before and during flowering


ABSTRACT:

Jasmonates analogues including jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) are plant-signaling molecules involved in defense against insects and pathogens. In Catharanthus roseus, jasmonates play a key role in regulating the biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs). In the present study, C. roseus plants were elicited with JA before and during flowering to investigate the induction of TIA biosynthesis in different organs during the two developmental stages concerning via HPLC and qRT-PCR methods. The results showed that JA stimulates the TIA accumulation before flowering but had less effect during flowering. TIA accumulations in different organs (flower, leaf, and root) also showed a different response to JA elicitation. Moreover, transcriptional analysis showed that JA elicitation had a greater effect on the expression levels of key TIA biosynthetic genes (such as STR, SGD, DAT and PRX1) in C. roseus before flowering than during flowering. In C. roseus control (non-treated) plants the level of jasmonic acid was higher before flowering than during flowering, and in JA-treated plants JA was accumulated more before flowering than during flowering. The study provided an insight into the effect of flowering on JA-induced TIA biosynthesis in C. roseus plants.

1077-1083 Download
31

Convergence and divergence studies of plant precursor microRNAs


Abdul Ghani, Muhammad Din and Muhammad Younas Khan Barozai

Convergence and divergence studies of plant precursor microRNAs


ABSTRACT:

MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of small RNAs. It is non-coding, 18-26 nucleotides (nt) in length and play a useful and vital role in post-transcriptional gene regulation by targeting messenger RNAs (mRNAs). The short mature miRNAs generate from long precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs). The length of pre-miRNAs is range from 50-500 nt. Many of the mature miRNAs are evolutionarily conserved but the convergence of the pre-miRNAs is not well studied. The aim of this research is to study the convergence and divergence of pre-miRNAs in the significant and major groups of plants. In this research, homology-based comparative genomics approach was employed to study the convergence and divergence studies of pre-miRNAs from 35 species of plants. Among the selected species, two are from bryophyta and pteridophyta, one from each, three from gymnosperm, three from monocot, and twenty seven species were from dicot. The three monocots, containing 969 pre-miRNAs, were subjected to convergence and divergence analyses. Out of 969, 27 pre-miRNAs showed convergence with gymnosperm, 26 with bryophyta and pteridophyta and 157 with dicot. Similarly, out of 104, 20 pre-miRNAs of gymnosperm showed convergence with monocot, eight with bryophyta and pteridophyta, and 26 with dicot. The 27 out of 287 pre-miRNAs of bryophyta and pteridophyta showed convergence with monocot, five with gymnosperm, and 18 with dicot. The 148 out of 2647 pre-miRNAs of dicot showed convergence with monocot, 62 with gymnosperm and 51 with bryophyta and pteridophyta. These findings would help us to better understand the pre-miRNAs convergence and divergence in plants. As pre-miRNA generate the functional mature miRNA, so, findings of pre-miRNAs convergence and divergence will also be useful to design and regulate the miRNAs expression for better crop production, biotic and abiotic stress management at the pre-miRNAs level in plants.

1085-1091 Download
32

Climatic and flowering phenological relationships of Western Himalayan flora of Muzaffarabad District, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan


Arshad Mahmood Khan, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Muhammad Arshad and S.N. Mirza

