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Year 2016 , Volume  48, Issue 2
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1
HIGHLIGHTING THE MECHANISMS BY WHICH PROLINE CAN CONFER TOLERANCE TO SALT STRESS IN CAKILE MARITIMA
DORSAF MESSEDI1*, FETEN FARHANI1, KARIM BEN HAMED1, NAJLA TRABELSI1, RIADH KSOURI1, HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR2, CHEDLY ABDELLY1

HIGHLIGHTING THE MECHANISMS BY WHICH PROLINE CAN CONFER TOLERANCE TO SALT STRESS IN CAKILE MARITIMA
ABSTRACT:
Cakile maritima is an oleaginous halophyte growing in the sandy dunes along the Tunisian coast. In order to investigate the role of proline in inducing high salinity tolerance (200 and 400 mM NaCl) in this halophyte, we studied several aspects of the salt responses of C. maritma under exogenous proline supply (20 mM). Salinity levels above 100 mM, reduced growth, photosynthetic activity, and quantum yield of photosystem II (FPSII), while increasing the non photochemical quenching (NPQ). Significant inhibition of the linear electron transport rate (ETR) was also observed in plants grown at 400 mM NaCl. In addition, polyphenol content, total antioxidant and DPPH scavenging activities increased due to increasing salinity stress, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) also increased. The application of proline counteracted all these adverse effects of salt stress in plants grown at 200 mM NaCl, while it improved some of these physiological attributes at 400 mM NaCl. In addition, contribution of Na+ for the osmotic adjustment decreased in the leaves of salt treated plants supplied with proline exogenously. Exogenous application of proline induced the accumulation of potassium, proline and soluble carbohydrates in salt stressed plants, particularly at 400 mM. This explained the reason of growth enhancement induced by proline application. All together, our results showed that the beneficial effect of exogenous proline on the response of C. maritima to salinity was due to its role in the protection of chloroplast structures, antioxidant defenses and osmotic adjustment.

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2
MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ALHAGI SPARSIFOLIA SHAP. (LEGUMINOSAE) SEEDLINGS TO PROGRESSIVE DROUGHT STRESS
FANJIANG ZENG1,2,3*, BO ZHANG1,2,3,4, YAN LU1,2,3*, CHANGJUN Li1,2,3,4,

MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ALHAGI SPARSIFOLIA SHAP. (LEGUMINOSAE) SEEDLINGS TO PROGRESSIVE DROUGHT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
BO LIU1,2,3, GUIXIANG AN1,2,3,4 AND XIAOPENG GAO1,2,3, 5

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3
SEED SIZE EFFECTS ON THE RESPONSE OF SEEDLINGS OF ACACIA ASAK (FORSSK.) WILLD. TO WATER STRESS
EL ATTA, H.A*., AREF, I.M. AND AHMED A.I

SEED SIZE EFFECTS ON THE RESPONSE OF SEEDLINGS OF ACACIA ASAK (FORSSK.) WILLD. TO WATER STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Dry tropical forests are characterized by unpredictable spells of drought and climate change. Saudi Arabia mostly falls within the arid zone and some few scattered areas fall in the semiarid zone mainly in the South Western region. Rainfall is sparse and with sporadic distribution. Drought is the most critical factor for restoration of the tree cover. Within a tree, seeds vary in size from large to small seeds. Although several researchers have studied the effect of within species variation in seed size on seedlings growth parameters, however there is a lack of knowledge regarding the effect of seed size on stress tolerance (Khurana and Singh 2000). We assumed that seedlings grown from different seed sizes from the same tree species may influence their response to water stress. Seeds of Acacia asak (Forssk.) Willd. were categorized into large, medium and small seeds on the basis of the seed weight. Seedlings from the three seed sizes were grown in potted soil and subjected to 5 levels of field water capacity (FC) (100, 75, 50, 25 and 15%) in the greenhouse. The objective was to evaluate the response of seedling grown (from different seed sizes) to water stress and to understand the acclimation of seedlings to water stress. Water stress significantly reduced RWC, leaf area, and shoot length, fresh and dry weight. Significant correlations between growth parameters and water stress level were recorded. Seedlings from large seeds were heavier and comparatively less affected by drought compared to seedlings from smaller seeds. In all seedlings root length increased significantly and more biomass was allocated to roots than to shoots. However, at severe water stress (15% FC) no significant differences were reported between the three seedling categories. Therefore, raising of seedlings from large seeds is more appropriate for tree restoration programs under drought conditions.

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4
EFFECTS OF WATER STRESS ON GERMINATION OF PINUS NIGRA ARNOLD. SEEDS
OSMAN TOPACOGLU1*, HAKAN SEVIK2 AND EROL AKKUZU3

EFFECTS OF WATER STRESS ON GERMINATION OF PINUS NIGRA ARNOLD. SEEDS
ABSTRACT:
Climate change, global warming and the deterioration of related environmental conditions cause an important problem for forest tree species. For this reason, it is necessary to determine the response of trees to these conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of water stress on seed germination of fifteen Pinus nigra Arnold. provenances in Turkey. For this purpose, the water stresses between 0 and -8.0 bars were obtained using polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG) solutions. Seeds were kept for 35 days at 20 ± 0.5°C. In this study, significant variations between the provenances were found. Ankara Uluhan (% 95, 08) and Isparta Tota (% 85, 41) provenances at -8.0 bars having the highest cumulative germination percentages were the most resistant provenances against the water stress. This study has shown that the water stress reduced the germination speed, germination percentage and germination value.

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5
EFFECT OF NaCl INDUCED SALINITY ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGRONOMIC TRAITS OF WHEAT
A. BILKIS, M.R. ISLAM, M.H.R. HAFIZ AND M.A. HASAN*

EFFECT OF NaCl INDUCED SALINITY ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGRONOMIC TRAITS OF WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Wheat genotypes were evaluated for salt stress at early seedling stage (solution culture) and maturity (pot culture) at Crop Physiology and Ecology Laboratory, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh. Shoot length, root length, root to shoot length ratio and seedling dry weight of 15 days old seedlings were found to be reduced at 12 dS m-1 salinity level compared to control condition. Based on seedling dry weight Shatabdi, BARI Gom 25, BARI Gom 26, BAW 1111, BAW 1146, BAW 1154 and BAW 1156 were identified as salt tolerant (STI = >0.70); BAW 1130, BAW 1135 and BAW 1142 were salt sensitive (STI = <0.60) and other ten were screened as moderately salt tolerant (STI = 0.60 to 0.70) wheat genotypes. Out of twenty genotypes, two salt tolerant (Shatabdi and BARI Gom 25) and two salt sensitive (BAW 1130 and BAW 1142) wheat genotypes were grown in pot irrigated with three levels of saline water (control, 6 dS m-1 and 12 dS m-1). Salt tolerant wheat genotypes maintained lower level of leaf Na, higher level of leaf K, greater K to Na ratio, increased level of flag leaf proline and greater flag leaf SPAD value in saline condition than the sensitive ones. Salt sensitive genotypes affected more in spikes plant-1, grains spike-1, grain dry weight spike-1, 100 grain weight and grain yield plant-1 under saline condition than salt tolerant genotypes.

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6
EFFECT OF ROOTSTOCK ON THE GROWTH, PHOTOSYNTHETIC CAPACITY AND OSMOTIC ADJUSTMENT OF EGGPLANT SEEDLINGS UNDER CHILLING STRESS AND RECOVERY
QINGHAI GAO§, YAN WU§, SHUANGSHUANG JIA, SHOUCHENG HUANG* AND XIAOMIN LU

EFFECT OF ROOTSTOCK ON THE GROWTH, PHOTOSYNTHETIC CAPACITY AND OSMOTIC ADJUSTMENT OF EGGPLANT SEEDLINGS UNDER CHILLING STRESS AND RECOVERY
ABSTRACT:
Increasing evidences have shown that grafting can confer enhanced the resistance of many plant species to various biotic and abiotic stresses, but there is little information about the effects of grafting on the growth of eggplant plants under cold stress conditions. In this study, the eggplant (Jiza long eggplant) seedlings were grafted onto ‘Hiranasu’ and ‘Taibyo’ rootstocks, treated with low temperature (10/5ºC, day/night), and then recovered under normal conditions (25/18ºC, day/night). Meanwhile, we compared analysis of several physiological parameters among the non-grafted and two kinds of grafted plants. Our data revealed that cold stress resulted in a remarkable decrease in photosynthetic parameters of two kinds of grafted seedlings (‘Taibyo’and ‘Hiranasu’ as rootstocks) and non-grafted seedlings. However, the reduction in photosynthetic parameters was observed lower in the grafted plants with the cold-tolerant rootstocks (‘Hiranasu’) than those with the cold-sensitive rootstocks (‘Taibyo’). It was observed that these parameters were recovered more rapidly in the grafted plants with ‘Hiranasu’ rootstocks under normal conditions. Therefore, it can be concluded that grafting promotes the growth of eggplant seedlings with increased photosynthetic efficiency under cold stress and recovery as compared to non-grafted plants. Moreover, the grafted plants with the cold-tolerant rootstocks displayed better growth traits under cold stress.

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7
TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY AFFECT THE GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF SILYBUM MARIANUM GAERTN AND AVENA FATUA L.
SHAHEEN KASHMIR1, MUHAMMAD AZIM KHAN1*, ANWAR ALI SHAD1, K.B. MARWAT2 AND HAROON KHAN1

TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY AFFECT THE GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF SILYBUM MARIANUM GAERTN AND AVENA FATUA L.
ABSTRACT:
Two troublesome weeds like Silybum marianum and Avena fatua were exposed to different levels of temperature and salinity. Laboratory based experimented were conducted in the Department of Weed Science, The University of Agriculture Peshawar during 2015. Sterilized seeds of S. marianum and A. fatua were placed in petri-dishes in a growth chamber. The temperature levels studied were 15, 25 and 40°C while the NaCl concentrations were 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mM. Data revealed that germination and growth related traits responded differently to different levels of temperature and salinity. Optimum temperature (25°C) resulted in higher germination and growth of both the weed species. While highest temperature used (40°C) or lower temperature (15°C) resulted in poor germination and growth of S. marianum and A. fatua. Salinity level up to 100 mM did not affect the seed germination of S. marianum and A. fatua. NaCl concentration above 100 mM significantly decreased germination and ceased the germination of both the weeds at 600 mM. Like germination, the growth related variables were also decreased at very low or very high temperature and higher concentrations of NaCl. It is concluded that temperature and NaCl can affect establishment, growth and seed production potential of S. marianum and A. fatua.

