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Year 2020 , Volume  52, Issue 3
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1

Salt stress resistance in SmCP-transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana as revealed by transcriptome analysis


He Li, Liu Zheng, Ying Wang, Xianqi Hu, Zhuchou Lu, Huijin Fan, Zhuang Zhang, Yixiao Li, Renying Zhuo and Wenmin Qiu

Salt stress resistance in SmCP-transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana as revealed by transcriptome analysis


ABSTRACT:

Adaptation to environmental changes is crucial for the viability of all organisms. In plants, cysteine proteases (CP) are vital proteolytic enzymes response to complex and volatile environmental factors. Previously, over-expression of a CP gene isolated from Salix matsudana (SmCP) was shown to improve the salt stress tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the enhanced salt stress tolerance of these over-expression lines remain uncharacterized. In this study, the transcriptome of transgenic Arabidopsis SmCP over-expression lines and wild type (WT) control (CT) plants was analyzed by RNA sequencing to identify genes associated with salt tolerance. The abundance level of selected differentially expressed genes was validated by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The SmCP-transgenic line showed many transcriptomic changes under salt-stress conditions, including genes associated with alterations in the anti-oxidant environment and ion-transport capacity. Elucidation of the mechanism of salt stress resistance is important for utilization of SmCP for genetic improvement of commercial crops for tolerance to saline soil.

735-752 Download
2

Comparison of salt tolerance between two potential cultivars of Phoenix dactylifera L. growing in Saudi Arabia


Fahad Al-Qurainy, Salim Khan, Mohamed Tarroum, Mohammad Nadeem, Saleh Alansi, Aref Alshameri and Abdel-Rhman Gaafar

Comparison of salt tolerance between two potential cultivars of Phoenix dactylifera L. growing in Saudi Arabia


ABSTRACT:

The date palm is a woody plant growing in different regions of the world. Two potential cultivars of the date palm (Ajwa and Mabroom) from Saudi Arabia were studied for their tolerance to salinity stress (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl). Salinity stress affected morphometric traits as well as biomass yield in both cultivars. The percent germination under different concentrations of NaCl was greater in the Ajwa compared to the Mabroom. The Ajwa cultivar showed enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes (Catalase: CAT; superoxide dismutase: SOD and glutathione reductase; GR) than the Mabroom. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) content increased in both cultivars compared to the control. The osmolytes level (proline) was increased whereas soluble protein was decreased in both cultivars. The leaf relative water content (LRWC) was decreased as compared to the control and greater reduction was seen in the Mabroom cultivar. Abscisic acid content was found to be higher in the Ajwa cultivar than that in the control plant and Mabroom. In conclusion, the Ajwa cultivar showed greater salinity tolerance compared to Mabroom which possible owing to the presence of tolerance genes in the genome.

753-761 Download
3

Alleviation of adverse effects of salt stress on growth of maize (Zea mays L.) by sulfur supplementation


Alia Riffat and Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad

Alleviation of adverse effects of salt stress on growth of maize (Zea mays L.) by sulfur supplementation


ABSTRACT:

Sulfur has considerable importance in ameliorating the adverse effects of salinity by modulating different physiological and biochemical pathways in the plants. A study was conducted to assess the response of maize in improving maize growth by exogenous application of sulfur under salt stress conditions.  Seeds of maize varieties were sown in plastic pots containing loamy soil and treatments of sulfur (40, 80 mM) and salinity (25, 75 mM) were applied. For the determination of classical growth analysis, two harvests were taken at 7 and 21 days of treatment application while the growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments and biomolecule contents were determined by harvesting 52 days old plants. Results showed that salt stress reduced shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight, leaf area, relative growth rate, leaf weight fraction, unit leaf rate, specific leaf area, leaf area ratio, root shoot allometry, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a/b ratio, total chlorophyll, starch and carbohydrate contents in both maize cultivars. However, sulfur application (40 mM) not only improved all studied growth parameters, photosynthetic components and biomolecules but also developed salt tolerance in salt sensitive maize cultivar (Pak Afgoi 2003). In crux, sulfur at 40 mM is very effective in improving maize growth under salt stress condition. 

763-773 Download
4

Glycinebetaine induced modulation in oxidative defense system and mineral nutrients sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) under saline regimes


Arneeb Tariq and Muhammad Shahbaz

Glycinebetaine induced modulation in oxidative defense system and mineral nutrients sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) under saline regimes


ABSTRACT:

Salinity is a wide spread environmental constraint that limits the yield and productivity of crops by altering physiological and biochemical processes at the cellular and whole plant level. Various advancements have been made to quench salinity, of which seed priming is one of the cost-effective strategy. Current research was designed to know the salinity effect on sesame seeds primed with glycinebetaine (GB). The sesame cultivars (TS-5 and TH-6) were primed with two levels of GB (0 mM and 25 mM) for 16 h before sowing in plastic pots pre-filled with sand. After three weeks of sowing, plants were salinized (0 mM and 70 mM NaCl) to evaluate the variation in morphological, biochemical and ionic attributes of both sesame cultivars. The trail was planned up in three-factor factorial completely randomized design (CRD) and data were analyzed by co-stat software. Data of both sesame cultivars were collected after four weeks of establishment of saline regimes. Length and fresh/dry weight of root and shoot, total soluble proteins (TSP), GB and root K+ were decreased while catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA), shoot Na+ and K+ were increased under saline conditions. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), POD, CAT, SOD, Total soluble protein (TSP) and GB were increased in GB primed seeds under 70 mM NaCl in both cultivars while fresh/dry weight of root and shoot was increased only in TH-6. Root Na+, root and shoot Ca2+ contents were not affected.  Overall, seed priming with GB imparts positive effect on growth, biochemical and ionic status of both sesame cultivars counteracting the salinity toxicity by balancing TSP, CAT, POD, GB, shoot and root K+, MDA and root Na+. It is suggested that TS-5 showed better response under salinity for most of the attributes studied.

775-782 Download
5

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in combination with plant growth regulators attenuate the effect of drought stress


Tasmia Bashir, Shumaila Naz and Asghari Bano

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in combination with plant growth regulators attenuate the effect of drought stress


ABSTRACT:

The present study evaluates the effects of plant growth hormones (PGR), salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA) and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) Rhizobium pisi (DSM 30132 strain) applied alone and in combination, on pea (Pisum sativum L.) cv. Florida plants under well-watered and drought stressed conditions. Prior to sowing seeds were soaked for 5h in broth culture (108 cfu/ml) of Rhizobium pisi and SA /ABA. Seeds were soaked for 6h in distilled water, ABA, SA solutions. Plants were subjected to drought stress on 21 days old seedlings by withholding the supply of water at two different time points; for 4d (TP1) and for 8d (TP2). Rhizosphere soil of abscisic acid treated plants exhibited higher retention of soil moisture at TP1. Abscisic acid decreased the fresh and dry weight of plants under unstressed condition but increased the fresh weight as well as relative water content under drought stress. The response of Rhizobium and SA were at par. Rhizobium and SA ameliorated the adverse effects of drought stress more effectively than ABA. The Rhizobium inoculation reduced the stomatal conductance under unstressed condition but significantly increased stomatal conductance under drought stress at TP2. SA alone and in combination with Rhizobium stimulated the stomatal conductance under unstressed condition. Under drought stress, at TP1 all the treatments alone and in combination increased the relative water content (RWC) significantly over drought stressed plants. The FV/FM ratio was increased in SA treatment or in combination with SA, Rhizobium and ABA.

It is inferred from the data that Rhizobium alone or in association with SA may be used to mitigate drought induced inhibition on plant growth and biomass. At TP1 the individual treatments of Rhizobium, ABA and SA exhibited better growth effect on pea plants. At TP2, Rhizobium assisted SA and ABA to mitigate drought induced adverse effects over control. The combined application of PGPR and PGRs can be substantiated more effectively on crop plants under drought stressed condition. Furthermore, integrating these approaches in the cropping system can contribute to maintaining soil fertility status, with better economic returns for future use.

