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Year 2018 , Volume  50, Issue 6
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1

Salinity and water deficit effects on seed germination and recovery of Lotus populations from Northern Tunisia


Rim Hajri, Chayma Ouhibi, Mouna Mechri, Houda Kourda and Mongi Ben Younes

Salinity and water deficit effects on seed germination and recovery of Lotus populations from Northern Tunisia


ABSTRACT:

Trials were set to assess salinity and water deficit effects on seed germination and recovery of populations of Lotus creticus L. and Lotus ornithopodioides L. species collected from different bioclimatic regions in northern Tunisia. Salinity treatments used were 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mM of NaCl whereas water deficits of 0, -0.2, -0.6, -0.8 and 1.0 MPa were induced using polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG-8000). Seeds of L. creticus L. collected from Tabarka region weighted 3.39 g/1000 seeds which were less than half of this weight for all other Lotus populations but having no effect on seeds germination capacity. Lotus creticus L. seeds collected from Seddine region showed 80% germination at 250 mM of NaCl compared to 55.7% for Tabarka populations. Seed germination of L. ornithopodioides L. was not affected by salinity regardless of population provenance indicating species tolerance to salinity. At -0.4 MPa water potential deficit, seed germination of L. creticusL. collected from Seddine region was reduced by 14% compared to 48.5% reduction for seeds from Tabarka provenance which would indicate its tolerance to water stress. Lotus ornithopodioides L. seed germination was reduced by 47% at -0.2 MPa and almost inhibited at -0.6 MPa water potential indicating species low tolerance to water deficit. Ungerminated seeds of Lotus species due to salinity and PEG-8000 treatments recovered their germination capacity when they were transferred to distilled water regardless of species and provenances indicating osmotic inhibition of seed germination for these two Lotus species

2085-2090 Download
2

Physiochemical transformation of waste of super phosphate industry into new generation silicate fertilizer and its uses for rice growth under saline environment


Mukkram Ali Tahir, Ghulam Sarwar, Muhammad Afzal, Noor-Us-Sabah and Sher Muhammad

Physiochemical transformation of waste of super phosphate industry into new generation silicate fertilizer and its uses for rice growth under saline environment


ABSTRACT:

Rice (OryzaSativaL.) is a major staple food of majority of people in different countries of the world. Rice is highly susceptible to salinity and its yield is severely limited under salt stress environment. However, one favourable character of rice is that it is a silicate accumulator plant. We investigated the effect of new generation Si (silicate) fertilizer (produced from the waste of the phosphate industry, which mainly consisted of amorphous silica, potassium hydroxide, pulverized coal and aluminium chloride) amendments on two contrasting rice varieties. The produced smart Si fertilizer materials were solidified, dried, granulated and calcined to remove toxic compounds and to enhance end product’s solubility. Two rice varieties IRRI-9 (coarse rice) and Basmatti-2000 (fine rice) were grown under saline environment. Twenty six days old uniform sized rice seedlings were transferred in glazed clay pots filled with non-saline  (ECe = 1.66 dS ) and saline soil (induced ECe = 6 dS ) under flooded conditions. New generation Si-fertilizer was used @ 0, 75 and 150 mg Si kg-1 soil. Plants were grown until maturity stage and different physiochemical parameters were investigated. Both, biological and paddy yields of rice were reduced significantly (p< 0.05) due to induced salt stress; however less reduction was observed in coarse as par to fine rice variety. The Si fertilizer amendment in growth environment significantly (p<0.01) enhanced plant dry biomass (4-folds) with reference to control treatment and similarly paddy produce of rice was also enhanced (3-folds) in both plant culture environments. Sodium concentrations in plant shoots were negatively correlated (r= -0.90, p<0.01) with shoot dry matter, but potassium concentrations depicted positive correlation (r=0.90, p<0.01) in rice plants. Induced Na concentration was significantly reduced in plants receiving Si in the growth medium. Shoot Si concentration was significantly correlated with shoot potassium uptake (r=0.66, p<0.05) and insignificantly with shoot Na uptake (r=0.23, p<0.05). Applied silicate fertilizer in the root environment significantly enhanced K to Na ratio in rice genotypes exposed to salinity however, impact on K: Na ratio was insignificant in normal soil. Increased selective K uptake and reduced Na uptake or translocation may be one of the possible strategies of induced salinity tolerance by silicate nutrition in rice

2091-2095 Download
3

Nitrogen fertilizer alleviated negative impacts of NaCl on some physiological parameters of wheat