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8
EFFECT OF GIBBERELLIC ACID ON ENHANCING FLOWERING TIME IN CHRYSANTHEMUM MORIFOLIUM
MUHAMMAD SAJID1* NOORUL AMIN2, HABIB AHMAD1AND KHALID KHAN3

EFFECT OF GIBBERELLIC ACID ON ENHANCING FLOWERING TIME IN CHRYSANTHEMUM MORIFOLIUM
ABSTRACT:
The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of various concentrations of GA3 on plant height, number of branches, leaves, flowers plant-1, leaf area, days to flowering, blooming period, flower size and flower fresh weight. There were total six treatments of GA3 concentrations at 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg L-1. Data regarding vegetative and flowering attributes indicated that flowering in Chrysanthemum morifolium varied significantly for most of the studied parameters. Application of GA3 at the rate of 250 mg L-1 with plant height (62.0 cm), number of branches (8.65), suckers (8.05), leaves (55.05) plant-1, leaf area (122.35 cm2), days to flower (110.8 days) and number of flowers (31.9) were significantly different as compared to rest of the treatments and was followed by GA3 at the rate of 200 mg L-1 in flower size (5.49 cm) and flower fresh weight (4.01g). Untreated Chrysanthemum plants had least plant height (47.5 cm), number of branches (6.4), suckers (6.75), leaves (39.2) plant-1, leaf area (96.85 cm2), days to flower (131.05 days), number of flowers (21.91) plant-1, flower size (4.88 cm) and flower fresh weight (3.44 g). Application of GA3 @ 250 mg L-1 produced flowers earlier (28th September) than the normal season and extended the flowering season up to 22 days.

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9
RESPONSE OF HALOXYLON AMMODENDRON (C. A. MEY) TO UNDERGROUND WATER QUALITY, DEPTH AND SOIL SALT DEPOSITION IN GURBANTONGGUT DESERT, WEST CHINA
SUN LI-ZHONG1,2 AND LIU TONG1*

RESPONSE OF HALOXYLON AMMODENDRON (C. A. MEY) TO UNDERGROUND WATER QUALITY, DEPTH AND SOIL SALT DEPOSITION IN GURBANTONGGUT DESERT, WEST CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Haloxylon ammodendron degradation in arid regions of China has become a serious and widespread ecological issue. This study attempts to provide theoretical support for achieving the goal of ecological protection and construction as well as its restoration and reconstruction in the desert regions. A three-year research of the groundwater under the western hinterland of Junggar basin in Xinjiang was carried out to analyse groundwater depth, its water quality, soil physicochemical properties and some other characteristics in areas of H. ammodendron degradation. The results reveals that species richness in the region is not directly connected with groundwater level, but negatively correlated with soil conductivity. The research further investigated that groundwater level has no significant effect on the survival of H. ammodendron seedlings. However, there exists a significantly positive correlation between the mortality rate of H. ammodendron seedlings and soil conductivity. The growth of H. ammodendron in the degraded area is affected by both groundwater level and its water quality. Surface soil salt deposition leads to a physiological water shortage of H. ammodendron seedlings, and affected regeneration of seedlings. The coverage and decline rates of H. ammodendron have a quadratic function relation with groundwater respectively and in a linear correlation with the soil surface conductivity. The results concluded decline of groundwater level. Its degree of mineralization and soil surface salinization are three dominant factors in this region of H. ammodendron degradation.

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10
TEA [CAMELLIA SINENSIS (L.) KUNTZE] LEAF COMPOST AMELIORATES THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SALINITY ON GROWTH OF CLUSTER BEANS (CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA L.)
RAFAT SAEED1*, PARAS SHAH1, AMEER AHMED MIRBAHAR2, BUSHREEN JAHAN1, NAEEM AHMED3, MOHAMMAD AZEEM3 AND RAFIQ AHMAD3

TEA [CAMELLIA SINENSIS (L.) KUNTZE] LEAF COMPOST AMELIORATES THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SALINITY ON GROWTH OF CLUSTER BEANS (CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA L.)
ABSTRACT:
The pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of tea compost on plant growth under salinity. Plants were grown in clay pots filled with sandy loam soil and irrigated by saline water (0, 50 and 100mM NaCl) with and without tea compost amendments. Soil evapotranspiration (ET), vegetative and reproductive growth and biochemical parameters were studied in this experiment. ET rate was increased with increasing salinity, whereas, it decreased with application of tea compost under all salinity. Vegetative (shoot height, number of leaves, fresh and dry biomass) and reproductive (number of seeds per plant) growth significantly decline under increasing salinity levels. Tea compost treatment helped in improving all these parameters. Total photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids and total chlorophyll content) showed reduction under raising salinity levels, while betterment was recorded with application of tea compost. Organic solutes (soluble sugars, proteins, free amino acids and phenolic content) increased with increasing salinity (50-100mM NaCl). Increased soluble sugars were found with tea compost treatment under non-saline control and decreased in salinity. Soluble proteins, amino acids and phenolic content increased with application of tea compost under both control and salinity. It is concluded that tea compost treatment is found to cope with salinity stress and improve plant growth and biochemical parameters by diluting the hazardous effects of salinity.

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11
SPATIAL VARIABILITY IN SOIL PROPERTIES AND DIAGNOSTIC LEAF CHARACTERISTICS OF APPLE (MALUS DOMESTICA) IN APPLE GROWING REGION OF DHEERKOT AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR (AJK), PAKISTAN
TUBA ARJUMEND AND M. KALEEM ABBASI*

SPATIAL VARIABILITY IN SOIL PROPERTIES AND DIAGNOSTIC LEAF CHARACTERISTICS OF APPLE (MALUS DOMESTICA) IN APPLE GROWING REGION OF DHEERKOT AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR (AJK), PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Scientific information on the spatial variability in soil properties and nutrient status is important for understanding ecosystem processes and evaluating agricultural land management practices. This study aims to characterize the spatial variation of selected soil properties and the nutrient status of ten representative sites of apple growing region, and also to evaluate the nutrient contents of apple leaves of the same sites from sub-division Dheerkot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, (AJK) Pakistan. The sampling sites were: Hill, Chamankot, Chamyati-1 (upper), Chamyati-2 (lower), Dheerkot, Kotli, Karry, Sanghar, Neelabut, and Hanschoki. The treatments included; sites = 10; depths = 04 (0-15, 15-30, 30-45, and 45-60 cm) with 3 replications. Results indicated that texture of all the sites (except one) were loam or clay loam having silt and clay the dominant soil fractions. The soils were neutral to slightly alkaline, pH ranging from 7.2 to 8.3, non-saline, and moderately calcareous (CaCO3 0.00–8.97%). The nutrient index (NI) value for soil organic matter (SOM), available P and K were 2.5, 1.5 and 2.1 showing high, medium, and medium range, respectively. The concentration of AB-DTPA extractable Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn showed high levels of Fe (10.2–16.8 mg kg-1) and Mn (0.90–2.71 mg kg-1) while Zn (0.42–2.31 mg kg-1) deficiency was observed in few samples. All the sites were severely deficient in Cu concentration (1.35–2.05 mg kg-1). The diagnosis of apples leaves indicated that none of the samples was deficient in N (2.30–3.49%) and P (0.13–0.33%) while out of ten sites, nine sites showed severe deficiency of K (0.85–1.40%). The study demonstrated a significant variation in different physico-chemical properties of the soils collected from the same ecological region. In order to overcome the deficiency of some of the nutrients observed both in soil and plant samples, proper fertilization especially the use of organic manures is highly recommended to maintain the fertility status of the soil and also to protect the soil against the threat of degradation.

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12
FRUIT SIZE AND SAMPLING SITES AFFECT ON DORMANCY, VIABILITY AND GERMINATION OF TEAK (TECTONA GRANDIS L.) SEEDS
MUHAMMAD AKRAM* AND FAHEEM AFTAB

FRUIT SIZE AND SAMPLING SITES AFFECT ON DORMANCY, VIABILITY AND GERMINATION OF TEAK (TECTONA GRANDIS L.) SEEDS
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, fruits (drupes) were collected from Changa Manga Forest Plus Trees (CMF-PT), Changa Manga Forest Teak Stand (CMF-TS) and Punjab University Botanical Gardens (PUBG) and categorized into very large (≥ 17 mm dia.), large (12-16 mm dia.), medium (9-11 mm dia.) or small (6-8 mm dia.) fruit size grades. Fresh water as well as mechanical scarification and stratification were tested for breaking seed dormancy. Viability status of seeds was estimated by cutting test, X-rays and In vitro seed germination. Out of 2595 fruits from CMF-PT, 500 fruits were of very large grade. This fruit category also had highest individual fruit weight (0.58 g) with more number of 4-seeded fruits (5.29%) and fair germination potential (35.32%). Generally, most of the fruits were 1-seeded irrespective of size grades and sampling sites. Fresh water scarification had strong effect on germination (44.30%) as compared to mechanical scarification and cold stratification after 40 days of sowing. Similarly, sampling sites and fruit size grades also had significant influence on germination. Highest germination (82.33%) was obtained on MS (Murashige and Skoog) agar-solidified medium as compared to Woody Plant Medium (WPM) (69.22%). Seedlings from all the media were transferred to ex vitro conditions in the greenhouse and achieved highest survival (28.6%) from seedlings previously raised on MS agar-solidified medium after 40 days. There was an association between the studied parameters of teak seeds and the sampling sites and fruit size.