783-792 Download
6

Production of drought tolerant transgenic soybean expressing codA gene under regulation of a water stress inducible promoter


Dong Thi Ta, Dung Manh Ngo, Nhung Hong Nguyen, Ngoc Bich Pham, Phat Tien Do and Ha Hoang Chu

Production of drought tolerant transgenic soybean expressing codA gene under regulation of a water stress inducible promoter


ABSTRACT:

Currently, drought stress has been known as a critical abiotic factors limiting crop production around the world. Several genes associated with water stresses, including codA gene encoded for choline oxidase, have been characterized and transferred to several important crops to enhance the tolerance to drought stress.  Therefore, in this study, codA gene under the regulation of a drought inducible promoter-rd29A was introduced into soybean using the Agrobacterium-mediated method. The presence of codA gene in transgenic soybeans was confirmed by PCR and Southern hybridization. Under drought stress treatments, transgenic soybeans showed an enhanced seedling growth and plant biomass as compared to non-transformed soybeans. Moreover, the contents of glycine betaine and free proline, two major organic osmolytes as well as peroxidase activity were found increased in codA transgenic soybean. The malondialdehyde content in transformed soybeans decreased by less than 50% relative to control soybean plants under drought stress conditions. This is the first report on the utilization of the codA gene to improve drought tolerance in soybeans.

793-799 Download
7

Morpho-anatomical adaptations of two Tagetes erecta L. cultivars with contrasting response to drought stress


Faisal Zulfiqar, Adnan Younis, Atif Riaz, Farakh Mansoor, Mansoor Hameed, Nudrat Aisha Akram and Zainul Abideen

Morpho-anatomical adaptations of two Tagetes erecta L. cultivars with contrasting response to drought stress


ABSTRACT:

Water deficit is a serious threat to the global crop production. Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.), an economically important annual is resistant to drought stress, however, anatomical adaptations confirming drought tolerance are still unexplored. In this context, key growth and anatomical difference of two marigold (T. erecta L.) cultivars, Inca (drought resistant) and Bonanza (drought sensitive), to water deficit conditions were studied. Plants of both marigold cultivars were subjected to control (T0; 100% FC) and water deficit conditions (T1; 60 FC and T2; 40 FC) three weeks after transplantation. Drought stress caused a significant reduction in growth of cv. Bonanza while cv. Inca remained unaffected. However, drought stress significantly affected anatomical features in both marigold cultivars. Increasing drought stress levels enhanced the reduction in root vascular area of both cultivars. Under both levels of water stress, shoot cortex area decreased only in cv. Bonanza. Leaf thickness and cortex area decreased at 40% FC in both cultivars. The growth and biomass performance of cv. Inca was better than cv. Bonanza under water stress conditions

801-810 Download
8

Tomato grafted and cultivated in saline medium and its relation on nutraceutical compounds of the fruits


Israel Leon-Calvario, Marcelino Cabrera-De La Fuente, Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza, Antonio Juárez-Maldonado and Alberto Sandoval-Rangel

Tomato grafted and cultivated in saline medium and its relation on nutraceutical compounds of the fruits


ABSTRACT:

The fruit of tomato is one of the highly consumed vegetables in the world, because of its increasing nutraceutical quality and positive effects on the health of the consumer. The objective of this research was to increase the content of antioxidants in tomato fruits, without significantly affecting yields, inducing abiotic stress in grafted and ungrafted tomato plants, subjecting to four different concentrations of salt (NaCl). The use of grafts increased the lycopene content and the activity of the enzyme ascorbate peroxidase (APx). The concentrations of 50, 75 and 100 mM de NaCl increased the content of vitamina C and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and APx. However, they reduced the lycopene content and the yields of the culture. The fruits obtained of the grafted plants subjected to 100 mM NaCl showed the highest amount of total phenols. The saline-free treatments had higher lycopene content, while the activity of SOD was increased with the graft and 100 mM NaCl. The maximum yields were obtained in grafted plants without salt stress.

 

811-819 Download
9

Impact of different cadmium concentrations on two Pisum sativum L. genotypes


Saad Mubarak A Sager, Leonard Wijaya, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Ashraf Atef Hatamleh and Parvaiz Ahmad

Impact of different cadmium concentrations on two Pisum sativum L. genotypes


ABSTRACT:

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) (0, 100, 200, and 400 µM Cd) on two genotypes (AG-10 and AP-3) of Pisum sativum. Cd stress reduced the length, fresh weight, and dry weight of roots and shoots in both genotypes. Chlorophyll ‘a’ and ‘b’ and carotenoid content was also decreased and greater decreases were observed for higher concentrations of Cd. As Cd stress increased, levels of proline, glycine betaine, and soluble proteins were increased and sugar content was decreased. The application of Cd also caused an increase in hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, and electrolyte leakage in both genotypes. The activities of defensive antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase were also increased with increasing Cd concentrations; however, the increase in AG-10 was greater than in AP-3. The accumulation of phenols was decreased with Cd stress in both pea genotypes, with the greatest decreases were observed in AP-3. In conclusion, Cd caused a marked reduction in growth, biomass yield, and pigment content in both pea genotypes. However, enhanced accumulation of osmolytes and antioxidant enzyme activities alleviated the adverse effects of Cd. AG-10 was more tolerant genotype than AP-3, as AG-10 showed less Cd induced damage and higher antioxidant enzyme activities.

821-829 Download
10

Alleviation of gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus) corm dormancy through application of 6-benzylaminopurine and gibberellic acid


Yasar Sajjad, Muhammad Jafar Jaskani, Asim Mehmood, Muhammad Qasim and Gulzar Akhtar

Alleviation of gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus) corm dormancy through application of 6-benzylaminopurine and gibberellic acid


ABSTRACT:

Gladiolus is commercially grown through corms and freshly harvested gladiolus corms exhibit endo dormancy for 2-4 months or even more depending on cultivars. It creates hindrance in round the year cultivation of these corm. The present research aimed to break the dormancy of gladiolus corms in relatively short time through the application of plant growth regulators under field conditions and to observe the certain biochemical changes occurred in treated and control corm. Freshly harvested corms of two gladiolus cultivars, white prosperity and amsterdam, were descaled and soaked in 0.5 and 1mM solution of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) for 10 hours followed by soaking in 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mM solution of gibberellic acid (GA3) for 15 hours before planting on ridges in the field. The control corms were soaked in distilled water. Treatment (GA3 at 0.8 mM in combination with 1 mM BAP) showed maximum germination percentage (80 % and 86.66 %) and more no. of bud corm-1 (6.52 and 6.59) in white prosperity and Amsterdam, respectively. This treatment also showed positive changes in biochemical attributes including total soluble sugars (6.89 mg/g and 7.06 mg/g), abscisic acid (30.40 ng/g and 28.58 ng/g), gibberellic acid (105.63 ng/g and 119.97 ng/g) in treated corms (1mM BAP followed by 0.8mM GA3) in white prosperity and amsterdam compared to control corms (2.26 mg/g and 2.90 mg/g TSS, 64.29 ng/g and 59.90 ng/g ABA, 25.08 ng/g and 32.63 ng/g GA3), respectively. Application of BAP and GA3 was useful to reduce the dormant period of corms of two cultivars including Amsterdam and White prosperity

831-838 Download
11

Identification of cold tolerance and analysis of genetic diversity for major wheat varieties in Jianghuai region of China


Jiacheng Zheng, Ting Liu, Qiuxue Zheng, Jieqin Li, Yuchen Qian, Jincai Li and Qiuwen Zhan

Identification of cold tolerance and analysis of genetic diversity for major wheat varieties in Jianghuai region of China


ABSTRACT:

Late spring coldness is one of the mainly disastrous weather affecting wheat development in the central Jianghuai region of China. In this study, 18 major wheat varieties were selected to investigate their adaptability under cold stress in year of both 2018 and 2019, and the genetic diversity by SSR makers. The results showed that cold tolerance and yield-related traits significantly differed among the 18 wheat varieties. The freeze injury of young spikes was greatly and negatively correlated with plant height, spikelet number, grain numbers and grain weight of main stem spike. The stronger cold-tolerant wheat varieties showed the higher SOD activity and proline content than control. A total of 594 polymorphic bands were amplified by 28 pairs of SSR primers in 18 wheat varieties. The polymorphism information content (PIC) for genetic loci varied from 0.179 to 0.983, as well as the genetic diversity index (Nei) ranged from 0.105 to 0.697. The 18 wheat cultivars were divided into four groups, Group I-1 comprised 8 wheat cultivars with abundant polymorphic loci, a high gene diversity index, strong cold tolerance, and high yield per plant. These cultivars can be emphatically utilized in the breeding of cold-resistant wheat. Seven varieties, including Yannong 5158, Huaimai 28, Huaimai 33, Jinan 17, Fanmai 5, Yannong 19, and Xumai 35, had good comprehensive yield-related traits and cold tolerance. They can be used as the major wheat varieties in central regions of Jianghuai in Anhui province.