Climatic and flowering phenological relationships of Western Himalayan flora of Muzaffarabad District, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Anthropogenic climate change is influencing many aspects of biodiversity hotspot of the western Himalaya. Muzaffarabad district as part of western Himalayan is a strongly seasonal area, thus studies on interrelationship of timing of phenological periodic events and climatic seasonality is of obvious significance. A first ever detailedeco-taxonomical field survey of the whole district was conducted to explore floral diversity, plant habit associated with microhabitats. Timing of flowering response of species within the different months was also recorded during two consective years (2014-16) and flowering phonological data was stored as binary data matrix. The influence of studied climatic variables on the flowering phenological response was tested through canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). A total of 748 vascular plants (740 species, 3 sub-species, 5 varieties) belonged to 490 genera and 120 plant families were recorded including 77 species as new to the study area. The leading plant family was Compositae (69 spp., 9.22%), followed by Poaceae (57 spp., 7.62%), Leguminosae (54 spp., 7.22%), Lamiaceae (42 spp., 5.61%) and Rosaceae (29 spp., 3.88%); while the leading genus was Euphorbia (10 spp.), followed by Cyperus, Ficus, Geranium and Prunus (7spp. each). With respect to life forms, perennial herbs were the most dominant (297 spp., 39.71%), followed by annual herbs (188 spp., 25.13%). With reference to diversity of microhabitats, coniferous forest was leading in terms of floristic diversity having 243 species (32.10% of total flora), followed by drier slopes, home gardens (158 spp., 20.87% each), arable land (143 spp., 18.89%) and waste places (122 spp., 16.12%).The majority of plant species found in flowering stage during July and August months (473 spp., 62.48% and 458 spp., 60.5% respectively),while the least ones during January (51 spp., 6.73%) and December (55 spp., 7.26%). Results of CCA showed that total variations in the response data were 1.742 and 71.8% were explained by the explanatory variables. Based on conditional (net) term effects, mean monthly minimum temperature was detected as the most important and significant [pseudo-F 4.3; p(adj) 0.005] towards explaining the variations in the flowering response data. It was followed by wind speed [pseudo-F 2.9; p(adj) 0.0225] and relative humidity [pseudo-F 2; p(adj) 0.04625] variable. Intrestingly, July and August months not only receive maximum rainfall but also majority of species flowered in these months, but CCA results confirmed that rainfall is not important predictor with respect to species flowering response event in the area. It was concluded that the flora of the study area was more influenced by the climatic factors like temperature, wind speed and relative humidity. This Himalayan region is fragile and rapid temperature rise could lead to catastrophies like wiping out of endemic and endangered species, earlier snowmelts and resultant ealier blooming causing invasive species spread, upwards timber-line shift and rapid changes in vegetation composition. This baseline study information could be used to deal these issues and need to have effective regional collaboration of scientific community and policy makers is recommended

1093-1112 Download
33

First insights into the floristic diversity, biological spectra and phenology of Manoor Valley, Pakistan


Inayat ur Rahman, Aftab Afzal, Zafar Iqbal, Farhana Ijaz, Niaz Ali, Muhammad Asif, Jan Alam, Abdul Majid, Robbie Hart and Rainer W. Bussmann

First insights into the floristic diversity, biological spectra and phenology of Manoor Valley, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

To assess floristic composition, phenology, leaf and biological spectrum of an unexplored remote valley (Manoor Valley), frequent field visits were arranged in different growing seasons during 2015-17. Plant specimens were collected, identified and deposited to the Herbarium at Hazara University, Mansehra. Plants were classified into life form, and leaf sizes classes were determined. The floristic diversity consisted of 307 plant species belonging to 81 families. Asteraceae was the leading family with 31 species, followed by Rosaceae with 22 species, and Lamiaceae with 20 species respectively. An additional, 78 families had fewer than 20 species. Herbaceous growth form contributed maximum with 228 spp. (74.27%), followed by shrubs with 45 spp. (14.66%) and trees with 34 spp. (11.07%) respectively. On the basis of the life form spectrum, our results indicated that the flora was dominated by Therophytes (104 spp., 33.88%), followed by Hemicryptophytes (87 spp., 28.34%), Nanophanerophytes (41 spp., 13.36%), Chamaephytes (24 spp., 7.82%), Mesophanerophytes (20 spp., 6.51%), Geophytes (13 spp., 4.23%), Megaphanerophytes (9 spp., 2.93%), Microphanerophytes (5 spp., 1.66%), and Lianas (3 spp., 0.98%)respectively. Whereas, one parasitic plant species (Cuscuta reflexa) was also found and collected. In leaf spectra, Nanophyll dominated the study area with 92 spp. (29.97%), followed by Microphyll (86 spp., 28.01%), Leptophyll (59 spp., 19.22%), Mesophyll (49 spp., 15.96%), and Megaphyll (17 spp., 5.54%)respectively.Moreover,4species (1.30%) were found Aphyllous i.e., Cuscuta reflexa, Ephedra girardiana, Equisetum arvense and Periploca aphylla. Phenological behavior revealed that July marks the peak of flowering season in 80 plant species (26.06%), followed by June where 77 species (25.08%) had flowering. The fruiting data showed that September month was the peak fruiting season (25.41%) in 78 plant species, followed by August (22.80%) in 70 species. In the present study, a list has been launched of all the possible plants present in this unexplored area, which could serve as a vital resource for all future endeavors in the field of phytosociological studies, phytochemical, and pharmacological activities and conservation of natural resources.