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13
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATED CONDITIONS ON SOME MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS OF WHEAT GENOTYPES GROWN IN SAUDI ARABIA
MAJED M.A. ALBOKARI*, ABDULMAJEED J. KHASHOGGI AND MOHAMMED A. ALMUWALID

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATED CONDITIONS ON SOME MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS OF WHEAT GENOTYPES GROWN IN SAUDI ARABIA
ABSTRACT:
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia being one of the driest countries globally needs drought tolerant wheat varieties. Breeding studies were conducted to determine the effects of different irrigation levels on some morphological traits of 4 wheat varieties. A pot-house experiment was conducted in split plot design using two different irrigations (well-watered and partial moisture stress) levels. Presently, the study was laid on different traits viz. plant height (cm), tiller number/plant, number of leaves/plant, leaf length (cm), flowering time (days), maturity time (days), 1000-grain weight (g) and grain yield/plant (g). The mean square from pooled analysis of variance revealed that the genotypes, treatments and genotype x treatment interaction were highly significant (p>0.05) for the traits leaf length, plant height, maturity time,1000-grain weight, grain yield per plot; however, number of leaves, number of tillers/plant, flowering time and 1000-grain weight showed non-significant difference. Similarly, genotype x reading interaction was also highly significant (p>0.05) leaf length, number of tillers per plant and plant height. The varieties Nukrat Zahran, Samrra Najran and Halba Najran and showed better performance for grain yield and maximum 1000-grain weight under both environments. Plant height showed highly significant positive correlation with number of leaves per plant and number of tillers per plant. At partial stress, 1000-grain weight showed highly significant (p>0.01) correlation (r=0.8608***) with grain yield and maturity time (r=0.9948***). The knowledge obtained through this research will be helpful while selection of best varieties with better tolerance to environmental stresses.

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14
POTENTIAL OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATOR AND CHLORMEQUAT CHLORIDE ON ALFALFA SEED COMPONENTS
JI-SHAN CHEN1#*, RUI-FEN ZHU1#, LI-GONG MA2, HONG LIN1 AND WEIBO HAN1

POTENTIAL OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATOR AND CHLORMEQUAT CHLORIDE ON ALFALFA SEED COMPONENTS
ABSTRACT:
The use of plant growth regulators (PGRs) has opened new prospects for increased seed production in grasses and legumes, but little information is available on the effects of PGRs combination with chlormequat chloride (CCC) on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed yield components. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of applying chlormequat chloride in combination with three PGRs (Naphthylacetic acid (NAA), gibberellic acid 3 (GA), and brassinolide (BR)) on seed yield, aboveground biomass, plant height, lodging, yield components. CCC was applied annually at the stooling stage while three PGRs were applied twice each year at the stages of flower bud formation and peak flowering. Results provides evidence that: (i) each PGR consistently increased seed yields, and the numbers of seeds per stem compared to untreated plants; (ii) CCC treatment reduced plant height and lodging, but also significantly decreased seed yield and did not affect aboveground biomass. (iii) effectiveness of CCC application depends on climatic conditions, especially in North-east China. (iiii) the optimum combination of CCC with a PGR to increase alfalfa seed production was failed to identify. (iiiii) no interactions between PGRs and CCC on seed yield were observed and neither the PGRs nor the CCC. But alfalfa seed yield could be improved by combining a PGR such as NAA. Our results suggest that these PGRs could be used in alfalfa breeding to increase seed yield while maintaining high seed quality.

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15
METAL ACCUMULATION IN A POTENTIAL WINTER VEGETABLE MUSTARD (BRASSICA CAMPESTRIS L.) IRRIGATED WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF WATERS IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1*, KAFEEL AHMAD1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2,3, SUMAIRA YASMEEN1, ASMA ASHFAQ1 AND MUHAMMAD SHER4

METAL ACCUMULATION IN A POTENTIAL WINTER VEGETABLE MUSTARD (BRASSICA CAMPESTRIS L.) IRRIGATED WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF WATERS IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Considering the harmful effects of metal-enriched vegetables a comprehensive study was conducted to appraise the extent of accumulation of different metals in mustard (Brassica campestris L.). The vegetable was treated with ground water, sewage water and canal water irrigation in areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Metals and metalloids observed in all three sites treated with sewage, canal and ground water were As, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Mo, Se and Zn were observed in the sites treated with ground, sewage and canal waters as well as the vegetable grown therein. The metal concentration observed in water samples was: Fe>Zn >Pb> Ni> Mo> Cu> As> Se, the order in the soil was: As >Pb> Fe > Ni > Mo > Cu > Zn > Se, while the order in the vegetable was: Zn > Fe> Cu> Ni> Mo>Pb> As> Se. The values of bio-concentration factor varied from 0.09-15.47 mg kg-1. Correlation was positively significant for Brassica campestris and soil except Ni and Se which showed positive non significant correlation. Pollution load index was observed to be in the following order: As >Pb> Ni > Mo >Fe > Cu > Se > Zn in the sites GWI, CWI and CWI. Fe and Zn (0.169) showed highest value of daily intake of metal (DIM), while Se (0.003) showed lowest value in crop of all three sites GWI, CWI and CWI. The health risk index and EF ranged from 0.24-69.86 mg day-1and 0.134-14.12 mg day-1, respectively. Overall, the vegetable treated with sewage water may have considerable impact on food quality and in turn on the health of people consuming it.

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16
EFFECTS OF SOLE AND MIXED CULTURE OF WHEAT CROP AND PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZATION ON THE SOLUBILITY OF PHOSPHORUS IN THE SOIL
HAFIZ RASHID MAHMOOD1, MUHAMMAD ARIF ALI1, NIAZ AHMED1* AND SIBGHA NOREEN2

EFFECTS OF SOLE AND MIXED CULTURE OF WHEAT CROP AND PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZATION ON THE SOLUBILITY OF PHOSPHORUS IN THE SOIL
ABSTRACT:
Farmers face a challenging task to harvest yield potential of crops as well as improving fertilizer use-efficiency under their limited farm resources. Among the macronutrients, the relative efficiency of phosphorus fertilizer is very low in alkaline-calcareous soils under arid and semi-arid environments. Therefore, a field study was undertaken to quantify the interactive effects of wheat varieties and phosphorous fertilization on grain yield and solubility of phosphorous nutrient in the rhizosphere. The treatments consisted of (a) two wheat varieties (Sehr-2006, Shafaq-2006, mixed culture) and (b) three phosphorus levels (0, 45, 85 kg P2O5 per hectare) were arranged in randomized complete block design and replicated four times. The results showed that biological grain yield and 1000-grain weight of wheat increased by 8.7%, 14.46% and 8.48% under mixed culture of varieties sehr-2006 and shafaq-2006, respectively over the solely grown varieties. The application of phosphorus @ 85 kg P2O5 ha-1 resulted in increased quantity of total biological yield, grain yield and 1000-grain weight compared to unfertilized crop. The uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus contents were substantially enhanced under mixed culture cropping pattern over sole wheat cultivars. The availability of phosphorus was increased by19.70% under mixed cropping over sole culture. It is inferred from the study that mixed cropping produced synergetic effects on the availability of nutrients in the rhizosphere, and thereby resulted in the higher production of wheat crop.

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17
DISTRIBUTION, SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMPOSITION OF PLANT COMMUNITIES IN RELATION TO VARIOUS AFFECTING FACTORS IN AN ALPINE GRASSLAND AT BANDIPORA, KASHMIR
JAVAID M. DAD

DISTRIBUTION, SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMPOSITION OF PLANT COMMUNITIES IN RELATION TO VARIOUS AFFECTING FACTORS IN AN ALPINE GRASSLAND AT BANDIPORA, KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
This study provides a broad understanding of vascular plant richness and community structure of mountain grassland (Matri) at Bandipora, Kashmir and links it various environmental variables. Employing a stratified sampling design, six sites were selected wherein vegetation was sampled by placing quadrats (n=210). Elucidating an important effect of topography and anthropic pressure, numerical classification –TWINSPAN segregated the quadrats into seven community types. Contrary to species rich communities which showed an explicit composition and localized distribution, the other communities depicted a vague composition and stretched unevenly between the lower and middle altitudes. Using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), elevation and disturbance were found as most influencing factors whereas steepness of slope, organic carbon, soil reaction (pH) and soil salinity (electrical conductivity) were other important factors. Indices of diversity measured at two measurement scales varied differently between communities and at a macro scale (site level) highest values were recorded in least disturbed communities. However, on a micro scale (quadrat level) the indices behaved differently. For effective conservation of these species rich grasslands, acknowledging the local level variability in vegetation structure is all but crucial.

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18
THE CALLUGENIC EFFECTS OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXY ACETIC ACID (2,4-D) ON LEAF EXPLANTS OF SABAH SNAKE GRASS (CLINACANTHUS NUTANS)
QIAN YI PHUA, CHEE KEONG CHIN, ZIYAD RAFIQI MOHAMMAD ASRI, DANNY YUE AUN LAM, SREERAMANAN SUBRAMANIAM AND BEE LYNN CHEW*

THE CALLUGENIC EFFECTS OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXY ACETIC ACID (2,4-D) ON LEAF EXPLANTS OF SABAH SNAKE GRASS (CLINACANTHUS NUTANS)
ABSTRACT:
Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau is a medicinal plant that is widely used in traditional treatments for skin inflammation, skin lesions, viral infection and snake bites. This study investigates the effects of different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on the induction of callus from Clinacanthus nutans leaves. Young and mature leaves of Clinacanthus nutans were placed on MS media supplemented with ten concentrations of 2,4-D (0 to 10mg/L). The percentage of callus formation, callus fresh weight and callus morphology were recorded followed by histological analysis on callus from young leaves and mature leaves. The highest mean of fresh weight of callus was obtained from young leaf explants in MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D whereas the highest mean of callus fresh weight from mature leaf explants was achieved in MS media supplemented with 0.25 mg/L 2,4-D. Histological analysis indicated potential formation of somatic embryos from callus of young leaf explants. This study reports the potential of callus from young leaf explants of Clinacanthus nutans forming somatic embryos and mature leaf explants producing friable callus for the establishment of cell suspension cultures in future bioactive compounds studies.