839-849 Download
12

Phytotoxicity of above - ground weed residue against some crops and weeds


Waseem Mushtaq, Mohammad Mehdizade, Mohammad Badruzzaman Siddiqui, Munir Ozturk, Khawar Jabran and Volkan Altay

Phytotoxicity of above - ground weed residue against some crops and weeds


ABSTRACT:

Weed residues mixing with the soil after the death of weeds can inhibit growth and development of crop plants. A study was conducted to assess the allelopathic intrusion of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia above-ground residues on growth of selected crops (Pisum sativum, Cicer arietinum) and weeds (Cassia tora, C. sophera), nature of chemicals involved, role of nutrients and physico-chemical parameters. Growth responses of weeds and crops were analyzed for soil amended with different rates of Nicotiana residue (residue amended soil, RS) and residual extract (residue extract amended soil, RES). Likewise, the growth behaviour of test plants was also evaluated against extract of residue in hydroponics (residue extract, RE). Physiochemical screening of amended soils was conducted to look for concentration and bioavailability of essential nutrients. The soil amended with residues (RS and RES) showed inhibitory effect on test plants, however, residue extract (RE) had more inhibitory effects. The inhibition in growth (root length, shoot length and dry biomass) was concentration dependent and C. tora plants experienced the highest reduction among all test plants. A partial enrichment was observed in nutrient status and phenolic content as we increased the concentration of the soil amendment or the extract. This points out that growth inhibition occurred due to phenolic and not due to nutrient depletion. These findings indicate a role of putative phenolic allelochemicals forced allelopathic effects on C. arietinum, P. sativum, C. tora and C. sophera.

851-860 Download
13

Biological effects of 7lithium (7Li) ion beam radiation on mutation induction in Capsicum annuum L.


Xue Wang, Libo Xie, Luxiang Liu, Lixin Chen and Hui Zhang

Biological effects of 7lithium (7Li) ion beam radiation on mutation induction in Capsicum annuum L.


ABSTRACT:

Lithium-7 (7Li) ion beam radiation is an effective method for inducing mutations in plants. In this study, the effects of 7Li ion beam radiation on mutation induction in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) were evaluated. The germination rates of irradiated seeds, survival rates of M1 plants and mutation frequencies of M2 plants were statistically analyzed. The results showed that these characteristics were all affected by radiation. A radiation dose of 60 Gy was the balance point between the survival rate of M1 plants and mutation rate of M2 plants, indicating that 60 Gy was a good choice for 7Li ion beam radiation applications in breeding. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) analysis of select M2 plants indicated that radiation caused changes in the DNA. Observations of mutant morphology showed that useful mutants were generated from M2 plants. These results provide both a basis for the application of ion beam radiation in breeding and useful materials for studies of gene function.

861-864 Download
14

Smoke induced physiological, biochemical and molecular changes in germinating rice seeds


Muhammad Jamil, Muhammad Jahangir and Shafiq Ur Rehman

Smoke induced physiological, biochemical and molecular changes in germinating rice seeds


ABSTRACT:

Smoke produced by fire is an important environmental stimulus that plays a major role in improving the germination of plant species, including crops. However, smoke induced biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in seed germination during imbibition remains unknown. Here, we explored the physiological, biochemical and molecular changes in the rice seed imbibed for 48 h in smoke-water (1:500 and 1:1000 dilutions (v/v)) , Gibberellic acid (GA3)(50 and 100µM) and Abscisic acid (ABA) (5 and 10µM). Increased the smoke concentration showed a significant increase in the germination percentage. It was also observed that smoke (1:1000) and GA3 (100µM) treated seeds had more water uptake as compared to other treatments. Interestingly smoke (1:1000) significantly induced carbohydrate, protein and lipid level of the imbibed seeds. However, macro and micro elements concentrations were decreased in seeds treated with smoke, GA3 and ABA as compared with seeds treated with water. Furthermore, the expression of GA3 and ABA responsive cis-elements genes was up-regulated by low or high dilution of smoke during seed imbibition, while the transcript abundance of some genes were up-regulated by GA3 at seedling stage.

865-871 Download
15

Performance of mungbean under herbicide application and intercropping with maize


Shahida Bibi, Ijaz Ahmad Khan, Zahid Hussain, Sajjad Zaheer, H. Alsamadany and Y. Alzahrani

Performance of mungbean under herbicide application and intercropping with maize


ABSTRACT:

Intercropping is an economically beneficial and a favorable measure for the fertility restoration of agricultural lands. A two year study on herbicide application and legume maize intercropping was undertakenat the New Developmental Farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistanduring maize-mungbean growing seasons of 2014 and 2015. The experiments were laid out in a split plot design with herbicide use as factor A and intercropping as factor B. The maize crop was sown in June and harvested in September. The results revealed that the herbicide application (factor A) and the intercropping treatments (factor B) both significantly affected the weed density (m-2), fresh biomass of weeds, yield and yield components of mungbean. The application of herbicide improved the No. of grains pod-1, 1000 grains weight (g), the biological and grain yields of mungbean as compared to the no herbicide use plots; while no herbicide treatment increased weeds density m-2 and fresh weeds biomass. In terms of intercropping, overall sole mungbean performed well as compared to the intercropping treatments. However, among the intercropping treatments, intercropping method of ten rows of mungbeancrop with sixrows of maize crop resulted in significantly higher biological and grain yields as compared to the yields in the treatment of five rows ofmungbeancrop intercropped with sixrows of maize crop. In conclusion, the application of herbicide pendimethalin1.5 kg a.i. ha-1is recommended for the desirable weed control in mungbean crop intercropped with maize crop in order to achieve best yields. Further, the intercropping of mungbean with maize at the combination of 10mungbean rows intercropped with 6 maize rows with a ratio of 2:1 is better for achieving good yield of mungbean crop in maize-mungbean intercropping system. For the interaction of pendimethalin application in the intercropping of mungbean with maize by sowing two mungbean rows between each two adjacent maize rows is the best choice.

873-877 Download
16

Influence of Trichoderma inoculation on four crucial defense-related enzymes and leaf soluble protein level of poplar


Yue-Feng Wang, Abdul Majeed Baloch, Jun-Jie Deng, Abdul Wahid Baloch, Xue-Yue Hou, Rui Miao and Rong-Shu Zhang

Influence of Trichoderma inoculation on four crucial defense-related enzymes and leaf soluble protein level of poplar


ABSTRACT:

Trichoderma spp. are beneficial endophytic plant symbionts known as plant growth improving factors and control agents for plant pathogens. We report in this study that the mechanisms for biological control of T. asperellum was the inducing of increases of crucial defense-related enzymes SOD, POD, PPO and PAL, and increasing the soluble protein level in leaf. Four T. asperellum strains each had slightly differential effects but all have positive effects. T. asperellum ACCC30536 had the best promoting effects. The activities of SOD and POD in poplar leaf responded to T. asperellum inducing as early as four hours after inoculation and both reached peak on the third day after inoculation. In contrast, the activities of both PPO and PAL in poplar leaf shortly showed suppression within one day after inoculation before the following drastic increase both peaking on the sixth day after inoculation. On the gene expression level, the regulation of SOD, POD and PAL in leaf showed consistent patterns with enzyme activities while PPO in leaf and the four enzymes in root indicated more complex regulatory mechanisms. Leaf soluble protein level were highly induced by each of the four T. asperellum strains and maintained almost stable from four hours after inoculation.

879-884 Download
17

Switching from juvenile leaves to phyllode of Acacia saligna (Labill.) H.L.Wendl. proved by the control of seedlings and stump sprout leaves


Sondes Stambouli-Essassi, Ichrak Sammoud-Ben Rejeb, Sadok Bouzid and Fethia Harzallah Skhiri

Switching from juvenile leaves to phyllode of Acacia saligna (Labill.) H.L.Wendl. proved by the control of seedlings and stump sprout leaves


ABSTRACT:

This work investigates the foliage’s changes reported on seedlings and regenerated sprouts of Acacia saligna (Labill.) H.L.Wendl. cultivated in Tunisia. First, a tracking of leaves development on 50 three-month old heteroblastic seedlings was performed. The transition from juvenile foliage to mature leaves occurs through four several stages. The first two leaves were pinnately compound and stand opposite each other (stage 1). The following initiated five leaves are alternate and bipinnately compound (stage 2). The eighth leaf corresponds to a transition form (stage 3). After three months of growth, from the ninth leaf, seedlings start the initiation of phyllodes (stage 4). Second, in order to better understand the leaves’ chronological switching and to examine the influence of the cutting height on the sprouting ability and on the biomass production, a total of 60 adult trees of A. saligna were randomly selected and cut at heights of 10, 30 and 50 cm aboveground level (20 trees each). The results indicated that the 50 cm stump height alowed a maximum rejuvenation expressed by the highest number of sprouts and juvenile bipinnately compound leaves; reminding those that have been developed on seedlings. Also, six-month old sprouts promoted the best transition phenomenon rate, the longest and the broadest phyllodes that are more vigorous than those developed on seedlings and adult trees

