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Evaluation of sodium alginate and calcium chloride on development of synthetic seeds

Muhammad Iqbal, Aamir Ali, Hamid Rashid, Naveed Iqbal Raja, Naima Huma Naveed, Zia-Ur-Rehman Mashwani, Mubashir Hussain, Muhammad Ejaz and Zubeda Chaudhry

The present investigation highlighted the role of sodium alginate (Na-alginate) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) treatments on encapsulation of sugarcane (Saccaharum officinarum var. NSG-59) somatic embryos to produce synthetic seeds. Progress in the protocol for direct recovery of plants from man-made seeds under sterile conditions is of major importance. Although it is possible to produce a huge number of plants through tissue culture via embryogenesis or multiple shoot cultures, but their delivery is quite inconvenient. In vitro study pertaining to evaluate the efficient synthetic seeds formation from sugarcane somatic embryos was done in Plant Tissue Culture Lab, Department of Botany, University of Sargodha. Encapsulation of somatic embryos was achieved by using Na-alginate (as gelling agent) and CaCl2 (as complexing agent) respectively through dropping method under sterile conditions (inside Laminar air flow cabinet). Different concentrations of Na-alginate (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, and 4%) and CaCl2 (50mM, 70mM, 90mM, 100mM, 150mM and 200mM) were applied in current process.The gelling matrix of 3% Na-alginate and complexing agent of 100mM CaCl2 yielded firm, clear, isodiametric and compact beads formation. It was observed that duration of Na-alginate treatment on bead formation has no effect however, CaCl2 treatment with 100mM Na-alginate for 15 minutes was more appropriate for isodiametric and compact beads formation. The synthetic seeds provide feasible handling, transport and large scale production of viable plants of sugarcane by direct sowing of synthetic seeds in the soil.

To Cite this article: Iqbal, M., A. Ali, H. Rashid, N.I. Raja, N.H. Naveed, Z.U.R. Mashwani, M. Hussain, M. Ejaz and Z. Chaudhry. 2019.  Evaluation of sodium alginate and calcium chloride on development of synthetic seeds. Pak. J. Bot., 51(5): DOI:

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