561-566 Download
19
EDAPHIC FACTORS AS MAJOR DETERMINANTS OF PLANT DISTRIBUTION OF TEMPERATE HIMALAYAN GRASSES
KHAWAJA SHAFIQUE AHMAD1, MANSOOR HAMEED1*, FAROOQ AHMAD1 AND BUSHRA SADIA2,3

EDAPHIC FACTORS AS MAJOR DETERMINANTS OF PLANT DISTRIBUTION OF TEMPERATE HIMALAYAN GRASSES
ABSTRACT:
The quantification of the comparative effect of environmental factors on species distribution can improve our knowledge of the processes that drive diversity patterns. Fifteen different habitats in Neelum valley (Kashmir), using quadrat method along altitudinal gradient were studied for the plant ecological attributes including; soil plant interaction, species composition and vegetation cover to test the hypothesis that soil factors are the major determinants of species distribution. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed a clear impact of soil characteristics on vegetation. Rostraria pumila, Pennisetum orientale, Sorghum nitidum and Arundinella sp. had a strong association with the Kail (KL) site influenced by soil Ec. Distribution of Lolium temulentum, Poa nemoralis, and Saccharum spontaneum, at Chilhana (CH) site seemed to be affected by the moisture content only. Species distribution at Nagdar (NG), Kundal shahi (KS), Kairan (KR) and Dawarian (DW) site was affected by Ca2+ and PO43- content respectively. Diversity pattern at Sharda, Dawarian (DW), and Lawat (LW) sites were driven by K+ and N+ content. Each grass showed a very specific relationship to environmental variables, which imitates the habitat status, ecological adaptation and degree of tolerance in species.

567-573 Download
20
PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF PINE FOREST AT INDUS KOHISTAN, KPK, PAKISTAN
ADAM KHAN1, MOINUDDIN AHMED2, MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI*3, JAVED IQBAL1 AND MUHAMMAD WAHAB4

PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF PINE FOREST AT INDUS KOHISTAN, KPK, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The study was carried out to describe the pine communities at Indus Kohistan valley in quantitative term. Thirty stands of relatively undisturbed vegetation were selected for sampling. Quantitative sampling was carried out by Point Centered Quarter (PCQ) method. Seven tree species were common in the Indus Kohistan valley. Cedrus deodara was recorded from twenty eight different locations and exhibited the highest mean importance value while Pinus wallichiana was recorded from 23 different locations and exhibited second highest mean importance value. Third most occurring species was Abies pindrow that attained the third highest mean importance value and Picea smithiana was recorded from eight different locations and attained fourth highest importance value while it was first dominant in one stand and second dominant in four stands. Pinus gerardiana, Quercus baloot and Taxus fuana were the rare species in this area, these species attained low mean importance value. Six communities and four monospecific stands of Cedrus deodara were recognized. Cedrus-Pinus community was the most occurring community, which was recorded from 13 different stands. The second most occurring community in the study area was Abies –Pinus wallichiana which was recorded from six locations while Cedrus-Picea and Abies-Picea communities were observed at two locations each. Pinus wallichiana - Picea and Cedrus-Pinus gerardiana communities were restricted to one location.

575-580 Download
21
EFFECT OF FOREST HABITAT ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF LICHEN SPECIESIN ŞERIF YÜKSEL RESEARCH FOREST (BOLU, TURKEY)
ORHAN SEVGİ1* GÜLŞAH ÇOBANOĞLU2 AND ECE SEVGİ3

EFFECT OF FOREST HABITAT ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF LICHEN SPECIESIN ŞERIF YÜKSEL RESEARCH FOREST (BOLU, TURKEY)
ABSTRACT:
The paper presents the results of a study evaluating impact of habitat factors on distribution of lichen species in a forest ecosystem, in Şerif Yüksel Research Forest (Bolu-Turkey), by applying “binary logistic regression” as the main analysis tool. The variables used for logistic regression were tree species, forest purity, altitude, slope, aspect, tree diameter and number of lichen species. Since it may only be possible to be installed within the model when the number of surveillance of the species is more than 20 in the study area. Distribution of 42 of the 82 epiphytic lichen species were modeled by logistic regression. It is concluded that among these variables, "number of lichen species and to be a mixed forest" were the most appropriate variables used in the models. In conclusion, binary logistic regression model can be successfully used in lichen species distribution in forest habitat.

581-588 Download
22
IN-VITRO REGENERATION OF CALENDULA MARITIMA GUSS. (ASTERACEAE), A THREATENED PLANT ENDEMIC TO WESTERN SICILY
CARRA ANGELA1, BAMBINA MARCELLA2, PASTA SALVATORE1, GARFÌ GIUSEPPE1, BADALAMENTI ORNELLA1, CATALANO CATERINA1, CARIMI FRANCESCO1* AND SAJEVA MAURIZIO2

IN-VITRO REGENERATION OF CALENDULA MARITIMA GUSS. (ASTERACEAE), A THREATENED PLANT ENDEMIC TO WESTERN SICILY
ABSTRACT:
Calendula maritima is a critically endangered endemic plant of Western Sicily. Besides habitat destruction, the hybridization with the contiguous congener species C. fulgida is a major threat to its conservation. For this reason, seed-based propagation and seed storage are not appropriate for conservation purposes. In the present paper we describe a rapid and prolific In vitro plant regeneration method by direct organogenesis from leaves of C. maritima. Leaf explants were cultured on solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium in the presence of several plant growth regulator combinations. The best shoot multiplication rate (2.5 shoots/explant) was obtained on the medium containing 4.4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine in combination with 10 µM ß-naphthoxyacetic acid. Regenerated shoots were successfully rooted on solid MS medium supplemented with several auxins and the best result was obtained with 1.0 µM indole-3-acetic acid (35% of plantlets rooted). Plantlets were thereafter established in the greenhouse (survival frequency 75%) and no phenotypic variations were observed between regenerants and the mother plants.

589-593 Download
23
ORMOSIOXYLON CHINJIENSIS SP. NOV., A NEW FOSSIL WOOD OF FAMILY FABACEAE FROM THE CHINJI FORMATION SALT RANGE PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
NOOR-UL-AIN SOOMRO*, BASIR AHMED ARAIN, MUHAMMAD TAHIR M. RAJPUT1 AND SYEDA SALEHA TAHIR

ORMOSIOXYLON CHINJIENSIS SP. NOV., A NEW FOSSIL WOOD OF FAMILY FABACEAE FROM THE CHINJI FORMATION SALT RANGE PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present work deals with anatomical study of fossil wood collected from the Chinji formation (72o22´ E, 32o 4´ N) of Miocene age exposed at the Chinji National Reserve at salt Range Punjab, Pakistan. The material consisted of a single piece of petrified wood. Taxonomical characters of the fossil wood were compared with modern and fossil wood. The sample wood was found comparable to the family Fabaceae. The closest resemblance of the fossil wood was with the wood of Ormosia. The fossil wood under investigation showed close resemblance of vessels, fibers, parenchyma and xylem rays, with the genus Ormosia but shows differences from already reported species of this genus. Hence it is described as a new species as Ormosioxylon chinjiensis sp. nov. The specific epithet refers to Chinji Formation from which the fossil wood is collected.

595-599 Download
24
CHIONOGRAPHIS NANLINGENSIS (MELANTHIACEAE),A NEW SPECIES FROM CHINA
LEI WU1, YI TONG2, RUI-YA YAN3 AND QUAN-RU LIU3*

CHIONOGRAPHIS NANLINGENSIS (MELANTHIACEAE),A NEW SPECIES FROM CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Chionographis nanlingensis (Melanthiaceae), a new species from northern Guangdong, China, is described and illustrated, and its affinity is also discussed. In addition, a distribution map and a key to species of Chionographis are provided.

601-606 Download
25
CHANGES IN NON-ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND LIPID PEROXIDATION DURING GERMINATION OF WHITE, YELLOW AND PURPLE MAIZE SEEDS
BENLIANG DENG*, YIFEI ZHANG, KEJUN YANG AND ZUOTONG LI

CHANGES IN NON-ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND LIPID PEROXIDATION DURING GERMINATION OF WHITE, YELLOW AND PURPLE MAIZE SEEDS
ABSTRACT:
In this study, the changes in non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation during the germination process of purple, yellow and white maize seeds were compared, under favorable conditions. Results showed that germination can increase non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (evaluated with ferric reducing power and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate radical scavenging capacity) and lipid peroxidation levels for all these seeds. In addition, non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity observed in the germinating seeds were in the order of purple > yellow > white. However, the highest and lowest levels of lipid peroxidation could be seen during the germination processes of the white and purple seeds, respectively. In addition, the germination rates of the seeds followed the order of white > yellow > purple. Further studies showed that H2O2 treatment can significantly promote seed germination, especially for purple seeds. In addition, DMTU (dimethylthiourea), a specific scavenger for H2O2, could slightly but significantly arrest dormancy release. Data analysis showed that a high negative correlation (R2 = -0.955) existed between non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and germination rates. However, a high positive correlation (R2 = 0.860) could be detected between lipid peroxidation and germination rates. Finally, lipid peroxidation as a possible novel signaling mechanism for seed germination has been discussed under stress-free conditions.

607-612 Download
26
THE ETHNOMEDICINAL PROFILE OF FAMILY ROSACEAE; A STUDY ON PAKISTANI PLANTS
MUHAMMAD QAISER KHAN* AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI

THE ETHNOMEDICINAL PROFILE OF FAMILY ROSACEAE; A STUDY ON PAKISTANI PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Keeping in view the growing interest of people worldwide towards the medicinal plants; it is of critical importance to document and authenticate the indigenous knowledge regarding medicinal plant administration for the treatment of various ailments. This will also enable the forth coming generation to conduct scientific studies using high throughput technologies to investigate the potential of such medicinal plants. Ethnobotany and ethnomedicine have attracted many scientists because it involves the struggle for cheaper, novel and effective therapeutics from plants. Since the beginning of humanity, plants are used for medicinal purposes in various forms. In the last few years herbal practices have attained global relevance. Among the different plant families, Rosaceae is well known for its therapeutic potential. Plants belonging to Rosaceae are common in Pakistan and used by the different ethnic groups to treat their ailments. The present communication deals with the different ethnomedicinal uses reported in the peer reviewed articles of the various species present in Pakistan.