 

1113-1124 Download
34

Effects of ecological factors on content of flavonoids in Rosa sterilis from different karst areas of Guizhou, SW China 


Jieling Li, Wenxuan Quan, Chaochan Li, Denghong Shi, Jiwei Hu, Jing Jin and Wenqian Ruan

Effects of ecological factors on content of flavonoids in Rosa sterilis from different karst areas of Guizhou, SW China 


ABSTRACT:

The samples collected from 11 areas of Guizhou Province, China, were investigated to illustrate the effects of soil indicators and environmental factors on flavonoids in R. sterilis. A facile method for the simultaneous determination of the main flavonoids in R. sterilis fruits was established with high performance liquid chromatography. The major flavonoids, accounting for 1.13-5.98% of the total flavonoids, consist of rutin (1.05-5.58%), quercetin (0.02-0.09%), and kaempferol (0.06-0.31%). Moreover, four local environmental factors and eleven soil indicators were determined from each planting area. The results of variance analysis showed significant differences in soil properties from different planting areas. Multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and partial correlation analysis) indicated that sunshine intensity and annual precipitation were the major environmental factors for the content of flavonoids in the fruits, while soil organic matter (SOM), pH, available nitrogen (AN), total phosphorus (TP) and available potassium (AK) are basic and essential nutrients for plants growth that influence the content of flavonoids in R. sterilis. The results revealed that sunlight intensity was the main factor for the content of flavonoids in the fruits by affecting the synthesis rate. The soil indicators, such as SOM, pH, AN, TP and AK, should be adequate and balanced, which supply essential nutrients to contribute to maintaining health and the content of active substances in R. sterilis.

1125-1133 Download
35

Changes in vegetation structure and soil components at upstream and downstream areas of Alaqiq Dam, Southwestern Saudi Arabia


Sami Asir Al-Robai, Haidar Abdalgadir Mohamed, Abdelazim Ali Ahmed and Emad Ali Alsherif

Changes in vegetation structure and soil components at upstream and downstream areas of Alaqiq Dam, Southwestern Saudi Arabia


ABSTRACT:

This work aimed at studying the changes in the vegetation structure and soil components at upstream and downstream areas of Alaqiq dam. A total of 169 species belonging to 124 genera and 47 families were recorded from the area. The upstream zone had 123 species, 98 genera, 41 families while downstream zone had 101 species, 81 genera, 35 families. Poaceae was the dominant family in the study area with 14 genera and 19 species. Therophytes and chamaephytes were the most common life forms indicating a typical desert life-form spectrum. TWINSPAN classified the studied sites into two main groups; the near upstream site represented the first group while the other three sites combined together in the second group.  JACCARD’S similarity value revealed that there was a high similarity between far downstream and near downstream sites. Diversity values of Simpson, Shannon-Wiener and Margalef demonstrated that the two near sites of the dam were more diverse than the two far sites. The soil of the study area was not saline (0.18 – 0.86 dS/m),slightly alkaline (pH, 8.46 – 8.62), contained 307.7 – 667.8 mg kg−1 nitrogen and very poor in phosphorus content (˂ 0.001 mg kg−1).The upstream area had high amount of nitrogen (667.8 mg kg−1) and water (21.47%) contents as compared with the downstream area. This result suggested that the nitrogen and soil water contents strongly influenced the distribution of plants at both areas of the dam. The trace and toxic elements were found in the soil at unpolluted level

1135-1145 Download
36

Do heterogeneous nutrient patch scale and distribution order in the habitats always influence on the biophysical characteristics of Zoysia japonica?


Syed Wajahat Husain Jaafry, Dezhi Li, Huijuan Chen and Xiaotao Yun

Do heterogeneous nutrient patch scale and distribution order in the habitats always influence on the biophysical characteristics of Zoysia japonica?