885-892 Download
18

Exogenous application of salicylic acid, indoleacetic acid and tryptophan protects growth, chlorophyll synthesis and antioxidant activities and gene expression in Catharanthus roseus


Ibrahim A. Alaraidh

Exogenous application of salicylic acid, indoleacetic acid and tryptophan protects growth, chlorophyll synthesis and antioxidant activities and gene expression in Catharanthus roseus


ABSTRACT:

Vinblastine (VBL) and vincristine (VCR) are produced exclusively and in small amounts in Catharanthus roseus. These secondary metabolites (terpenoid indole alkaloids) have immense medicinal value. In this study, the impact of different concentrations of salicylic acid (SA), indoleacetic acid (IAA), or tryptophan (TRP) on the biosynthesis of VBL and VCR in C. roseus plants was investigated. Using quantitative real-time PCR, gene expression levels of the transcription factor ORCA3 and expression levels of genes encoding the catalytic enzymes strictosidine synthase (STR), tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC), and desacetoxyvindoline 4-hydroxylase (D4H) were studied. Treatment with 0.5 mg L-1 IAA significantly increased the gene expression of ORCA3, STR, and D4H, compared to the control; however, there was no effect on TDC. Production of VBL and VCR was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by HPLC using the corresponding reference standards. The maximum production of VCR and VBL, 146.23 and 311.09 µg mL-1, respectively, was achieved with 0.5 mg L-1 IAA. In addition, compared to the control plants, spraying C. roseus plants with 0.5 mg L-1 IAA resulted in the maximum dry weight, maximum content of photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, b and carotenoids), enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. This study demonstrated the concentration-dependent induction effect of IAA in the biosynthesis of VCR and VBL. Therefore, IAA can be used to compensate for the low production of VCR and VBL under natural conditions.  

893-899 Download
19

Effects of seed age, germination temperature, gibberellic acid and stratification on germination of Silene compacta


Selma Kosa and Osman Karaguzel

Effects of seed age, germination temperature, gibberellic acid and stratification on germination of Silene compacta


ABSTRACT:

Natural populations of Silene compacta, native to South Anatolia, have ornamental potential for use in bedding plant design. However, some germination difficulties need to be overcome to meet industry needs. In the present study, the effects of seed age, germination temperature, gibberellic acid (GA3), and stratification on germination characteristics of S. compacta seeds were investigated in two experiments. First, the effects of seed age (1 and 2 years), germination temperature (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30°C), and GA3 treatment (soaking the seeds in distilled water as the control, and GA3 solutions of 125 and 250 mg.L-1 concentrations for 24 h) were tested. Second, the effects of seed age (1 and 2 years) and stratification (wet at 4°C) durations for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, and 22 weeks on S. compacta seed germination characteristics at 25°C were investigated. Results from the first experiment indicated that seed age, germination temperature, and GA3 treatments significantly affected S. compacta seed germination characteristics. Germination was higher in non-GA3 treated 2-year-old seeds at germination temperatures of 25°C than in other experimental treatments. Consequently, the highest, but not adequate, germination (21.33%) was recorded in non-GA3 treated 2-year-old seeds. In the second experiment, significant linear and quadratic relations were found with stratification durations and germination characteristics of S. compacta seeds with significant differences relating to the seed age. The highest germination percentage (82.67%) and most adequate germination characteristics were recorded in 2-year-old seeds stratified for 18 weeks. Results indicated that seeds of this S. compacta native population have deep physiological dormancy

901-908 Download
20

Determination of nuclear DNA content and ploidy of some Bromus L. germplasm by flow cytometery


Ilker Nizam, Rukiye Gulcu, Gulsemin Savas Tuna and Metin Tuna

Determination of nuclear DNA content and ploidy of some Bromus L. germplasm by flow cytometery


ABSTRACT:

The objective of this study was to determine nuclear DNA content and ploidy of 48 Bromus L. gene bank accessions obtained from USDA by flow cytometry. Based on the results of the flow cytometric analysis, the mean 2C nuclear DNA content of Bromus accessions used in the study varied between 11.43 pg with 26.62 pg. The nuclear DNA content differences among Bromus L. accessions were statistically significant at P<0.01 level. The accessions were easily separated into three distinct groups according to their DNA contents. The mean 2C nuclear DNA content of the groups were 11.82, 22.43 and 26.17 pg (min. and max. values of group were between 11.43–12.65 pg, 21.45–22.77 pg, 25.48–26.62 pg, respectively). Nuclear DNA content of the accessions were correlated with their ploidy levels by counting chromosomes of the one plant from each group with classical staining methods. In conclusion, majority of the Bromus accessions (33 out of 48) analysed in the study were tetraploid with 2n=4x=28 chromosomes. Ten and five of the remaining accessions were octaploid (2n=8x=56) and (2n=10x=70) decaploids, respectively. No decaploid B. inermis plant reported until today. However, decaploids were reported for B. riparius and B. biebersteini species. Therefore, decaploid plants determined in this study should be considered as either B. riparius or B. biebersteini

909-913 Download
21

Transcriptome sequencing of Pinus massoniana rooted and non-rooted cuttings


Feng Jiao Zhou and Xiao Li Wei

Transcriptome sequencing of Pinus massoniana rooted and non-rooted cuttings


ABSTRACT:

Pinus massoniana Lamb. is a unique and fat-producing tree species growing in southern China. However, cuttings of this species are difficult to root. In this study, transcriptome sequencing of rooted and non-rooted cuttings of this species was performed by Illumina sequencing technology. We obtained 138,466,788 raw reads and 132,448,884 clean reads including 124,396 unigenes after de novo assembly; these unigenes were annotated into seven databases. In the rooted and non-rooted cuttings, 781 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found, of which 368 were up-regulated and 413 were down-regulated. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these DEGs were enriched in 73 pathways, 18 of which were significantly enriched, including ‘photosynthesis’, ‘phenylpropanoid biosynthesis’, ‘starch and sucrose metabolism’, and ‘carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms’. ‘Plant hormone signal transduction’ was involved in the regulation of endogenous hormones, including some genes related to indole acetic acid (IAA) that were significantly associated with rooting. These genes were also found in the rooting processes of other plants. Compared with the non-rooted Pinus massoniana seedlings, auxin-responsive protein (AUX/IAA) was significantly down-regulated in the rooting shoots. We selected 10 genes from the DEGs and performed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) verification. The results were consistent with the gene expression based on the RNA-seq technology. Our study may be useful for improving the rooting rate of Pinus massoniana cuttings.

915-923 Download
22

Cloning and characterization of Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene from Anoectochilus


Lin Yang, Jun Cheng Zhang, Wan Chen Li, Jing Tao Qu, Hao Qiang Yu, Fu Xing Jiang and Feng Ling Fu

Cloning and characterization of Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene from Anoectochilus


ABSTRACT:

Anoectochilus roxburghii and Anoectochilus formosanus are the two important species of genus Anoectochilus used as herbal drug and health food in traditional Chinese medicine for their abundant polysaccharides, glycoside derivative kinsenoside, and terpenoids. Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS) catalyzes the key step of isoprenoid biosynthesis. Based on transcriptomic analysis, the open reading frame sequences of the FPS genes were obtained from A. roxburghii and A. formosanus. After bioinformatics analysis for high homology with their orthologs in related species and conserved domains of the FPS proteins, they were identified as the FPS genes of A. roxburghii and A. formosanus, respectively, and registered at GenBank. The FPS-eGFP fusion protein was specifically distributed in the cytoplasm and nucleus by transient expression in onion. Meanwhile, the expression of the FPS genes was detectable from leaf, root, and stem of these two species by real-time quantitative PCR, although their relative expression levels were significantly higher in root and stem. In response to high salt treatment, the expression of the FPS gene was downregulated in A. roxburghii and kept constant in A. formosanus. Under the illumination of red light, the downregulated range of the expression of the FPS gene in A. roxburghiiwas narower than that in A. formosanus. These results suggest that A. formosanus has higher tolerance to salt stress, and A. roxburghii is more suitable for cultivation under shade environment under forest.