613-620 Download
27
EFFECT OF EXTRACTION SOLVENTS ON POLYPHENOLS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL HALOPHYTES
MUHAMMAD QASIM1, IRFAN AZIZ1, MUNAWWER RASHEED2, BILQUEES GUL1* AND M. AJMAL KHAN3

EFFECT OF EXTRACTION SOLVENTS ON POLYPHENOLS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL HALOPHYTES
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to determine the most effective solvent for extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of medicinally important coastal halophytes (Thespesia populneoides, Salvadora persica, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Suaeda fruticosa and Pluchea lanceolata) known for high antioxidant potential. Five different solvents (water, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, acetone and chloroform) were used to quantify polyphenols including total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC) and proanthocyanidin contents (PC) and antioxidant capacity using DPPH radical scavenging and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activities. Among solvents of different polarities 80% methanol appeared most effective for polyphenol extraction. Thespesia populneoides had the highest polyphenols (TPC, TFC and PC) followed by Salvadora persica. Highest antioxidant activity was also found in T. populneoides and S. persica using the same solvent (80% methanol) which appeared better than synthetic antioxidants (BHA and BHT). The correlation analyses of each solvent showed strong to weak relationships among all studied parameters with maximum values (r and R2) in methanol followed by ethanol and water. Weaker correlation of acetone and chloroform indicates low capacity of these solvents both for polyphenol extraction and antioxidant activity. Our results reveal that aqueous methanol extracts of coastal halophytes had comparatively higher antioxidant activity than commercial antioxidants which indicate both their prospective efficacy and potential to replace synthetic derivatives from edible and medicinal products.

621-627 Download
28
SECONDARY METABOLITES AS ANTI-NUTRITIONAL FACTORS IN LOCALLY USED HALOPHYTIC FORAGE/FODDER
SAMAN EHSEN1, MUHAMMAD QASIM1, ZAINUL ABIDEEN1, R. FATIMA RIZVI1, BILQUEES GUL1*, RAZIUDDIN ANSARI1 AND M. AJMAL KHAN2

SECONDARY METABOLITES AS ANTI-NUTRITIONAL FACTORS IN LOCALLY USED HALOPHYTIC FORAGE/FODDER
ABSTRACT:
Rampant salinity coupled with population explosion necessitates search for suitable alternatives to conventional sources of food both for human and animal consumption. While it may be difficult to change our culinary preferences, training animals to adopt a changed diet of nonconventional salt tolerant plants is easier. Using these wild plants however, requires estimation of undesirable secondary metabolites (SMs) produced during stressful conditions, which may be harmful for health of animals. Some of these anti-nutritional components (total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, nitrates, saponins and oxalates) were determined in 22 halophytes locally used as fodder/forage. Most of the species were perennial shrubs and herbs of an area where environmental conditions like high mean annual temperature (~35 oC), low rainfall (< 250mm) with soil mostly dry (average 2% moisture) and saline (average EC 13 dSm-1) supported the growth of halophytes and xerophytes. Values of SMs in the studied plants ranged from 0.13-4.05% for total phenols, 0.38-6.99% for tannins, 0.15-1.50% for flavonoids, 0.10-1.15% for nitrates, 0.45-8.68% for saponins and 0.36-2.34% for oxalates. Most of the species (19) contained low to moderate amount of individual as well as total SMs which were within the non-toxic ranges. However, three species distributed in coastal habitats where average soil salinity (27.67 dSm-1) was considerably higher than inland ones (7.09 dSm-1) had SMs contents above the safe limits. It is evident from these results that most of these plants contained moderate to low levels of anti-nutritional factors, which lies under the safe limits and hence, could be used as a potential feed source to raise animals, particularly in arid/semiarid areas. Additionally, these plants represents a viable choice as they can be grown without encroaching on agricultural lands and fresh water resources and could promote livestock production which may improve socio-economic conditions of poor farmers in a sustainable and eco-friendly manner.

629-636 Download
29
GENETIC DIVERSITY AND STRUCTURE ANALYSIS IN WILD AND LANDRACES OF BARLEY FROM JORDAN BY USING ISJ MARKERS
ABDUL WAHID BALOCH1*, MUHAMMAD JURIAL BALOCH1, M. ALI2, MUNAIZA BALOCH1, QAMARUDDIN JOGI3, ABDUL MAJEED BALOCH4, IRFAN AHMED BALOCH1 AND SONG WEINING5

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND STRUCTURE ANALYSIS IN WILD AND LANDRACES OF BARLEY FROM JORDAN BY USING ISJ MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
The present experiment was carried out to estimate genetic diversity and genetic structure in cultivated and wild barley populations collected from Jordan which is considered as primary gene pool of barley. In a total, 94 cultivated barley accessions composed of 4 populations and 52 wild barley accessions consisted of 3 populations were used for genetic analysis using 7 Intron Splice Junction (ISJ) markers. The genetic diversity index (He) of cultivated barley ranged between 0.049 and 0.060; whereas that of wild barley populations ranged between 0.084 and 0.146, suggesting that wild resources of barley harbored greater genetic diversity than its domesticated counterpart, reflecting that barley domestication occurred with genetic bottleneck. Analysis of molecular variance showed high genetic variations among rather than within populations, referring that high genetic differentiation of barley populations caused by genetic and geographical separation of the populations in the harsh growing conditions of Fertile Crescent. Principal coordinate, clustering and STRUCTURE analysis not only separated cultivated and wild barley, but also each single population, showing their genetic basis and original sample site. The obtained results also revealed that there is lesser genetic communication between cultivated and wild barley under natural environments. The current findings can better be exploited for collection and utilization of plant germplasms.

637-644 Download
30
18S rDNA AND β-TUBULIN DIVERSITY IN RHIZOCTONIA ZEAE VOORHEES
CEM TOLGA GÜRKANLI1*, EMINE BANU AYDIN2, ERKOL DEMİRCİ3, ISMAIL ERPER4, GÜRSEL KARACA5, TING-FANG HSIEH6 AND LUIZ SEBASTIAO POLTRONIERI7, IBRAHIM ÖZKOÇ2

18S rDNA AND β-TUBULIN DIVERSITY IN RHIZOCTONIA ZEAE VOORHEES
ABSTRACT:
Waitea circinata Warcup & Talbot, which is related to the anamorphic form-genus Rhizoctonia D.C., is a world wide distributed soil-borne fungal pathogen. Several molecular based studies have been published based on rDNA-ITS sequences to determine the phylogenetic relations between and within the different Rhizoctonia groups. It is generally accepted that phylogenies depending on a single gene may be misleading. In this study, we phylogenetically analysed three varieties of Waitea circinata (var. circinata, var. zeae and var. oryzae) using the nucleotide sequences of two commonly used markers 18S rDNA and β-tubulin for identification. Our phylogenetic analysis clearly supported the distinction of the three varieties. In W. circinata var. zeae, we determined a total of three lineages, two of which are distributed worldwide and one is unique for Americas. We observed both of the global lineages in Turkey and due to their dispersion, the invasion of these two lineages to Turkey probably occurred in different periods of times. Additionally, our results in this study once again suggested the Americas as the origin for W. circinata var. zeae.

645-651 Download
31
GENETIC DIVERSITY BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS IN WALNUT(JUGLANS REGIA L.) LANDRACES FROM KARAKORAM REGION-I
ISHTIAQ HUSSAIN 1*, ASIMA SULATAN1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2, GHULAM RAZA3 AND KHALIL AHMED 1

GENETIC DIVERSITY BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS IN WALNUT(JUGLANS REGIA L.) LANDRACES FROM KARAKORAM REGION-I
ABSTRACT:
Walnut is one of the most important nutritive nut crops and widely grown in Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan. In the present study 19 local landraces were analyzed for morphological traits to investigate genetic diversity and identify promising landraces for cultivar development. Multivariate analyses showed high variation for morphological traits and nut and kernel characteristics. Cluster analyses depicted diversity among the local land races which separated them into 2 major clusters groups, showing more association to morphological differences. PCA revealed that the 1st four principal components (PC’s) possessed Eigen value >1.0, where PC1 and PC2 contributed total variance of 41.65% and 23.42% respectively with total variance (65.05%) showing maximum factor loadings by kernel ratio, shell%, kernel yield and nut width by the first two PC’s. Pearson correlation coefficient among walnut landraces revealed positively significant correlation between shell yield and nut weight(r=0.96), kernel yield and nut width(r=0.85), whereas negative correlation were observed (r = -0.89 and r = -0.76) between kernel ratio with shell yield and nut weight respectively. A wide range of diversity was observed among the local landraces from Karakoram regions and the landrace HKK and GNAG were reported as promising one with highest kernel ratio. These landraces are potential for future breeding of nut crops with distinct morphological traits.

653-659 Download
32
EFFICIENT RNA EXTRACTION PROTOCOL FOR THE WOOD MANGROVE SPECIES LAGUNCULARIA RACEMOSA SUITED FOR
NEXT-GENERATION RNA SEQUENCING

EFFICIENT RNA EXTRACTION PROTOCOL FOR THE WOOD MANGROVE SPECIES LAGUNCULARIA RACEMOSA SUITED FOR
ABSTRACT:
MAURICIO WOLF WILWERTH1, PRISCILLA DE BARROS ROSSETTO1*, FERNANDA REINERT2, RAQUEL SOARES PEIXOTO3 AND MÁRCIO ALVES-FERREIRA1

661-672 Download
33
CLONING AND EXPRESSION STUDY OF BNALCR78 IN BRASSICA NAPUS
LI ZHUANG1*, LIU YING ZE1, WU YONG CHENG1, GUO SHI XING1, HOU KAI1, DU JUN BO1 AND LIN LI LI2

CLONING AND EXPRESSION STUDY OF BNALCR78 IN BRASSICA NAPUS
ABSTRACT:
BnaLCR78 genes of three types of rape were cloned in rape (Brassica napus), and encoded protein structure was analyzed, the results showed that the protein had a conserved coding domain which was analogues among LCR family of Arabidopsis. The expression patterns of genes of three types of rape in varying tissues and in specific same tissues were analyzed using quantitative method. The results showed that their expression patterns differ from that of former research in Brassica napus, which may result from the difference of sampling time. We speculated that the gene might be involved in transpiration and transportation and distribution of nutrient, oil content in seed.