ABSTRACT:

Previous studies have shown that small scale resource heterogeneity may strongly influence plant fitness and many ecological processes. Clonal plant species performed better under various heterogeneous environments compared with homogeneous ones. However, the patch scale and the distribution order in the habitats may affect the clonal growth and has remained unclearly elucidated. We used typical stoloniferous clonal plant Zoysia japonica as study material, through analyzing the performance of its clones in the heterogeneous environments with different patch sizes (where amount of nutrient supply was same to all heterogeneous treatments with different patch levels). Levels of patch soil nutrients and patch distribution orders in the habitats, comparing with the homogeneous ones, aiming to test the hypothesis that patch scale and distribution order in the habitats always affect the performance of clonal growth of Z. japonica. We did not find significant differences (p≥0.05) in the total biomass of clonal growth of the species under different heterogeneous conditions, whereas we found significant difference between heterogeneous and homogeneous treatments,total biomass of clonal growth under heterogonous conditions compared with the homogenous nutrient-rich treatment C1 and homogenous nutrient-zero treatment C2 (p≤0.05), respectively. The results demonstrated that due to mutual translocation of resources among connected ramets in all heterogeneous treatments increasing heterogeneous patch scale and distribution order in the habitats did not always affect the performance of clonal growth of Z. japonica but the interactive effect of nutrient distribution and patch scale significantly affect the growth of Z. japonica.

1147-1155 Download
37

The prediction of forest carbon sequestration dynamics in Guizhou province and relevant influencing factors


Li Mingjun, Yu Lifei, Xia Huanbai, Nie Chaojun, Huang Zongsheng, Du Mingfeng, Zou Jun and Shi jianhua

The prediction of forest carbon sequestration dynamics in Guizhou province and relevant influencing factors


ABSTRACT:

Guizhou Province in China is a typical karst region. Because of its fragile environment, the restoration of the vegetation and environment of this province is highly important. In this study, biomass expansion factors and average biomass were used to measure the forest biomass, which we used to fit a logistic regression between carbon density and forest age for each forest type based on a 2010 forest inventory in Guizhou. In combination with the Guizhou afforestation plan, the model predicts the trends in carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate. In addition, we used grey relational analysis and multiple regression to explore the effects of afforestation, forest age and site conditions. The model demonstrated, first, that forest carbon storage in Guizhou is predicted to gradually increase from 203.62 TgC in 2010 to 575.99 TgC in 2050; second, forest carbon density is also predicted to gradually increase from 29.32 MgC•hm-2 in 2010 to 55.64 MgC•hm-2 in 2050; and finally, afforestation is predicted to significantly improve the forest carbon sequestration rate from 0.72 MgC•hm-2•a-1 in 2010 to 0.77 MgC•hm-2•a-1 in 2050. The expansion of forest area and the increase in forest age resulted from afforestation and promoted forest carbon sinks. Forest carbon sequestration increased significantly with increasing forest age but was strongly constrained by rocky desertification. In addition to afforestation, we suggest that improving the forest carbon sink in Guizhou should put a greater emphasis on approaches such as fully exploiting the carbon sequestration capacity of the existing forests, decreasing disturbance to the existing forests, improving the forest age structure and better managing rocky desertification.  

1157-1170 Download
38

Population structure and spatial distribution pattern of dominant tree species of forest communities in the Xiaowutai Mountain, China


Xiaohang Bai, Jintun Zhang and Sehrish Sadia

Population structure and spatial distribution pattern of dominant tree species of forest communities in the Xiaowutai Mountain, China


ABSTRACT:

The point pattern analysis was applied for analyzing plant spatial distributions, predicting species associations, and providing an efficient representation of ecological process. Pinus tabulaeformis forest, Betula platyphylla forest, Betula albo-sinensis forest, Larix principis-rupprechtii forest in the Xiaowutai Mountain were selected as research objects, and four 50m×50m quadrats were set up. We measured diameter at breast height (DBH) and location of trees, and analyzed population structure, spatial distribution pattern, intraspecific and interspecific associations of dominant tree species in four forest communities by point pattern analysis and Monte-Carlo simulation test, in order to provide a theoretical basis and development strategies for natural resource protection in the areas. The results showed that a total of 166 vascular plant species in 49 families were recorded in quadrats. Betula platyphylla had the largest average and maximum of DBH among all plant species. Betula albo-sinensis had the largest average tree height, while Betula platyphylla had the maximum tree height among all plant species. Pinus tabulaeformis presented random distribution within 13.5m and cluster distribution outside 13.5m. Betula platyphylla presented random distribution on all the scales. Betula albo-sinensis and Larix principis-rupprechtii presented cluster distribution on the small scales and random distribution on the larger scales. The study also revealed that Betula platyphylla and Acer mono on the scale of 2.4m-22.5m, and Betula albo-sinensis and Sorbus alnifolia on the scale of 3.5m-7.5m had a significant negative correlation. Furthermore, Pinus tabulaeformis and Larix principis-rupprechtii were expanding populations mainly affected by intraspecific competition. Betula platyphylla and Betula albo-sinensis were stable populations respectively affected by interspecific competition, intraspecific and interspecific competition. Spatial distribution and species associations of four forest types were regulated by dispersal limitation and environmental heterogeneity in the Xiaowutai Mountain. We should effectively adhere to sustainable principles for protecting natural forest resources.