Muhi Eldeen Hussien Ibrahim, Xinkai Zhu, Guisheng Zhou, Adam Yousif Adam Ali, Irshad Ahmad and Gafar Ali Farah

Nitrogen fertilizer alleviated negative impacts of NaCl on some physiological parameters of wheat


ABSTRACT:

Understanding salinity-fertilizer relationship is of considerable economic importance. Salinity is one of the abiotic stresses limiting crop productivity, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. This study was done to determine whether the nitrogen (N) could alleviate the negative effects of NaCl on several physiological attributes and antioxidative defense system. The results showed that high salinity significantly reduced chlorophyll content (SPAD reading), photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, protein content, and SOD. Moreover, salt treatment increased the activity of CAT and POD. Nitrogen application had significant effects on all the physiological parameters by enhancing chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, protein content, SOD, POD, and CAT. All parameters were significantly affected by the interaction between variety and nitrogen except CAT. The interactive effect between variety and salinity was significant for protein content, SOD, and CAT. The content of protein and the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were significantly affected by the interaction between nitrogen and salinity. In this study, the application of nitrogen fertilizer was successful in alleviating the adverse effects of salinity. Of all the nitrogen levels used in this study, 210 kg -1ha was most effective on most of the measured parameters. The results of this study will be helpful in getting increasing yield by choosing suitable varieties and nitrogen management on saline soils

2097-2104 Download
4

Physicochemical properties of an asexual Epichloë endophyte-modified wild barley in the presence of salt stress


Shuihong Chen, Taixiang Chen, Xiang Yao, Hui Lv and Chunjie Li

Physicochemical properties of an asexual Epichloë endophyte-modified wild barley in the presence of salt stress


ABSTRACT:

Endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E–) wild barley (Hordeum brevisubulatum) tillers were grown in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution using a hydroponic method. Two weeks later, salt stress treatment was initiated with 200 mM sodium chloride for six days. Relevant physiological indicators were then determined. The results showed that the levels of both chlorophyll a/b and carotenoids were significantly higher in plants with endophytic fungi than in those without endophytes. Peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in the endophyte-infected plants were significantly higher than those in endophyte-free plants. The E+ wild barley plants had higher relative water content than did the E– wild barley plants. The contents of proline and soluble sugars in E+ wild barley increased significantly. Under salt stress conditions, the endophyte infection significantly alleviated the stress by up-regulating photosynthetic pigments, the relative water content, proline, and soluble sugar contents compared to those of the E– plants. In conclusion, the asexual Epichloë endophyte significantly reprogrammed the physicochemical properties of the host plants during treatment with 200 mM NaCl.

2105-2111 Download
5

Salinity response of some amphidiploids species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) at seedling and maturity stages


M.U. Shirazi, R.U. Ansari, M.A. Khan, Syeda Saleha Tahir, Muhammad Tahir Rajput, Aisha Shereen and Muhammad Ali

Salinity response of some amphidiploids species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) at seedling and maturity stages


ABSTRACT:

Studies were conducted to evaluate salt tolerance in some amphidiploids species of Brassica (Family: Brassicaceae) at seedling stage (under gravel culture) and at maturity (under saline field conditions). Ten locally adopted genotypes of Brassica (five genotypes of Brassica napus and five of Brassica juncea) were collected from NIA, Tandojam, NIFA Peshawer and ARI Tandojam. Three treatments were imposed (i.e. control, 6.0 and 9.0 dS/m NaCl). It was observed that at early seedling stage the genotypes Early raya & Toria selection of Brassica juncea species and Waster & Dunckled of Brassica napus species had better response to NaCl stress. The better performance of these genotypes under salinity stress might be due to their better osmotic adjustment. The genotype NIFA raya and Durr-e-NIFA of Brassica juncea and Brassica napus species were found more sensitive to NaCl stress, respectively. The physiological studies with respect to osmotic adjustment showed that almost all the genotypes had enhanced proline accumulation however in tolerant genotypes the relative increase (%) was higher. It was also observed that the tolerant genotypes had high K/Na ratio as compared to sensitive ones. The genotypes were also evaluated under natural saline field conditions, where salinity ranged from medium to very high (i.e. 8-16 dS/m). In the field no growth was observed above15 dSm-1. Observation recorded in terms of plant height, number of branches plant-1, number of slique plant-1, slique length, grain wt plant-1, grain yield plot-1 and 100 grain wt., showed that among Brassica juncea genotypes, Early raya  had < 50% decrease under saline condition in all the growth parameters followed by Sultan raya having < 50% reduction in 7 growth parameters. Whereas, among the Brassica napus genotypes Waster and Abaseen-95 performed better, showing < 50% decrease in all the growth parameters under saline field conditions. Based on these studies it is concluded that Early raya and Waster are the suitable genotypes to perform better under saline field conditions