673-680 Download
34
GENETIC ANALYSIS OF VITIS INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS OCCURRING IN VINEYARDS OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC
RADDOVA JANA1*, STEFKOVA ANDREA, SOTOLAR RADEK2 AND MIROSLAV BARANEK1

GENETIC ANALYSIS OF VITIS INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS OCCURRING IN VINEYARDS OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC
ABSTRACT:
SSR analysis of 18 unknown uncultured Vitis genotypes planted in an area mostly dedicated to viticulture in the Czech Republic was performed in this work. The aim of this study was to identify analysed samples by comparing their SSR profiles with described standards and classify their mutual relationships based on their distribution in obtained dendrogram. Results show that 50% of unknown genotypes belongs to old American interspecific cultivar 'Noah' and 11% belong to another old American cultivar 'Isabella'. The rest of analysed genotypes remain unidentified, but three of them suggest relatedness with 'Noah' cultivar, one genotype shows relatednessto 'Isabella' cultivar. From practical point of view the most interesting ones are three genotypes, which were clearly clustered with the genotypes of cultural varities (botanically V. vinifera L.) used as standard. Based on this it is then possible to assume that those genotypes probably originated from crossing of non-V. vinifera genotype specimen with unknown cultural variety. Potential importance of analysed hybrids for further investigation and breeding, especialy in an “eco-friendly” viticulture, is also discussed.

681-688 Download
35
ASSOCIATION OF MOLECULAR MARKERS WITH POLYPHENOL OXIDASE ACTIVITY IN SELECTED WHEAT GENOTYPES
ZAIGHAM ABBAS1, BUSHRA JAVAID1, NADIA MAJEED1, ATA UR REHMAN2 AND S.M. SAQLAN NAQVI1*

ASSOCIATION OF MOLECULAR MARKERS WITH POLYPHENOL OXIDASE ACTIVITY IN SELECTED WHEAT GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a major staple food for the people of Pakistan and other Asian countries, is used as bread, chapatti, porridge, noodles and many other. It is established that color quality of wheat products depend on chemical and enzymatic factors especially the polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). These are copper containing enzymes which induce browning in wheat-based products. Various procedures for determining PPO activity available and differences in PPO activity among wheat genotypes have been documented. In present study, an attempt was made to establish the association of molecular markers with polyphenol oxidase activity in wheat genotypes having very high or very low PPO activities. Twelve pairs of markers were used out of which only three primer pairs viz. PPO43, PPO30 and WP2-2 yielded specific pattern discriminating high and low PPO genotypes. Cluster analysis for all 12 markers revealed that all the low PPO lline share the same sub cluster, but high PPO lines were dispersed in different clusters.

689-692 Download
36
A STUDY ON THE ISOLATION OF PROTOPLASTS FROM MESOPHYLL CELLS OF DENDROBIUM QUEEN PINK
RAMSHA AQEEL1,2, MARIUM ZEHRA1,2, SYEDA KAHKASHAN KAZMI2, SAIFULLAH KHAN2,3*, HAMMAD AFZAL KAYANI2,4 AND AMEER AHMED MIRBAHAR2

A STUDY ON THE ISOLATION OF PROTOPLASTS FROM MESOPHYLL CELLS OF DENDROBIUM QUEEN PINK
ABSTRACT:
Protoplasts were successfully isolated from one month old In vitro grown plantlets of Dendrobium cultivar Queen pink. The enzyme solution used was composed of 1% Cellulase Onozuka R-10, 0.5% Macerozyme R-10, 0.1% Pectinase, 0.3 M mannitol, 10 mM CaCl2.2H2O and 10 mM 2 (N-morpholino)-ethanesulfonic acid (MES) at pH 5.8. Protoplast highest yield with 15.7x104 protoplasts per 1.5 gm freshly chopped leaves were obtained when digested in enzyme solution for 4 hrs on a rotary shaker with an agitation speed of 45 rpm in dark conditions. Protoplasts were filtered with 45μm nylon sieve and washed with 0.3 M mannitol solution supplemented with 10 mM CaCl2.2H2O and 10 mM MES, and purified with 0.3 M sucrose solution gradient. Purification of protoplasts on a sucrose mannitol gradient yielded clean protoplasts that were free from debris.

693-697 Download
37
PRODUCTION OF ARTEMISININ AND ITS DERIVATIVES IN HAIRY ROOTS OF ARTEMISIA DUBIA INDUCED BY rolA GENE TRANSFORMATION
AMANULLAH1, BUSHRA MIRZA1, ZARRIN FATIMA RIZVI2 AND MUHAMMAD ZIA3*

PRODUCTION OF ARTEMISININ AND ITS DERIVATIVES IN HAIRY ROOTS OF ARTEMISIA DUBIA INDUCED BY rolA GENE TRANSFORMATION
ABSTRACT:
Artemisinin and its derivatives are phytochemical constituents of genus Artemisia. Demand of these plant secondary metabolitesis increasing due to their immense therapeutic significance. Besides their established antimalarial role, recent studies have also disclosed their anticancer potentials. It has made imperative to develop new and efficient sources of these compounds. Inherent synthetic challenges give biological sources preference over chemical synthesis of artemisinin and its derivatives. Therefore, genetic improvement of plants and, rather less preferentially, microbes is focus of current research to gain increase productivity of these valuable drugs. This study has analyzed A. dubiaas potential source of artemisinin and its derivatives. Transformation of Artemisia dubia was carried out using A. tumefaciens strain LBA 4404 containing rolA gene constructed on pRB 29. Healthy and acclimatizable transgenic plants were produced using optimized concentrations of BAP and NAA. Previously acclimatized rol ABC transgenic plants were also In vitro regenerated for comparative analysis of artemisinin and its derivatives. PCR amplification of rolA gene was done to confirm the integration of T-DNA in transgenic plants.TLC analysis was performed to evaluate comparative production of artemisinin and derivatives in rolA and rol ABC transgenic A. dubia. It revealed that rolA transgenic plants contain comparable amounts of these metabolites. Both type oftransgenic plants manifested the enhancement of other uncharacterized compounds as well. Besides systematic optimization of In vitro regenerative protocol for Artemisia dubia, relative regeneration ability of rol transgenic and controlplants was also assessed at four regenerative stages. It was observed that unlike control, rol transgenic plants showed best root induction only on combination of auxins and cytokines. It was concluded that rol genes transformation of plants is an efficient tool to enhance their secondary metabolites production. RolA transgenic A. dubiaare cultivable, viable and efficient source of artemisinin and its derivatives to meet their ever-growing demands.

699-706 Download
38
ROBUST REGENERATION PROTOCOL FOR THE AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF SOLANUM TUBEROSUM
ANUM ZEB ABBASI1, MISBAH BILAL1, JAMSHAID HUSSAIN1, MOHAMMAD MAROOF SHAH1, AMJAD HASSAN1, SUK-YOON KWON2, SHAFIQ-UR-REHMAN3* AND RAZA AHMAD1*

ROBUST REGENERATION PROTOCOL FOR THE AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF SOLANUM TUBEROSUM
ABSTRACT:
Plant genetic transformation requires robust regeneration system. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) such as cytokinins (CKs) play a pivotal role in organogenesis; however, CKs are the most expensive PGRs. In the current study, an efficient yet economical protocol for regeneration of potato plant was developed. Stem inter-nodal and leaf explants were cultured on different regeneration media supplemented with varying concentration of different CKs such as kinetin and zeatin. Murashige- Skoog media added with zeatin (1, 1.5 mg/L) was designated as RZ1, RZ1.5, respectively or kinetin (1.5, 2 mg/L) was designated as RK1.5 and RK2, respectively, however, concentrations of other hormones such as NAA (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid) and GA3 (Gibberellic acid A3) were kept same. RZ1 and RZ1.5 gave significantly better results as compared to RK-type media in all aspects studied such as callus initiation, days to first shoot emergence, number of shoots per explants. RZ1 medium was then selected as regeneration media for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of potato plants with cyanobacterial phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene, which provided multiple putative transformants on selection media. The transformants were further confirmed through PCR. The current protocol is found to be cost effective and efficient for the regeneration of Solanum tuberosum and can be successfully implied for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

707-712 Download
39
CONTROL OF MEDIA BROWNING IN MICROPROPAGATION OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.)
ISHTIAQ AHMAD1, MUHAMMAD JAFAR JASKANI2,*, MUHAMMAD NAFEES1, IRFAN ASHRAF1 AND RAHMATULLAH QURESHI3

CONTROL OF MEDIA BROWNING IN MICROPROPAGATION OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a highly valuable fruit of the tropical regions of the world. This species faces browning or blackening of culture medium during In vitro culture due to leaching of phenolic, microbial contagion and tissue recalcitrance. A study therefore designed to evaluate the effects of antioxidants in reduction of phenolic exudation which hampers In vitro regeneration. The nodal explants of the plant were cultured on MS media after pre-soaking in antioxidant solutions of citric acid, ascorbic acid, poly vinyl pyrrolidine (PVP) and charcoal. After culturing explants, the amount of phenolic exude was determined periodically on spectrophotometer at 750 nm absorbance. Phenolic exudation from guava was significantly reduced in nodes treated with charcoal as compared to control and rest of the treatments. Moreover, guava nodes survival percentage was also significantly increased in charcoal treated nodes. It is concluded that pre-soaking in different antioxidants significantly reduced the media browning and thus micro-propagation of guava could be achieved on commercial basis.