1171-1179 Download
39

Pollen morphology of endemic NE Anatolian cirsium taxa (Asteraceae)


Funda Erşen Bak and Melahat Ozcan

Pollen morphology of endemic NE Anatolian cirsium taxa (Asteraceae)


ABSTRACT:

In this study, the detailed pollen morphological structures of three endemic Cirsium (Asteraceae) Miller taxa showing the natural distribution in NE Anatolia, Turkey: C. trachylepis Boiss.,C. sommieri Petrak, and C. pseudopersonata Boiss. & Bal ssp. pseudopersonata were examined. The taxa were investigated for the first time by using light microscope and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are oblate spheroidal and suboblate with tricolporate aperture type. Sizes of the grains range from 45.22 to 46.55 µm on the equatorial axis mean and from 40.50 to 41.67 µm on the polar axis mean. Exine structure is tectate and mean thickness of exine varies from 1.22 to 1.92 µm. Pollen ornamentations are echinate-perforate-microreticulate or echinate-microreticulate with supratectal spines. According to the variance analysis, there are some similarities among taxa but most of values investigated have been found significantly different. The pollen morphologies observed in this study are in a harmony with their sectional classification of Cirsiumbased on morphological characteristics

1181-1185 Download
40

Statistical comparison on numerical anatomical values of crocus L. taxa


Ali Özdemir and Yurdanur Akyol

Statistical comparison on numerical anatomical values of crocus L. taxa


ABSTRACT:

This study aims to statistically compare the nümerical values of root and scape anatomy of 13 Crocus taxa. Anatomical variations in 13 Crocus L. taxa have been investigated by means of numerical methods (Analysis of variance and Pearson correlation). By the analysis of the investigated taxa from ten anatomy related characters, it has been determined that endodermis width, pericycle length and trache cell diameter are the best character pairs which represent the variations in them. It has been also found that the results from numerical analysis of the anatomy characters can provide additional anatomical evidences for recognition of the taxa. 

1187-1190 Download
41

Mapping the OsDMS-2 dominant male sterile rice mutant


Yanling Liang, Hengqi Min, Xiaohua Xian, Yun Chen, Min Shi, Shuanglin Du, Kun Yang, Yuanxin Huang, Jun Lv and Yi Zhang

Mapping the OsDMS-2 dominant male sterile rice mutant


ABSTRACT:

Dominant male sterility is one of the two most important types of male sterility. However, its underlying mechanism has not yet been characterized. In this study, the anthers of OsDMS-2 dominant male sterile mutant were shorter and whiter than wild-type anthers. Moreover, pollen abundance was lower in mutant than wild-type anthers, with most mutant pollen grains being small and malformed. Inheritance analysis showed that male sterility was controlled by one dominant gene. However, gene mapping suggested that two loci, OsDMS-2A (on chromosome 2) and OsDMS-2B (on chromosome 8), might be responsible for the dominant sterility of the OsDMS-2 mutant. The flanking markers of OsDMS-2A are C2D11 and C2D12, with genetic distances of 0.66 and 0.33 cM, respectively. The C8D3 and C8D7 markers flanking OsDMS-2B have genetic distances of 1.32 and 2.32 cM, respectively. Molecular mapping disagreeing with classical genetic analysis indicates OsDMS-2 is a novel and valuable mutant for understanding male sterility genetic mechanism.  