925-934 Download
23

Morphological, anatomical structure and molecular phylogenetics of Anthemis trotzkiana claus


K. Izbastina, M. Kurmanbayeva, A. Bazargaliyeva, N. Ablaikhanova, Z. Inelova, A. Moldakaryzova, S. Mukhtubaeva and Y.Turuspekov

Morphological, anatomical structure and molecular phylogenetics of Anthemis trotzkiana claus


ABSTRACT:

In this study, morphological and anatomical properties of a rare species Anthemis trotzkiana Claus were investigated. Morphology structure of flower, seed, leaf, root and anatomical structure of root, stem, leaves and  molecular phylogenetics Anthemis trotzkiana from Aktobe region of the Kazakhstan are also studied.  Anthemis trotzkiana Claus (Asteraceae) is a rare and an endemic species of the Volga region and the Western Kazakhstan. The species  is calcefite, occurs on sediments of cretaceous rocks and for research features substratum were studied regarding chemical structure of soil from different horizon. The anatomical results showed that the roots have tetrachium xylem rays and schizogenic channels. When comparing the anatomical structure of virginal roots in three populations, it was found that the morphometric parameters of plants in the 1-2nd populations were high, while the data of the 3rd population were lower. The epidermis of the leaf is strongly cutinized and leaves are isolateral, the palisade mesophyll is found on both sides of the leaf. This is peculiar to xerophilous plants. The abundance of essential oils clearly indicates the healing characteristics of the plant and is the basis for studying of essential oils of the leaf.

In the paper, also were determined unique molecular markers of the species and used for the creation of a phylogenetic tree.To clarify the taxonomic provision of rare A. trotzkiana phylogenetic analysis  based on the change of the sequence ITS nrDNA of Anthemideae representatives was conducted. For molecular resear chDNA analysis on phylogeny of A. trotzkiana was conducted based on ITS (internal transcribed spacers) markers. Alignment of Anthemissequences was performed using nucleotide sequences available at the NCBI and MEGA 6 package. The Neighbor Joining phylogenetic tree suggested that А. trotzkiana along with А. marschalliana, А. futiculosa, and А. calcarea form a single cluster within Tanacetum clade, while other Anthemis species formed a separate Anthemis clade.

935-947 Download
24

Effects of various harvesting times on bioactive compound in Citrus paradisi (Shamber)


Waseem Ahmed, Rafia Azmat, Jawaid Akram, Ayaz Mehmood, Rasheed Ahmed, Abdul Qayyum, Sami Ullah Khan, Shah Masaud, Ijaz Husain and M. Liaquat

Effects of various harvesting times on bioactive compound in Citrus paradisi (Shamber)


ABSTRACT:

The antioxidant potential of isolated bioactive compounds of Citrus paradisi cv related to seasonal variation, explored in this article. The results revealed significant differences in physical and description of maturity of fruits, regarding to the accumulation of bioactive compounds. It establishes that contents of total phenolic compounds, total antioxidants, total carotenoids, total flavonoids, total pectin proteins as well as taste compounds directly related to maturity stage. The contents of carotenoids, Luteoxanthin, Lycopene, alpha-Carotenoids and beta Carotenoids found to be increased in the December harvested fruits, while non-significant differences were recorded to other harvested periods. The antioxidants potential of these compounds were determined through 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPHH), Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), Antioxidants index (AI) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay method, found to be increased from early to late harvested periods. Pearson correlation coefficient matrix were determined at five different harvesting times followed by determination of the correlation of four essential phytochemicals like Total tannins (TT), Acy and gallic acid with harvesting times. It concluded the proper harvesting time is vital for the effective concentration of bioactive compounds in fruits

949-954 Download
25

Pomological and biochemical characteristics of local apple genotypes grown in Uşak - Turkey


Ayşen Melda Çolak and Ahmet Özoğul

Pomological and biochemical characteristics of local apple genotypes grown in Uşak - Turkey


ABSTRACT:

Apple is grown more than other fruits in the world. Recently, raising awareness in the community about consuming food rich in antioxidants is crucial for human health. This study was carried out to state the physical and biochemical properties of some local apple genotypes grown in Uşak district, Turkey. This region has a lot of apple genotypes with significant genetic variability. As a result of the field study conducted at Uşak district, thirteen different apple genotypes were collected for analysis. In the current Uşak local apple genotypes, oxalic acid, malic acid and ascorbic acid values were found between 2.89 and 561 ppm and 1725, 12159 ppm and 29 and 203 ppm, respectively. Citric acid was found at the trace level and no acetic acid and gallic acid were detected. Results further revealed that based on pomological and biochemical features of the genotypes, the apple genotypes UO1, UH, PB, EK1, and EK2 seem to be the promising ones in terms of their fruit weight, width, and height.

955-961 Download
26

Anatomical and histochemical observation of microspore abortion and tapetum degeneration in male-sterile Rosa steriliser S. D. Shi (Rosaceae)


Xing-Yin Chen, Ping Guan, Jian-Ming Shi, Peng Yang and Kai-Kai Zhang

Anatomical and histochemical observation of microspore abortion and tapetum degeneration in male-sterile Rosa steriliser S. D. Shi (Rosaceae)


ABSTRACT:

A high frequency of pollen grain abortion causes male sterility in Rosa sterilis S. D. Shi. To study the cytological mechanism of male sterility in R. sterilis, we compared microspore development and histochemical distribution of nutritive materials at different stages of anther development in R. sterilis and its fertile close relative Rosa roxburghii Tratt by light microscopy. The pollen mother cells of R. sterilis and R. roxburghii develop consistently, and undergo normal meiosis. At the tetrad stage, the tapetum cells of R. sterilis showed binuclearte and trinucleate augmentation and no signs of degeneration, whereas R. roxburghii showed evidence for initiation of tapetum degeneration. At the vacuolate microspore (VMP) and mature pollen stages, the nucleus degenerated in R. sterilis microspores, resulting in empty pollen grains. Non-nucleate microspores comprised 76.70% of total microspores in late-VMP anther of R. sterilis, but only 2.4% in R. roxburghii anthers. The distribution of nutritive materials in R. sterilis and R. roxburghii anthers showed no notable differenc at the meiosis stage, except for that of starch grains. At the mature pollen stage, nutritive materials (protein, polysaccharides, starch grains) accumulated in R. roxburghii pollen grains, whereas nutrients failed to accumulate in R. sterilis pollen grains. The delayed disintegration of the tapetum and lack of accumulation of nutritive material may be cause of pollen abortion in R. sterilis. late VMP stage is a critical period for R. sterilis pollen abortion. Nuclear matter melted was the key factor resulting in pollen abortion of R. sterilis.

963-970 Download
27

Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of medicinally important Achillea millefolium L. and Chaerophyllum villosum Wall Exdc.


Muhammad Adil, Ghulam Dastagir, Jehan Bakht and Ambrin

Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of medicinally important Achillea millefolium L. and Chaerophyllum villosum Wall Exdc.


ABSTRACT:

This study was carried out to explore the phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of different extracts of Achillea millefolium and Chaerophyllum villosum. Crude methanolic and chloroform extracted samples of Achillea millefolium and Chaerophyllum villosum showed good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The extracts of both plants showed potent activity against Gram positive bacteria as compared to Gram negative bacteria. The antifungal activity revealed that methanolic and chloroform extracts of Achillea millefolium and Chaerophyllum villosum showed maximum growth inhibition of Fusarium solanum, Penicilium notatum and Aspergillus flavus.

971-974 Download
28

Detection the ploidy levels in asiatic lily cross-breeding through karyotype analysis and fish


Xiaoli Tang, Chunyan Yu, Kewen Zhang, Yuzhi Zeng, Lizi Zhao, Hongxia Zhang and Xiaohua Liu

Detection the ploidy levels in asiatic lily cross-breeding through karyotype analysis and fish


ABSTRACT:

Conventional hybrid breeding methods were used to hybridize and evaluate the affinity of different ploids lily varieties as parents, and abundant hybrid offspring were obtained by embryo rescue. The karyotype analysis and 45S rDNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were applied to identify the lily chromosomes. The genetic variation of chromosomes between progenies was analyzed and the 45S rDNA distribution was analyzed. It was found that the parental ploidy had some influence on the hybridization affinity. Diploid and tetraploid interploidy hybridization (Intraploidy hybridization) was stronger than between different ploidy hybridization (Interploidy hybridization). Triploid lily could be used as a successful female with diploid or tetraploid and 3x×4x hybridization was easier to hybridize than 3x×2x. The chromosome ploidy of Asian lily was rich in diploid, triploid, and tetraploid. The 45S rDNA signal loci of lily were usually not in pairs but increased with the ploidy of chromosome. Asian lily varieties had a pair of chromosomes on chromosome 1, which could be used as the characteristics of Asian lilies. The hybrid chromosomes were identified by the hybridization progenies by hybridization with FISH. The chromosomes were identified as true hybrids from all parents, and there were differences between different genotypes of hybrid progeny. Karyotype combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization could trace the origin of characteristic chromosomes in hybrid progeny, and identify hybrid authentically quickly and effectively.