713-716 Download
40
EFFECT OF GENOTYPE AND INFLORESCENCE DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE ON CALLUS INDUCTION AND PLANT REGENERATION OF MISCANTHUS LUTARIORIPARIU, A NON-FOOD BIOMASS CROP
LINGLING ZHAO1, YING DIAO1, SURONG JIN2, FASONG ZHOU1 AND ZHONGLI HU1*

EFFECT OF GENOTYPE AND INFLORESCENCE DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE ON CALLUS INDUCTION AND PLANT REGENERATION OF MISCANTHUS LUTARIORIPARIU, A NON-FOOD BIOMASS CROP
ABSTRACT:
Miscanthus lutarioriparius, is a perennial C4 weeds. In this study, tissue culture responses were evaluated in four genotyoes of M. lutarioriparius which collected from the Yangtze River basin. A total of four types of callus with different characteristics and induction frequencies were induced from four genotypes immature inflorescences on medium Murashige and Skoog (MS) containing 4.0 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D). Only ML04 generated the embryogenic callus. According to the length of immature inflorescences, they divided into three inflorescences developmental stages which generated different induction percentages of embryogenic callus. Developmental stage B with 50-100 mm length inflorescence generated the highest induction percentages of embryogenic callus. The regeneration rate was 65.56% (4.0 mg/L kinetin), 91.50% (5.0 mg/L KT) and 26.67% (6.0 mg/L KT) from embryogenic callus, respectively. The shoots were transferred onto the Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium for rooting, the rooting rate was 100%.

717-722 Download
41
PRELIMINARY PHARMACOGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT, CALLUS FORMATION AND REGENERATION OF ABUTILON SEPALUM HUS. & BAQ.
SHAZIA MANSURI1*, ANJUM PERVEEN2 AND SAIFULLAH KHAN3

PRELIMINARY PHARMACOGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT, CALLUS FORMATION AND REGENERATION OF ABUTILON SEPALUM HUS. & BAQ.
ABSTRACT:
Plant-derivative secondary metabolites have defensive properties against infecting agents that causes sickness. Moreover, they are helpful in impeding several noninfectious diseases. This investigation includes the preliminary analysis of bio-chemical compounds and callus formation by using leaves of Abutilon sepalum Hus. & Baq., (An endemic plant of Pakistan). The work on preliminary pharmacognostic evaluation, callus formation and regeneration of Abutilon sepalum Hus. & Baq., was not done earlier. The exploration of this plant for preliminary pharmacognostic evaluation, callus formation and regeneration is done first time in Pakistan.

723-727 Download
42
CHANGES IN THE SPORE NUMBERS OF AM FUNGI AND IN AM COLONISATION OF ROOTS OF CLOVERS AND GRASSES ON A PEAT-MUCK SOIL WITH RESPECT TO MINERAL FERTILISATION
TERESA KORNIŁŁOWICZ-KOWALSKA*, BERNADETA WOJDYŁO-KOTWICA AND EDYTA KWIATKOWSKA

CHANGES IN THE SPORE NUMBERS OF AM FUNGI AND IN AM COLONISATION OF ROOTS OF CLOVERS AND GRASSES ON A PEAT-MUCK SOIL WITH RESPECT TO MINERAL FERTILISATION
ABSTRACT:
A 4-year plot experiment was conducted to determine the dynamics of changes in the spore density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and of the degree of endomycorrhizal colonisation of roots of clovers and meadow grasses on an organic peat-muck soil in a post-marshy habitat, taking into account the effect of mineral fertilisation (NPK). The experimental object comprised four plots that represented the fertilisation treatments, sown with white clover (Trifolium repens L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), smooth meadow-grass (Poa pratensis L.), and a mix of grasses composed of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), smooth meadow-grass (Poa pratensis L.), and cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.). Analogous sowing was performed on control (non-fertilised) plots. It was found that spores of AMF occurred in 100% of the samples of the soil studied, and the average total number of AMF spores isolated from soil under the particular plant combinations was high and amounted to 1858 spores (range from 1392 to 2443) in 100 g of air-dried soil. The percentage share of the clover and grass roots colonised by indigenous endomycorrhizal fungi was very low and varied from 0 to 46 (average from 4.1% to 12.2%). No correlation was found between the spore numbers of AMF in the soil and the degree of mycorrhized roots of the clovers and grasses. Mineral fertilisation stimulated the sporulation of AM fungi but had no effect on root colonisation by these fungi.

729-738 Download
43
INOCULATION OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI AND PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA IN THE PRESENCE OF ROCK PHOSPHATE IMPROVES PHOSPHORUS UPTAKE AND GROWTH OF MAIZE
FAZLI WAHID1*, MUHAMMAD SHARIF1, SIEGRID STEINKELLNER2, M. AZIM KHAN1, K.B. MARWAT3 AND S.A. KHAN1

INOCULATION OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI AND PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA IN THE PRESENCE OF ROCK PHOSPHATE IMPROVES PHOSPHORUS UPTAKE AND GROWTH OF MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
The beneficial microbes like arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) are known to play an important role in phosphorous (P) supply to plants in a sustainable manner in P deficient soils. In this scenario, a pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse condition to assess the synergistic effect of AMF and PSB strains (Coccus DIM7 Streptococcus PIM6 and Bacillus sp. PIS7) on P solubility from RP and their successive uptake by maize (Zea-mays L. Azam) crop at alkaline soil. The experiment was completely randomized design with three replications having calcareous silty clay loam soil, low in organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus contents. RP was used as a crude phosphate alone and/or in combination with the native AMF and PSB inoculum. The results indicated that the rhizosphere interactions between AMF and PSB significantly promote RP mineralization in soil and improved all growth parameters including shoot (56%), root yield (52%), height (41%), N (80%) and P (91%) uptake by the maize plants as compared to control and single inoculation. A remarkable increase in soil spore density, PSB population and percent root colonization in maize plants were also recorded by the combined inoculation of AMF and PSB with RP. From this study, it is concluded that the combined application of AMF and PSB with RP has the potential to improve maize growth and nutrients uptake. Moreover, AMF and PSB inoculants are recommended as useful biofertilizers for enhancing P solubility and bioavailability in P deficient agricultural soils.

739-747 Download
44
ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SOME INDIGENOUS PLANTS AGAINST COMMON SOIL-BORNE FUNGI
TUBA1*, MUHAMMAD ABID1, S. SHAHID SHAUKAT2 AND AZIZUDDIN SHAIKH3

ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SOME INDIGENOUS PLANTS AGAINST COMMON SOIL-BORNE FUNGI
ABSTRACT:
Present study was conducted to evaluate the fungicidal property of methanolic extracts of some indigenous plants of Karachi such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (leaves), Thespesia populnea (leaves, stem and fruit), Withania somnifera (leaves and stem), Solanum surattense (shoot) and Melia azedarach (fruit) against common soil-borne phytopathogens viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum by using food poison technique. Among the eight methanolic extracts of tested parts of plants, seven showed antifungal activity, of which T. populnea leaves and S. surattense shoots inhibited growth of all three test pathogens. Leaves of H. rosa-sinensis did not exhibit antifungal activity. T. populnea (leaves and stem), W. somnifera (stem) and M. azedarach (fruit) suppressed growth of Rhizoctonia solani by 100%. T. populnea leaves and M. azedarach fruit inhibited growth of M. phaseolina by 100% and 82%, respectively T. populnea leaves inhibited 99% mycelial growth of F. oxysporum. It is concluded that the methanolic extracts of the tested indigenous plants contain natural fungicidal compounds, which can be used for the control of common soil-borne pathogens.

749-752 Download
45
SOIL MICROBES AND SUCCESSFUL INVASIONS OF AN EXOTIC WEED EUPATORIUM ADENOPHORUM L.
PING ZHOU1, TIAN-XIANG TANG1, PING ZHAO2 AND JUN-WEN CHEN1*

SOIL MICROBES AND SUCCESSFUL INVASIONS OF AN EXOTIC WEED EUPATORIUM ADENOPHORUM L.
ABSTRACT:
The effects of soil microbes collected from the two invasive species Eupatorium adenophorum and E. odoratum and the two native species E. japonicum and E. chinense on the growth and biomass of E. adenophorum was examined to explore a possible link between soil microbes and successful invasions of the weed species E. adenophorum. In most cases, plant height, stem diameter, root number and root length were significantly enhanced when E. adenophorum was grown in sterilized soils compared with those when one was grown in non-sterilized soils collected from the rhizosphere of E. adenophorum, E. japonicum and E. chinense. In contrast, the growth and biomass of E. adenophorum were apparently inhibited when grown in soils collected from the rhizosphere of E. odoratum. Plant height, stem diameter, leaf area per plant and root length of E. adenophorum was greater when it was grown in soils collected from the rhizosphere of E. adenophorum compared with those when it was grown in soils collected from the rhizosphere of E. odoratum, but the enhancement considerably greater when it was grown in soils collected from the rhizosphere of E. japonicum and E. chinense compared with those when it was grown in soils collected from the rhizosphere of E. adenophorum. In addition, the biomass allocation of E. adenophorum was not significantly affected by soil microbes and soil sources. These results suggest that although the competitive advantage of the invasive weed E. adenophorum is not achieved solely by soil microbes, successful invasions of E. adenophorum may result partly from its release from the harmful soil microbes in its native range and the positive feedbacks of soil microbes from itself and the native species in its invading range.

753-762 Download
46
CO-INOCULATION OF ARBUSCULR MYCORRHIZAE AND NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA ENHANCE ALFALFA YIELD UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
RUI-FEN ZHU1#, FEN-LAN TANG1*, JIE-LIN LIU1, FENG-QI LIU1, XIAO-YU DENG3 AND JI-SHAN CHEN1,2#

CO-INOCULATION OF ARBUSCULR MYCORRHIZAE AND NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA ENHANCE ALFALFA YIELD UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
The study was to investigate the effects of combined inoculation of Glomus mosseae (arbusculr mycorrhizae fungi, AMF) and Sinorhizobium meliloti (nitrogen-fixing bacteria, i.e., an Rhizobium meliloti, RM) on yield, nutrient contents, nodulation and mycorrhizal colonization of different alfalfa cultivars under saline conditions. An experiment was conducted to test the efficacy of AMF and RM inoculation in development of salt tolerance in alfalfa cultivars (Zhaodong, Nongjing and Longmu) under different salinity levels (0, 60, 120 and 180 mM NaCl). We found that under non stress condition, double inoculation of alfalfa with rhizobium and AM increased the alfalfa yield, nodule weight and number, as well as shoot proline contents, the most when plants were double inoculated followed by AM and rhizobium inoculation, respectively. Whereas under salinity condition, double inoculation of alfalfa with rhizobium and AM increased alfalfa yield, mycorrhizal infection, nodule weight and number as well as increased in shoot proline content, the most followed by AM and rhizobium inoculation, respectively. The results suggest that growth of alfalfa may be improved by combined inoculation of alfalfa with AM and rhizobium under salt and non-stress conditions. Alleviation of alfalfa growth under saline condition was perhaps due to an increase in mycorrhizal infection and nodule weight and number as well as an increased in shoot proline content by dual inoculation.