1191-1196 Download
42

Embryo development and desiccation tolerance of Hepatica nobilis Schreb. seeds


Bożena Szewczyk-taranek, Monika Bieniasz, Monika Cioć and Bożena Pawłowska

Embryo development and desiccation tolerance of Hepatica nobilis Schreb. seeds


ABSTRACT:

Hepatica nobilis seeds exhibit deep morpho-physiological dormancy and contain undeveloped embryo at the time of dispersal. The objective of our study was to investigate the development of H. nobilis embryo in relation to the natural vegetation season in Poland, and to test the sensitivity of seeds to desiccation. Achenes were harvested on May 20, 2011, at the time of natural dispersal, and were sown immediately. Our observations, with the use of paraffin sectioning method, revealed that at the moment of seed dispersal, embryos was in the globular phase. Five weeks after sowing they developed into the early torpedo stage (mid‑June). Then, during the summer, embryo growth slowed down and cotyledons continued their expansion in the endosperm during the hot season. From mid‑October, radicals started to grow and emerge from the seeds, but did not fully germinate before winter. Germination of H. nobilis seeds was observed in the spring in week 43 after sowing. In the second experiment, the seeds were desiccated under laminar air flow for 0 (control) to 9 h to estimate the influence of the seed water content on germination. Fresh seeds contained 62% of water and germinated in 73%. The seeds dried for 7.5 and 9 hours contained 34-32% of water and did not germinate. Hepatica seeds are sensitive to dehydration and are not a suitable plant material for storage in gene banks.

1197-1202 Download
43

Estabglishment of an efficient protocol for plantlets regeneration via direct and indirect organogenesis Citrus reticulata (Kinnow Mandarin


Mubashir Hussain, Naveed Iqbal Raja, Hamid Rashid, Zia-ur-Rehman Mashwani and Muhammad Iqbal

Estabglishment of an efficient protocol for plantlets regeneration via direct and indirect organogenesis Citrus reticulata (Kinnow Mandarin


ABSTRACT:

Studies were initiated to explore the role of plant growth regulators and explant types on efficient plantlets regeneration via direct and indirect organogenesis in Kinnow mandarin [Citrus reticulata L. (Blanco)]. Explants were cultured on MS medium containing varying concentrations of phytohormones. The best callus induction response was obtained in MS medium containing 5 mg/l 2,4-D and 1 mg/l BAP where 90% from nucellus tissue, 58% from shoot apical meristem and 56% from nodal segments explants showed callogenic response after 2 weeks of inoculation.Best shoot induction medium via indirect organogenesis was found for nucellus tissue when MS medium was supplemented with 1.5 mg/l Kin and 500 mg/l malt extract which was 46% whereas for SAM and nodal segments, best response was obtained when MS medium was supplemented with BAP and NAA (3.0 + 0.5) mg/l which was 40% and 48% from SAM and nodal segments respectively after 11 weeks of inoculation.The shoot induction as well as multiplication were also studied by using different combinations and different concentrations of phytohormones in growth medium. The best medium for shoot induction percentage via direct organogenesis was [M3= MS + BAP (1.0 mg/l)] whereas 92%, 90% and 82% from nucellus tissue, SAM and nodal segments respectively showed organogenic response after 4 weeks of inoculation, whereas maximum number of shoots per explants was obtained in medium (M9)containing MS + Kin where 4, 7 and 6 average number of shoots were obtained from nucellus tissue,SAM and nodal segments respectively after 11 weeks of inoculation.Best rooting medium was found when MS medium was supplemented with 2 mg/l NAA where 88% from nucellus tissue and 80% from the nodal segments showed rooting response whereas for SAM best rooting response was obtained when supplemented with 1.5 mg/l NAA i.e 78%. The plantlets were successfully acclimatized in different potting mixtures and highest survival rate (100%) was achieved in potting mixture containing sand and peat moss (2:1).

1203-1210 Download
44

Biodiversity of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Acacia gerrardii Benth in different habitats of Saudi Arabia


Abeer Hashem, Abdulaziz A. Alqarawi, Asma A. Al-Huqail and Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah

Biodiversity of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Acacia gerrardii Benth in different habitats of Saudi Arabia


ABSTRACT:

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are the most influential and ubiquitous rhizosphere microbiome. AMF improve the soil characteristics and assist the symbiotic plants by improving plant absorption of soil nutrients particularly phosphorus. The biodiversity of native AMF highly influenced by soil nature and plant composition. The present investigation studied the enumeration and biodiversity of AMF associated with rhizosphere soil and roots of Acacia gerrardii (Talh trees) grown natively in different habitats of Saudi Arabia (SA). Soil analyses were varied with locations nonetheless, there are no distinct correlations has been estimated among the root colonization with AMF, spores number of AMF and soil properties. Fifteen mycorrhizal fungal species belong to seven genus (Funneliformis; Glomus; Rhizophagus; Septoglomus; Acaulospora; Claroideoglomus; Archaeospora) and four families (Glomeraceae; Acaulosporaceae; Claroideoglomeraceae; Archaeosporaceae) were identified from forty soil samples collected from four different locations belong to Riyadh region (Rawdhat Khuraim, Houta Bani Tamim) and Holy Madina region (Ola city, Werqaan Mountain) in SA. The present investigation extends our knowledge on the biodiversity of AMF associated with rhizosphere soil of Talh trees (A. gerrardii) grown natively in different Saudi locations.