975-985 Download
29

Plant communities and anthropo-natural threats in the Shigar valley, (Central Karakorum) Baltistan-Pakistan


Zaheer Abbas, Shujaul Mulk Khan, Jan Alam, Zainul Abideen and Zahid Ullah

Plant communities and anthropo-natural threats in the Shigar valley, (Central Karakorum) Baltistan-Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The present study elaborates the results of the first phytosociological research conducted in the Shigar valley, Karakorum Mountains along with posed natural and human made threats. Random stratified sampling method was used in order to collect phytosociological data. During field trips carried out in 2013-2016, 14 localities and 35 altitudinal transects were sampled in the elevation range of 2200-4700m. The plant communities were determined, and the plant taxa were analyzed against environmental variables using computer packages. Each community was analyzed for potential threats by point scaling (1-3) method. In all 345 species were recorded belonging to 206 genera and 63 families including few endemic and rare taxa such as Aconitum violaceum var. weilerei, Asperula oppositifolia subsp. baltistanica, Festuca hartmannii, Anaphalis chitralensis, Hedysarum falconeri, Pedicularis staintonii, Clematis alpine var. sibirica and Pyrola rotundifolia subsp. karakoramica. Species richness was observed at middle elevations. Three communities were recognized along altitude with prevailed dry slopes residing maximum thermophilous and petrophilous species. The main controlling factors of species composition and distribution pattern along elevation were soil moisture, substrate, aspect and elevation. Grazing, uprooting, trampling and cutting were recognized as the major degradation processes of the vegetation. The mountainous vegetation of the study area possesses substantial plant biological diversity with unique assemblage with elevation. Several anthropo-natural threats were observed mostly connected with direct habitat fragmentation triggering rapid decline in vegetation cover. Nevertheless, the grazing, uprooting and cutting were potential and destructive threats for local plant biota which demand prompt conservation plans.

987-994 Download
30

Tree distribution pattern, growing stock characteristics and biomass carbon density of Mongolian scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) plantation of Horqin sandy land, China


Alamgir Khan, Xiao Zhang, Kebin Zhang, Arshad Iqbal, Adnan Ahmad, Sajjad Saeed, Muhammad Hayat and Xiaohui Yang

Tree distribution pattern, growing stock characteristics and biomass carbon density of Mongolian scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) plantation of Horqin sandy land, China


ABSTRACT:

In the recent scenario of global warming, there is a growing concern of planted forest as a potential option for the mitigation of climate change, combating desertification and land degradation. The amount and monitoring of biomass and carbon in planted forests are necessary for policies formulation and mitigation strategies for global climate change. This study estimates tree distribution, growing stock attributes and biomass allocation in different tree components with respect to different diameter classes (4-14, 15-25, 26-36 cm) in planted Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) forests, southern-east China. The study also underlines the carbon density in upper and understory vegetation, soil, litter, deadwood and cone of the planted forest ecosystem. The result showed that stem density, basal area, height, volume and biomass varied between 144 to 25, 1.009 to 1.607 (m2 ha-1), 5.56 to 12.06 (m), 2.77 to 7.71 (m3 ha-1) and 2.74 to 5.17 (Mg ha-1) in respective diameter classes. The maximum biomass in upper story vegetation was recorded in the stem (62.87 %) followed by branches (17.25 %), roots (17.12 %) and foliage (2.69%). The biomass carbon in upper story vegetation was in the range of 1.37 ± 0.11 to 13.96 ± 0.41 Mg C ha-1. Soil carbon was found in the range of 25.10±11.67 to 6.07±2.26 at the depth 0-20 and 80-100 cm respectively. Similarly the carbon stock of litters, dead wood, fruits and grasses was 0.138 and 0.050 (Mg C ha-1) respectively. Altogether, the estimated carbon density of the plantation was 77. 68 (Mg C ha-1). Out of the total carbon, the soil contributed the highest (75.59%) followed by upper story vegetation biomass carbon (22.17%), litter and dead wood (0.17%) and understory vegetation (0.06%) respectively. The results showed that this forest plantation is an important carbon sink and assisting in mitigating climate change.

995-1002 Download
31

Hypericum perforatum L.: An overview of the anticancer potencies of the specimens collected from different ecological environments


Tuba Mert Gönenç, Munir Ozturk, Süleyman Gürdal Türkseven, Petek Ballar Kirmizibayrak, Selin Günal and Sinem Yilmaz

Hypericum perforatum L.: An overview of the anticancer potencies of the specimens collected from different ecological environments


ABSTRACT:

Hypericum genus holds an important place in the flora of Turkey with 46 endemic species out of its naturally growing 96 species. H. perforatum is the most popular and common species. This species has been traditionally used in pain control, wound healing and especially as antidepressant. Its anticancer effects have been lately attracting much attention. To investigate and compare the antiproliferative effects of extracts of the samples collected from eleven different “States” of Turkey. The antiproliferative effect of extracts was determined by WST-1 method on HeLa, U2OS, HCC-1937 cancer cells and MRC-5 non-cancer fibroblast cells. Furthermore, cell death mechanism of the extracts was analyzed by investigating the cleavage level of caspase-7 and PARP-1, which are hallmarks of apoptosis and also the levels of LC3-II and p62 protein levels as markers of autophagy. Only HP10 (collected from Çankırı-Ilgaz) was found to induce apoptosis both using immunoblotting and flow cytometry analysis, while almost all of the extracts cause the induction of autophagy in HeLa cells at their IC50 values. HP10 coded sample was collected from the transition zone between the Black Sea and Central Anatolian Regions, the collection area with highest altitude. According to our results different climatic features effect plant contents as well as their therapeutic effects. Moreover, the amount of compounds that have anticancer activity in the plant  undergo a change with altitude

1003-1010 Download
32

Phenological and physicochemical evaluation of table grapes germplasm growing under arid subtropical climate of Pakistan


Muhammad Tahir Akram, Rashad Waseem Khan Qadri, Muhammad Jafar Jaskani and Faisal Saeed Awan

Phenological and physicochemical evaluation of table grapes germplasm growing under arid subtropical climate of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Eleven grapes cultivars (comprising 4 local and 7 exotics genotypes) were investigated for physicochemical evaluation and to identify early maturing cultivars before monsoon rains that are suitable for arid subtropical climate of Pakistan. Completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications was used in study and differences among means were calculated by Tukey HSD test. On the base of phenological attributes ‘Flame Tokay’, ‘NARC- Black’, ‘King Ruby’ and ‘Early white’ cultivars exhibited early ripening before monsoon rains. Physical parameters were dominantly present in local cultivars. Local genotype ‘Gola’ showed highest bunch length (27.50 cm), berry diameter (17.97 mm) and berry weight (5.37 g). While maximum bunch weight (583.55 g) and bunch width (12.33 cm) was observed in ‘Kishmish’ followed by ‘Haita’ (579.50 g & 11.70 cm), respectively. However, maximum biochemical attributes were observed in exotic cultivars. Maximum TSS (19.10%), TA (1.36%), total sugars (11.77%) and non-reducing sugars (5.03%) were observed in ‘Flame Tokay’ while maximum TSS/TA ratio (41.99) was observed in King Ruby and reducing sugars (7.38%) was observed in Sultanina cultivar. ‘NARC-Black’ was only black color cultivar and was found rich in ascorbic acid contents (28.57 mg 100 g-1). Cluster analysis performed on the bases of biochemical attributes divided into three main groups. Group A was consisted of four exotic genotypes Sultanina, Thomson Seedless, Flame Tokay and Muscat Hambourg, Group C was consisted of only local cultivars Kishmish and Haita while Group 2 was admixture of both local and exotic genotypes. All phenological, physical and biochemical studies showed useful attributes for future grapes improvement programs.

1011-1018 Download
33

A new species of Bromheadia Sect. Aporodes (Orchidaceae) from Terengganu, peninsular Malaysia


Edward Entalai Besi, Dome Nikong, Muskhazli Mustafa and Rusea Go

A new species of Bromheadia Sect. Aporodes (Orchidaceae) from Terengganu, peninsular Malaysia


ABSTRACT:

A new species, Bromheadia petuangensis R.Go et E.E. Besi belonging to Sect. Aporodes is described from hill dipterocarp forest in Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. This species was rescued from an active logging site in Hulu Terengganu. A field taxonomic key to some species of Bromheadia from the Sect. Aporodes in Peninsular Malaysia is provided, together with description, including information on colours, distribution, habitat, ecology, and illustration of the newly discovered species.