2113-2122 Download
6

Transcriptome analysis of the responses involved in the regulation of cadmium stress by exogenous hydrogen in rice (Oryza sativa)


Lisheng Qian, Ziwei Liu, Jing Wu, Chenchen Zhang, Shoucheng Huang, Xin Liu and Rongfu Wang

Transcriptome analysis of the responses involved in the regulation of cadmium stress by exogenous hydrogen in rice (Oryza sativa)


ABSTRACT:

Cadmium is a major threat to agricultural production and human health. Exogenous hydrogen plays an important role in plant stress resistance through a mechanism that remains unknown. To elucidate this mechanism, this study investigated the effect of exogenous hydrogen on rice (Oryza sativa) gene expression under cadmium stress. Four libraries of the super hybrid rice LYP9 were sequenced through high-throughput sequencing technology. Approximately 13 GB of unique sequences were obtained. Comparative analysis identified 1329 differentially expressed genes in rice with normal growth exposed to exogenous hydrogen and 1217 differentially expressed genes in rice subjected to cadmium stress. The analyses of the functional enrichment and metabolic pathways of the differentially expressed genes revealed that exogenous hydrogen down-regulates the expression levels of stress-related genes under non-stress conditions and up-regulates the expression levels of stress-related genes under cadmium stress. Under non-stress conditions, exogenous hydrogen promotes the expression of genes related to photosynthesis and energy metabolism. Under cadmium stress, exogenous hydrogen down-regulates the expression of energy-metabolism-related genes while inhibiting rice growth by down-regulating the expression of cadmium-transporter-related genes. The latter effect prevents the absorption of cadmium by roots and increases the resistance of rice to cadmium toxicity. This study provides an experimental basis for the in-depth study of the mechanism underlying cadmium tolerance in rice

2123-2129 Download
7

Maize seedlings response to drought stress and re-watering: abscisic acid, a key regulator of physio-biochemical traits and gas exchange parameters


Yan-Lan Liu, Xian-Shi Guo, Ming-Sheng Ma and Xian-Feng Yu

Maize seedlings response to drought stress and re-watering: abscisic acid, a key regulator of physio-biochemical traits and gas exchange parameters


ABSTRACT:

A pot-culture study was conducted to estimate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) and its regulatory mechanisms in maize seedlings to adapt water deficit and re-watering conditions. The maize seedlings (Zea mays L.) were exposed to well-watered, water deficit and re-watering conditions at seedling stage. Results showed that ABA concentration was significantly increased 1.97-fold and 1.73-fold (p<0.01) under moderate and severe drought stress conditions, respectively. Moreover, drought stress significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD and CAT), and the concentration of MDA and O2-. The photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (E) in leaves were decreased by withholding water for 2 days. Our study demonstrated that the plants physio-biochemical traits and gas exchange parameters variation under drought probably were caused by a higher level of ABA. The shoot biomass was reduced by 34.4% and 66.1% and the root biomass was reduced by 44% and 69% under moderate and severe drought stress treatments, respectively. Results showed that the root biomass had more reduction under drought stress treatments, indicating that water deficit affected plants biomass allocation patterns. We conclude that ABA plays an important role in regulating the plant growth under drought stress and re-watering conditions, and improve the osmotic adjustment for plant better growth and development.

2131-2139 Download
8

Salicylic acid mediated heat stress tolerance in selected bread wheat genotypes of Pakistan


Rehana Kousar, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Jalal-Ud-Din, Mubashrah Munir and Ghulam Shabbir