1211-1217 Download
45

Effects of different mulching techniques on sugar beet performance under semi-arid subtropical climatic conditions


Abdul Malik, Abdul Sattar Shakir, Muhammad Jamal Khan, Naveedullah, Muhammad Latif, Muhammad Ajmal and Sajjad Ahmad

Effects of different mulching techniques on sugar beet performance under semi-arid subtropical climatic conditions


ABSTRACT:

Evaporation from soil surface is an important component of the water balance in irrigated agriculture. Mulching as an effective technique not only decreases soil moisture evaporation but can also act as a useful tool to suppress weed growth and thus create favorable environment for plants growth. In this study, the effects of different types of mulches on sugar beet performance (root yield, sugar content, sugar yield and water use efficiency) were investigated for two consecutive years in the famous Peshawarvalley of Indus Basin of Pakistan. It is evident from the results that the application of surface mulches significantly enhanced all the yield components and water use efficiency by improving soil moisture status over no mulch treatment. Similarly, use of black polyethylene film mulch was found better compared to straw mulch. Overall, mulch treatments produced 11.96 to 19.45% higher root yield, 14.33 to 22.68% higher sugar yield, 2.35 to 3.78% higher sugar content, 17.68 to 34.97% higher root irrigation water use efficiency, 20.38 to 37.78% higher sugar irrigation water use efficiency, 17.07 to 30.68% higher root crop water use efficiency, and 19.57 to 33.53% higher sugar crop water use efficiency, respectively, when compared with No-Mulch treatment. The study thus revealed that the use of mulches has the potential to improve the land and water productivity of sugar beet in water limited areas.

1219-1224 Download
46

Dynamics of fruit weight, mesocarp size and cellular morphological dynamics in 12 grafting sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars in one year


Hui Zhao, Hongyan Dai, Kaichun Zhang, Jing Wang, Zhihong Zhang and Fengrong Pan

Dynamics of fruit weight, mesocarp size and cellular morphological dynamics in 12 grafting sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars in one year


ABSTRACT:

Rootstock and scion have significant effects on fruit production in sweet cherry, but their interplay has not been fully detected for the cellular mechanism at different fruiting stages. In this study, three sweet cherry scions of ‘Lapins’, ‘8-102’ and ‘Rainier’ were planted with four rootstocks of ‘Mahaleb’, ‘Dwarf’, ‘ZY-1’, and ‘Latin’ resulting in 12 combined cultivars. Fruits were sampled at four growing stages. On 28 May, 2015 parameters of fruit weight, length, and diameter were greatest in trees with combined scion of ‘8-102’ × rootstock of ‘ZY-1’, followed by the combination of ‘8-102’ × ‘Dwarf’. On 24 June, 2015 fruit cell number was found to have a positive correlation with fruit length and weight. In conclusion, scions of ‘8-102’ and ‘Rainier’ is recommended for grafting on rootstock of ‘Latin’ for desired mature fruit quality through abundant mesocarp cell division.

1225-1232 Download
47

 Effects of Trichoderma strains on the micro-ecology of the rhizosphere soil of Dactylis glomerata through high-throughput sequencing analysis


Jing-Xin Mao, Yang Yuan, Jin-Hua Zhang, Yin-Chen Wang, Xian-Xin Chen, Rui Wang, Yuan-She Huang, Hong Wang, Ye-Mei Yang, Ya-Jie Zhang, Yu-Zhu Han and Bing Zeng

 Effects of Trichoderma strains on the micro-ecology of the rhizosphere soil of Dactylis glomerata through high-throughput sequencing analysis


ABSTRACT:

In the study, we used high-throughput sequencing as a tool for testing and comparing the microbes from two soil samples in terms of the microbial quantity, uniformity and diversity, showed that after the exposure to Trichoderma, the quantity of rhizosphere bacteria and Actinomycetes increased by 29.82%, as well as the relevant increasing of community uniformity and diversity. The quantity of rhizosphere eukaryotic microbes dropped by 9.1% while the species diversity was higher than CK with the comparative prominence of dominant species. On the total quantity of the microbes, T1 with exposure to Trichoderma was 4.51% higher than CK. In addition, the exposure to Trichoderma can increase the quantity of such communities as Nitrospirae which can promote the metabolism of mineral elements. The results showed that the application of Trichoderma can increase the number of the rhizosphere bacteria and actinomycetes of Dactylis glomerata, reduce the number of harmful fungi, improve the microbial diversity, facilitate the reproduction of some probiotics and improve the soil’s micro-ecology.

1233-1240 Download
48

Mycoparasitism activity of Trichoderma harzianum associated with chitinase expression against Ganoderma boninense


Laila Naher, Umi Kalsom Yusuf, Sheikh Hasna Habib, Huynh Ky and Shafiquzzaman Siddiquee

Mycoparasitism activity of Trichoderma harzianum associated with chitinase expression against Ganoderma boninense


ABSTRACT:

The filamentous fungus Trichoderma is an important fungus due to its biocontrol properties. This study was conducted on mycoparasitism activity of Trichoderma harzianum T32 against Ganoderma boninense upm001 on the basis of Potato Sucrose Agar (PSA) under the scanning electron microscope observation or cell wall degrading enzyme of chitinase gene expression by reverse-transcriptase (RT) PCR. The mycoparasitism process of Trichoderma harzianum T32 showed the coiling or killing of the Ganoderma boninense upm001 in PSA media. Deformity and shrinkage of Ganoderma mycelia was also observed under the scanning microscope in presence of Trichoderma. The RT-PCR profile showed that chitinase gene was expressed during the mycoprasitism activity in T. harzianum against G. boninense. It could be concluded that chitinase gene was an important element in process of biocontrol activity of Trichoderma as the gene was expressed against G. boninense.

 

1241-1245 Download
49

Determination of a new promising natural antifungal product against Penicillium digitatum


Seda Balkan

Determination of a new promising natural antifungal product against Penicillium digitatum


ABSTRACT:

The present study deals with the fungal infections, a great amount of food losses occur worldwide. The infections caused by Penicillium digitatum, green mold agent in Citrus fruits, are just one of those losses. In this study, determining a novel environmentally-friendly antifungal product against green mold agent is aimed. Total 39 plant species, naturally growing in Kırklareli (Turkey) were scanned in terms of antifungal activity against P. digitatum. Digitalis viridiflora, Medicago lupulina and Sambucus ebulus, inhibited the micelle development of P. digitatum completely (100%), while Lythrum salicaria, Epilobium roseum and Prunella vulgaris inhibited the micelle development over 75%. D. viridiflora has showed the least MIC value (250 µg/ml) against P. digitatum. In SEM analysis, flattening, collapse and wrinkling effects of D. viridiflora on hyphae structure of P. digitatum were also observed during the present investigation. In the lemons treated with 8 mg/ml D. viridiflora aqueous extract, 73.99% regression in the lesion diameters has also been observed. As a result, in order to avoid green mold infection caused by P. digitatum occurring in lemon fruits, D. viridiflora can be used as a natural antifungal agent

1247-1252 Download
50

Organic and inorganic fertilizers along with Thuja orientalis L. for the control of root infecting fungi


Shahnaz Dawar, Marium Tariq and Hira Sarfaraz

Organic and inorganic fertilizers along with Thuja orientalis L. for the control of root infecting fungi


ABSTRACT:

Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Fusarium species Schlecht are reported to be associated with wilting and root rot diseases in different crop plants all over the world. To improve crop production, fertilizers like cow dung, goat dung, urea and Di Ammonium Phosphate (DAP) with doses of 0.01 and 0.1 % w/w were mixed in soil in combination with seed treatment with stock solution of Thuja orientalis L. plant at 100% (w/v). Results revealed that maximum improvement in growth and reduction in colonization of root infecting fungi like M. phaseolina, R. solani and Fusarium spp., were recorded when 0.1 and 0.01% goat dung was incorporated in soil in combination with seed treatment with T. orientalis extract on cowpea and mash bean plants.

1253-1258 Download
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