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Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis and antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of Medicago parviflora, Solanum nigrum, Melilotus alba and Melilotus indicus on soil-borne phytopathogenic fungi

Sadiqullah Khan, Muhammad Ibrar Shinwari, Abdul Haq, Khawaja Waqar Ali, Tabassum Rana, Malik Badshah and Said Akbar Khan

This research paper is based on the assessment to find the natural substitute of synthetic chemical fungicides and identify the functional group present in methanolic extracts of selected weeds. In this study fungicidal assessment is made of four noxious crop-weeds Melilotus indicus, Melilotus alba, Medicago parviflora and Solanum nigrum. The methanolic extract of all the selected weeds were screened for In vitro antifungal activities against the selected soil-borne fungal phytopathogens Rhizoctonia solani, Rhizoctonia oryzae, Fusarium fujikuroi, Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium ultimum and Pyricularia oryzae. Microspectrophotometric assessment technique is used for antifungal evaluation. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of the extracts were determined. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method was used on methanolic extracts for their functional groups detection. Results indicated that growth of all above-mentioned fungal strains was significantly inhibited. The determined values of the weed extract ranged between 0.781-25 mg/mL while MFC values ranges were from 3.125 to 25 mg/ml. The extracts of M. parviflora have shown highest inhibitory activity (119.5%) against P. ultimum while M. indicus extract gave lowest suppression (97%) against F. oxysporum. FTIR spectroscopy of all selected weeds extracts confirms the presence of alkanes, alkynes, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and nitriles functional groups. These results support the potential use of these weed extracts in the management of crops fungal diseases.

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