763-769 Download
47
DEVELOPMENT OF TOMATO HYBRIDS WITH MULTIPLE DISEASE TOLERANCE
MUHAMMAD YUSSOUF SALEEM*, KHALID PERVAIZ AKHTAR, QUMER IQBAL, MUHAMMAD ASGHAR, AMJAD HAMEED AND MUHAMMAD SHOAIB

DEVELOPMENT OF TOMATO HYBRIDS WITH MULTIPLE DISEASE TOLERANCE
ABSTRACT:
Four lines and six testers were crossed to produce 24 F1 hybrids following Line x Tester technique to screen the material tolerant to blight and cucumber mosaic virus using integrated protocols of whole plant assay, mechanical inoculation and breeding. Check hybrid T-1359 was highly susceptible to late blight (LB) and early blight (EB) to the mark of 94 and 74% respectively and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) with a 2.8 severity index. One hybrid Nagina x LB5 was scored tolerant to late blight with 35% infection, while four genotypes viz. LB3, LB2, LB4, LB7 and one hybrid Naqeeb x LB5 were tolerant to early blight with 28-30% infection and tolerant to cucumber mosaic virus with 2.1 severity index. Non-additive gene action was pre-dominant in genetic control of blights, viral diseases, yield and all yield related traits. Genotype Roma, LB5 and LB6 were found to be good general combiner for late blight while Roma, Nagina and LB2 for early blight. A high yielding hybrid Naqeeb x LB6 was the best one with 37.55% tolerance to late blight and 33.33% high yielder than T-1359. Most of the hybrids showed better tolerance to CMV as compared to T-1359. Identified good combiners can be used in heterosis and recombination breeding to develop high yielding and disease tolerant tomato genotypes.

771-778 Download
48
MICROBIAL DIVERSITY AND METAGENOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE RHIZOSPHERE OF PARA GRASS (UROCHLOAMUTICA) GROWING UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
SALMA MUKHTAR1, MUHAMMAD S. MIRZA2, HUMERA A. AWAN1, ASMA MAQBOOL1, SAMINA MEHNAZ1 AND KAUSER A. MALIK1*

MICROBIAL DIVERSITY AND METAGENOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE RHIZOSPHERE OF PARA GRASS (UROCHLOAMUTICA) GROWING UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Para grass is a salt tolerant plant, grown on salt affected soils of Punjab, Pakistan. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of culturable and non-culturable bacteria in the rhizosphere, rhizoplane and histoplane of para grass, growing under saline conditions. A total of seventy four, bacterial strains were isolated and characterized. Among these, thirty two from rhizosphere, twenty two from rhizoplane and twenty were from the histoplane. Cultureable bacteria were characterized by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Non-culturable bacteria were identified by PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene, using metagenomic approach. Seventy seven percent bacterial isolates from rhizosphere and rhizoplane fractions were identified as member of Proteobacteria. Twenty five percent isolates of histoplane fraction were members of firmicutes while 68.75% were of Proteobacteria. Of total isolates, 50% could grow in nitrogen free medium and 21.67% on halophilic medium. Nitrogen fixers and halophilic bacteria were more abundant in the rhizosphere as compared to roots. 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis showed that out of 48 clones, 14 were uncultured, classified; eighteen un-cultured un-classified, while others related to 16 different known cultured groups of bacteria. Results for cultured and uncultured bacteria revealed a wide diversity of bacterial population present in the rhizosphere of para grass.

779-791 Download
49
MYCORRHIZAL GLOMUS SPP. VARY IN THEIR EFFECTS ON THE DYNAMICS AND TURNOVER OF FINE ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L.) ROOTS
AITIAN REN1,2, NARKES WALY1, WEIHUA LU1*, CHUNHUI MA1, QIANBING ZHANG1, HONGLING LIU3 AND JIEJING YANG1

MYCORRHIZAL GLOMUS SPP. VARY IN THEIR EFFECTS ON THE DYNAMICS AND TURNOVER OF FINE ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L.) ROOTS
ABSTRACT:
Abstract:The distribution of fine roots in the soil profile has important implications related to water and nutrient uptake. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the fine root dynamics of Medicago sativa L. cv. Sanditi. We used minirhizotrons to observe changes in fine root length density (FRLD, mm/cm2) and fine root surface area density (FRSAD, mm2/cm2) during the growing season. Fine root P concentrations and turnover rate were also measured. The colonization rate of fine roots varied depending on the AMF species. Colonization rates were highest when roots were inoculated with Glomus mosseae and lowest when roots were inoculated G. intraradices. Inoculation with AMF significantly increased both FRLD and FRSAD. G. versiforme increased FRLD and FRSAD most, whereas G. mosseae had the least effect. Inoculation with AMF also decreased fine root turnover rates. Inoculation with a mixture of AMF species increased fine root turnover and P concentrations more than inoculation with a single AMF species. Fine root length density increased to a maximum on Aug. 6 and then decreased. In comparison, FRSAD exhibited two peaks during the growing season. Overall, the results indicated that inoculation with AMF can significantly promote fine root growth and P uptake by alfalfa growing on soil with low P availability. The AMF may preserve fine root function late in the growing season.

793-798 Download
50
DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF DIATOM SPECIES FROM COASTAL WATERS OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
FARAH NAZ KHOKHAR, ZAIB-UN-NISA BURHAN, PERVAIZ IQBAL, JAVED ABBASI AND PIRZADA JAMAL AHMED SIDDIQUI*

DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF DIATOM SPECIES FROM COASTAL WATERS OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This is the first comprehensive study on the distribution and abundance of diatom species from the coastal and nearshore waters of Karachi, Pakistan, bordering northern Arabian Sea. A total of 20 genera are recorded in high abundance (Cerataulina, Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Cylindrotheca, Eucampia, Guinardia, Haslea, Hemiaulus, Lauderia, Lennoxia, Leptocylindrus, Navicula, Nitzschia, Trieres, Planktoniella, Pleurosigma, Pseudo-nitzschia, Rhizosolenia, Thalassionema and Thalassiosira). The most abundant genera were observed Guinardia, Chaetoceros, Leptocylindrus, Nitzschia and Lennoxia at all stations. Manora coastal station (MI-1) had high abundance corresponding with high Chlorophyll a (130μgL- l) values. Minimum abundance and low chlorophyll a value (0.05μgL-l) were observed at Mubarak Village coastal station (MV-1). Diatom abundance showed significant correlation with Chlorophyll a. In present study 12 centric and 8 pennate forms were recorded and similarly high diversity of centric taxa was observed compared to pennate forms. A total of 134 species are recorded of which 40 species were observed at four stations, 31species at three stations, 23 at two stations and 40 species only at one station. The total phytoplankton and diatom peak abundance was observed during NE monsoon (winter season) associated with nutrient loading through up-sloping of nutrient rich water upwelled off of Oman during South West monsoon. Overall higher diversity was observed at Manora coastal and nearshore stations (MI-1, MI-2) indicating the influence of organic pollution loading from Layari and Malir rivers.

799-811 Download
51
THE LICHENS IN THE AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE OF PODLASIE, NORTH EAST POLAND
ANNA MATWIEJUK

THE LICHENS IN THE AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE OF PODLASIE, NORTH EAST POLAND
ABSTRACT:
This paper carries information for diagnosis lichenobiota in the agricultural landscape of Poland NE. The research led to a better understanding of the problem of occurrence of lichens in the agricultural landscape. The functional groups of lichens, which were used to characterize lichen biota taking into account the morphological forms, frequency of occurrence and habitat requirements were determined. The basis for the specification of the more interesting taxa in the study area was to analyze the species composition of lichens in relation to the data on their previous records in rural areas, the degree of recognition in Poland NE and conservation status and threats in the country.

813-830 Download
52
MARINE MICROALGAE FLOCCULATION USING PLANT: THE CASE OF NANNOCHLOROPSIS OCULATA AND MORINGA OLEIFERA
NINIE NOOR DIANA ENCHE BAHARUDDIN1, NURUL SHUHADA AZIZ1, HAJAR NAEMAH SOHIF2, WAN AZLINA ABDUL KARIM3 , JAMEEL R. AL-OBAIDI1* AND MOHD NAZIR BASIRAN1

MARINE MICROALGAE FLOCCULATION USING PLANT: THE CASE OF NANNOCHLOROPSIS OCULATA AND MORINGA OLEIFERA
ABSTRACT:
Marine microalgae have been commercially used as live feed for aquaculture and nutritional supplements. However, harvesting of marine microalgae is a major obstacle for industrial scale and one of the promising harvesting techniques is bio-flocculation. Nannochloropsis oculata from the culture broth was investigated. The potential of Moringa oleifera as a flocculant has been evaluated using jar test experiments. Moringa oleifera after oil extraction (MOAE) and with non-extracted Moringa oleifera (MOWE) have been studied and compared to chemical flocculant, aluminium sulphate. Three parameters involved: pH, settling time and flocculant dosage. When MOAE and MOWE were used as flocculants, the highest flocculation efficiency of Nannochloropsis oculata was observed at 93.77% (pH 7, 150 minutes, 5000 mg/L) and 70.56% (pH 7, 90 minutes, 4000 mg/L) respectively. Harvesting efficiency of 99.98% with short settling time, 30 minutes and 2000 mg/L of flocculant dosage at pH 6 was achieved using aluminium sulphate. The concentrated of Nannochloropsis oculata was then fed to the Brachionus plicatilis (rotifers) to observe the growth characteristics in 12 days period. Concentrates of MOWE gave better growth of Brachionus plicatilis than growth in concentrates of MOAE and live Nannochloropsis oculata. In contrast, growth of Brachionus plicatilis in aluminium sulphate was tremendously decline. In conclusion, bio-flocculation using Moringa oleifera was rapid, inexpensive and eco-friendly technology as no addition of chemical flocculants was required.

831-840 Download
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