1019-1023 Download
34

Camellia hainanica (Theaceae) a new species from Hainan, supported from morphological characters and phylogenetic analysis


Xu Zhenggang, Yuan Deyi, Tang Yongcheng, Wu Liang and Zhao Yunlin

Camellia hainanica (Theaceae) a new species from Hainan, supported from morphological characters and phylogenetic analysis


ABSTRACT:

An unusual Camellia specimen was noticed during field investigations in Hainan Island. In order to identify the phylogenetic position, the complete chloroplast genome sequences and the DNA barcode gene, matk, of the new species and closely related species were employed. The results confirmed that the new species belonged to Camellia section and had close genetic relationship with C. gauchowensis, C. crapnelliana, C. vietnamensis. The general morphology characters of the new plant species, Camellia hainanica YL Zhao et ZG Xu, sp. nov. were described. The pollen microstructure was studied by scanning electron microscope, then above features were compared with closely phylogenetic related Camellia species. Although morphological details were most similar to C. oleifera, the new species have larger fruit and brown rough pericarp. At the same time, the new species can be differentiated by its morphological characters, such as branchlets, bracteoles, stamens and fruit from other related species. All evidences from the characters of morphology, pollen and molecular phylogeny indicated that the plant was a new species and belonged to Camellia sect. Oleifera.

1025-1032 Download
35

Enzymatic depolymerisation of wheat straw into fermentable saccharides by thermophilic cellulases


Ikram Ul Haq, Zinnia Mansoor, Ali Nawaz, Asad-Ur-Rehman and Hamid Mukhtar

Enzymatic depolymerisation of wheat straw into fermentable saccharides by thermophilic cellulases


ABSTRACT:

Bioethanol is in limelight these days being safe and renewable. Its production from plant feed stock is getting considerable importance as it does not pose food competition. Therefore, current study was focused on the enzymatic conversion of wheat straw in to fermentable saccharides which can further be used for bioethanol formation. Thermophilic cellulases i.e. Endo-1,4-β-glucanase, Exo-1,4-β-glucanase and β-1,4-glucosidase were used for this purpose. Differently pretreated i.e. acid and alkali wheat straw samples were analysed for their effective enzymatic conversion to less complex sugars. Two different strategies (Simultaneous and Sequential) for cellulase action on substrate were assessed. Furthermore, effect of different reaction conditions such as buffer, pH, temperature and substrate concentration was also evaluated. Maximum saccharification i.e. 43.78% (p<0.05) have been recorded using alkali treated wheat straw substrate in a concentration of 1.5% (w/v) by sequential addition of cellulases in a citrate phosphate buffer of pH 7 at an incubation temperature of 55°C.The microscopic examination of saccharified biomass showed clear disruption in the cellulose fibres. Moreover, thin layer chromatography of saccharified slurry showed the presence of variable fermentable sachharides

1033-1037 Download
36

Production of lipases from Zygosaccharomyces MRAKII TS16


Tahniyet Shakil, Asia Ahmed and Muhammad Sohail

Production of lipases from Zygosaccharomyces MRAKII TS16


ABSTRACT:

There are number of applications of yeast lipases, hence new and novel strains are constantly explored for higher yields of lipases and improved features. In this work, effect of parameters on the production of lipases from Zygosaccharomyces mrakii TS16 was studied using statistical tool, Plackett-Burman design (PBD). Initially, PBD was generated to study the effect of temperature, pH, incubation period, concentration of olive oil and media type on lipase production. Analysis of the data showed that only one of the factors, media type, had significant effect on lipases production. Consequently, another PBD was generated to evaluate the effect of sources of nitrogen, sugar, lipid along with supplementation of detergent and recycled cooking oil on lipases production by TS16. Although, none of the factors was found having significant effect on lipases production but the titers of more than 7 IU/ml were obtained in presence of peptone, glucose, olive oil, triton X and recycled oil. In a separate set of experiments, the utilization of recycled motor oil, wheat-bran and glycerol was studied. It was observed that the strain produced higher titers of lipases (>8 IU/ml) in presence of glycerol. Therefore, the strain TS16 may be used to produce lipases on inexpensive substrates

1039-1044 Download
37

Trichoderma harzianum improves drought resistance in maize by mediating acetic acid-ethanol metabolic pathways


Zhongyou Ma, Linggao Ge, Cheng Zhou and Xiaoming Lu

Trichoderma harzianum improves drought resistance in maize by mediating acetic acid-ethanol metabolic pathways


ABSTRACT:

Drought stress adversely inhibits plant growth and causes yield loss worldwide. Beneficial Trichoderma species have recently been shown to improve drought resistance in different plant species, whereas the underlying mechanisms of Trichoderma-induced drought resistance of host plants remain largely elusive. Herein, the effects of a Trichderoma harzianum isolate on maize’s responses to drought stress were investigated. Inoculation with T. harzianum significantly promoted the growth and enhanced drought tolerance of maize plants. The whole genome expression profiles of the Trichoderma-inoculated plants were examined by RNA-sequencing, showing that several differentially expressed genes were positively associated with the process of ethanol-acetic acid metabolism. Compared with non-inoculated (control) plants, colonization of maize plant by T. harzianum exhibited the increased abscisic acid (ABA) levels. Drought stress induced a further increase of ABA content in the plants, while the levels of ABA were markedly higher in the inoculated plants than the controls. Virus-mediated silencing of ZmADH1 or ZmALDH12, which was involved in the ethanol-acetic acid metabolic pathways, largely weakened the Trichoderma-induced effects in the drought-treated plants, such as lower leaf relative water content (RWC) and higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Collectively, our results suggested that the Trichoderma-induced changes of ethanol-acetic acid metabolic pathways played a vital role in regulation of maize adaptation to drought stress. 

1045-1054 Download
38

Molecular systematics and evolutionary relationships of some inland gilled basidiomycetes from the Himalayan moist temperate forests of Pakistan based on rDNA marker


Abdul Razaq, Sobia Ilyas and Abdul Nasir Khalid

Molecular systematics and evolutionary relationships of some inland gilled basidiomycetes from the Himalayan moist temperate forests of Pakistan based on rDNA marker


ABSTRACT:

Molecular systematics based on molecular markers has revolutionized traditional taxonomy because of its comprehensive identification, precise methodology and reliable evolutionary affinities. In this study, the phylogeographical history data based on DNA analysis of eleven (11) basidiomycetous fungal species belonging to four different genera of four families from Pakistani Himalayan forests has been presented. In the phylogenetic analysis based on ITS-rDNA marker, five species of Lepiota (Agaricaceae), L. acutesquamosa, L. cristata, L. brunneoincarnata L. subincarnata and L. himalayensis, two species of Hebeloma (Hymenogasteraceae), H. mesophaeum and H. theobrominum showed genetic similarity and evolutionary affinities with European species while two (2) Inocybe (Inocybaceae), Inocybe sp. SR19 and I. cf. rimosa and two (2) species of Gymnopus (Marasmiaceae), Gymnopus sp. 1and Gymnopus sp. 2 showed more symplesiomorphic characters with western and Australian species. Close affinities of Pakistani species (endemic and non-endemic) with European and American species can be related with common evolutionary history in Eurasia and African continents. The sympatric and allopatric isolations due to continental drift and climate change, generated genetic differences among local mycoflora from the western hemisphere and therefore the Pakistani species mostly showed close affinities with western species as both have common origin

1055-1063 Download
39

Nano-silver and non-traditional compounds mitigate the adverse effects of net blotch disease of barley in correlation with up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes


Khaled A A Abdelaal, El-Sayed Abd-Allah El-Shawy, Yaser Mohamed Hafez, Sherif Mohamed Ali Abdel-Dayem, Russel Chrispine Garven Chidya, Hirofumi Saneoka and Ayman El Sabagh

Nano-silver and non-traditional compounds mitigate the adverse effects of net blotch disease of barley in correlation with up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes


ABSTRACT:

Exogenous application of nano-silver, non-traditional compounds and fungicides were used to alleviate the harmful effect of net blotch disease in the highly susceptible Egyptian barley ‘Giza 2000’caused by Pyrenophora teres L. The symptoms of net blotch disease were significantly dwindled as a result of foliar spray with fungicides such as Montero, Belize and Cabri Top. Application of Tilt, Vitavax, Nano-silver, Allicin and Benzothiadiazole (BTH) fungicides moderately controlled the effects of disease severity. While, fungicides Premis, Eugenol and Oxalic acid treatments did not reduce significantly the severity of net blotch disease. As a result of these treatments, the activities of antioxidant enzymes activity were increased significantly as compared with the untreated control plants. The tested treatments were effective, since the electrolyte leakage percentage of treated plants decreased significantly, while the yield attributes were increased significantly as compared with control. The maximum1000-grain weight (g), grain yield (kg ha-1) and biological yield (kg ha-1) were achieved with the application of fungicide ‘Montero’ followed by ‘Belize’. Therefore, the novel findings of the present study may be supportive to farmers and plant breeders with non-traditional compounds and basic mechanisms to create new resistant barley cultivars, consequently, decreasing fungicides use and environmental pollution

1065-1072 Download
40

Molecular characterization of novel isolates of Rhizoctonia solani, Trichoderma atroviride and Fusarium spp. isolated from different plants and cutting woods in Iraq


Aqeel N. Al-Abedy, R.G. Al-Janabi, Z.A. Al-Tmeme, Alaa T. Salim and Muhammad Ashfaq

Molecular characterization of novel isolates of Rhizoctonia solani, Trichoderma atroviride and Fusarium spp. isolated from different plants and cutting woods in Iraq


ABSTRACT:

Three fungal (Fusarium, Rhizoctonia and Trichoderma) species isolated from diseased tomato, maize and wood decayed plants from Iraq were morphologically identified. ITS1 and ITS4 based genetic regions were used for molecular identification and phylogenetic relationship revealed that that Rhizoctonia solani isolates had 99% similarities to Indian, USA and Mexicans isolates. Fusarium solani showed 99% nucleotide identity to Indian, Chinese, Mexicans and Brazilian isolates. Fusarium proliferatum showed >99% nucleotide identity to Asian isolates whereas Trichoderma atroviride showed 99% similarity to Chinese isolates. These identified fungal isolates of F. solani, F. proliferatum and T. atroviride were not previously reported from Iraq and therefore sequences of these fungi were deposited in the GenBank database (NCBI) under the accession numbers KY283953(R. solani), KX000895 (F. solani), KX350051 (F. proliferatum) and KU985151 (T. atroviride) for the first time.

1073-1082 Download
41

Potential of endophytic fungus Aspergillus terreus as potent plant growth promoter


Arooj Javed, Azhar Hussain Shah, Anwar Hussain, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Seema Ali Khan, Wajiha Khan and Sohail Ahmad Jan

Potential of endophytic fungus Aspergillus terreus as potent plant growth promoter


ABSTRACT:

Fungal endophytes are well-noted residents inside plant tissues to assist plant development and fitness. However, plant growth-promoting endophytes (PGPE) are less reported therefore, the objectives of present study were to isolate fungal endophytes, identify and illustrate their potential for plant growth-promotion. Endophyte Aspergillus terreus was selected to check its role in promoting growth of tomato seedlings. The isolate showed positive results for hydrogen cyanide and indole acetic acid (IAA) production, phenols and flavonoids production under In vitro conditions. Endophyte associated tomato seedlings showed higher growth than the control. The results showed that isolated and characterized microbial endophytehad a considerable impact on plant growth parameters and could be helpful as inoculants to improve a sustainable farming system without posing any adverse effect on environment. 

1083-1086 Download
42

Screening of different rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties of genetic diversity and bacterial blight resistance gene  


Rabia Noreen, Samiullah Khan, Ashiq Rabbani, Arzoo Kanwal and Bushra Uzair

Screening of different rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties of genetic diversity and bacterial blight resistance gene  


ABSTRACT:

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important crop feeding about 2.5 billion people around the world and it is a major source of nutrition. Asian countries are the main producers as well as consumers of the rice. Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima are the two common cultivated rice species. Oryza sativa is cultivated in Asian regions, while Oryza glaberrima is cultivated in African region. Rice is the second most important food crop in Pakistan. More than 40% of the world’s rice crop is lost annually due to biotic stress such as pests, insects, weeds and pathogens. This study was carried out to identify bacterial blight resistance genes (Xa13 and Xa21) in Pakistani, Indian, Japanese, Taiwanese and Philippine’s rice varieties. Investigation of genetic diversity among rice varieties was also carried out by total seed proteins profiling using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Protein bands of size ranging from 10 kDa to 125.8 kDa were observed. Genetic similarity values ranged from 0.22 to 1.00 and cluster analysis divided all the varieties into five groups. For molecular identification of Xa13 and Xa21 genes fragment, sequence-tagged-site (STS) markers were used. Xa13 gene fragment was present in 30 varieties and Xa21 gene fragment was present in 43 varieties. Genetic diversity was present among rice varieties. The information about the genetic diversity of studied rice varieties will be very useful in identification and selection of suitable parents for use in breeding programs to develop unique germplasm that complement existing varieties regarding high yield and resistance to bacterial leaf blight disease.

1087-1096 Download
43

Role of rhizobia in suppressing the root rot and root knot disease of chili used alone or with Pseudomonas aeruginosa


Gulnaz Parveen, Faizah Urooj, Hafiza Asma Shafique, Afshan Rahman and Syed Ehteshamul Haque

Role of rhizobia in suppressing the root rot and root knot disease of chili used alone or with Pseudomonas aeruginosa


ABSTRACT:

In this study biocontrol potential of rhizobia individually and in combination with Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated against root rot and root-knot diseases of chilies. In vitro seven rhizobial isolates were tested, NFB-30 (Sinorhizobium sahelens) inhibited growth of all four test fungi Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani and produced zone of inhibition of 10, 2, 2, and 11 mm respectively. Similarly seven isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa tested, PGPR-4, PGPR-6 and PGPR-11 suppressed the radial growth of all four fungi tested. In screen house experiments PGPR-6, PGPR-8, PGPR-11 and PGPR-37 showed significant decrease in infection of root rot fungi in chili. While NFB-28, NFB-30, NFB-31 & NFB-32 rhizobial isolates were found effective. In field experiments co-inoculation of different strains of PGPR with rhizobia showed better control of root rotting fungi and root knot nematode on chili than either component alone.

1097-1104 Download
44

Isolation and evaluation of halotolerant rhizobacteria from Xanthium strumarium L. as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria


Asmat Askar, Yang Shoujun, Muhammad Waseem Abbasi, Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Hamayun, Mamoona Rauf, Mohib Shah, Marium Tariq, Renjie Dong and Humaira Gul

Isolation and evaluation of halotolerant rhizobacteria from Xanthium strumarium L. as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria


ABSTRACT:

Rhizosphere inhabiting bacteria are indirectly or directly modulate plant growth and physiological attributes by secretion of unique metabolites. This study was conducted to isolate and characterize rhizobacteria from a halophytic plant Xanthium strumarium L. to evaluate for their ability to promote growth of maize plant (Zea mays L.). For this purpose four different rhizobacteria were isolated from X. strumarium growing in Mardan district. All isolates were characterized for the production of phytohormones (Indole acetic acid (IAA) and Cytokinins), nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization and salt tolerance ability. All the isolates were biochemically characterized and identified as Staphylococcus sp. (Xs1), Arthrobacter Sp. (Xs2), Enterobacter sp. (Xs3) and Pseudomonas sp. (Xs4). All isolates showed IAA and cytokinins production and one isolate showed nitrogen fixing ability but none showed phosphate solubilization. Of the isolated strains Xs1 and Xs2 showed growth in LB agar containing up to 5.5% NaCl concentration. Seed germination experiments revealed increase in root and shoot lengths, fresh and dry weights of maize seedlings in treated seedlings as compared to control. In pot experiment, growth parameters such as root length, shoot length, fresh and dry weight after 15 days of growth showed enhancement as compared to control. Staphylococcus sp. (Xs1) was found most effective to increase growth of maize seedlings.

1105-1113 Download
45

First insights into the crustose lichen diversity of Musk Deer National Park, with new records to Pakistan


Farhana Ijaz, Niaz Ali, Abeer Hashem, Abdulaziz A. Alqarawi and Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah

First insights into the crustose lichen diversity of Musk Deer National Park, with new records to Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Lichens are an important part of the vegetation, which plays a vital role in the environment i.e. pollution indicator. This research area is completely virgin in Pakistan, as very few studies are found in literature. Since 1965-2012, a total of 368 lichen species have been reported from Pakistan. Here, lichen diversity of an unexplored area (Musk Deer National Park) is documented. This study for the first-time reports nine lichen species from the understory area and with new records of Acarospora socialis and Umbilicaria hirsuta from Pakistan. Most of them were cosmopolitan (Physcia dubia and Xanthoria elegans), while few species had restricted distribution and were found in specific altitudinal ranges (Dermatocarpon miniatum and Rhizocarpon geographicum). Brief description of all taxa reported here is provided

1115-1120 Download
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