Salicylic acid mediated heat stress tolerance in selected bread wheat genotypes of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Wheat is one of the most important cereal crop significantly affected by continual and terminal heat stress. Phytohormones are recognized as a strong tool for sustainably alleviating adverse effects of abiotic stress in crop plants. The impact of externally applied salicylic acid was investigated on physiological and agronomical traits of five wheat varieties under heat stress in pot and field study. Salicylic acid was applied exogenously through two ways:1) pre-soaking seeds in 10-4 M solution of salicylic acid for 24 hours, and 2) foliar application of salicylic acid to the adult wheat plants three days prior to heat stress, while untreated seeds were used as control. In pots, high temperature stress was imposed to plants at post anthesis stage, whereas, in field study one set was sown late so that plants can receive high temperature at grain filling stage. Both field and pot study revealed that heat stress reduced the grain yield and thousand kernel weights. Heat stress reduced leaf chlorophyll content by 34% and brought about an increase of 40% in proline content, 20% in leaf soluble proteins and 17% in soluble sugars as compared to the control plants. Application of salicylic acid through seed treatment and foliar application increased the chlorophyll content in leaves by 18% and 24%, enhanced soluble protein by 21%, proline by 40% and 47% and sugar accumulation by 81% and 88% respectively, and enhanced the net yield by 19% in pot experiment and by 13% in field experiment in selected wheat genotypes of Pakistan under heat stress. Based on results, it can be concluded that exogenous application of salicylic acid through seed priming or foliar spray led to stimulate heat stress tolerance in local wheat genotypes.

2141-2146 Download
9

Impact of bioaccumulation of nickel on growth, seed yield and mineral uptake of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties


Saima Batool

Impact of bioaccumulation of nickel on growth, seed yield and mineral uptake of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties


ABSTRACT:

A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the bioaccumulation of nickel in chickpea Cicer arietinum L. and its impact on growth, seed yield and mineral contents. NiCl2 as nickel treatment was applied in solution form (25 mg L-1, 50 mg L-1, 100 mg L-1 and 150 mg L-1) to the soil. A significant decreasing trend in shoot length, number of branches, number of leaves and biomass yield  was observed  for all treatments  as compared to control one. Accumulation of nickel in plant shoots was gradually increased with increasing concentrations of nickel application. Contents of Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in shoots were significantly reduced for all treatments which might be due to some interaction of nickel with the uptake of mineral nutrients by the roots and their distribution through the shoots.

 

2147-2150 Download
10

Physiological responses in Lemna minor frond to high concentrations of zinc, lead, copper and chromium 


Peng Xue, Guo Xuying, Ding Zhihai and Xin Guorong

Physiological responses in Lemna minor frond to high concentrations of zinc, lead, copper and chromium 


ABSTRACT:

Robust, rapid bioindicators of heavy metal water pollution, which are responsible for increasing environmental threats globally, are required. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of using short-term (≤ 12 hour) physiological responses of Lemna minor to high concentrations (up to 10 mmol L-1) of zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) for this purpose. The Results showed that: (a) increase in Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cr levels increased fronds’ malonaldehyde (MDA) contents, whereas increase in Pb, Cu, and Cr levels also reduced peroxidase activity (POD), although some of these effects were only observed at high concentrations; (b) high Cu and Cr levels reduced fronds’ chlorophyll contents, but Zn increased chlorophyll content from 0.0016 mmol L-1; (c) all four heavy metals induced frond abscission, and the percentage of frond abscission remain stable (except for Pb) after exposure for 10 h. The maximal concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cr resulted in > 50% frond abscission rates (EFAC50) within 10 h, but Pb induced much weaker responses. Hence frond abscission would not be a suitable short-term indicator of Pb pollution.

 

2151-2157 Download
11

Comparison of impact induced by different priming techniques on germination and plant development in lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum)


Maila Al Saba Shah, Usman Shoukat Qureshi, Saman Chughtai, Khalid Mehmood Qureshi, Abdul Ahad Qureshi and Ishfaq Ahmad Hafiz

Comparison of impact induced by different priming techniques on germination and plant development in lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum)


ABSTRACT:

Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) belongs to family Gentianaceae is becoming one of the most highly ranked cut flowers in international market. Lisianthus seeds exhibited cold-related dormancy and slow germination rate. Seed priming techniques have been utilized to increase germination attributes and improve germination uniformity. The present study was conducted to enhance germination uniformity and plant development in Lisianthus by using different priming techniques. The effect of different concentrations of gibberellic acid (250, 500 and 1000 ppm GA3), potassium nitrate (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% KNO3), hydro priming (DW, CDW, WDW) and control was examined on germination and other physiological parameters. Complete Randomized Design (CRD) was used for nine treatments with five replications. Plants treated with GA3 of concenteration 1000 ppm had a positive impact on all parameters ( mean germination time, germination index, plant height, number of leaves, stem length, number of flowers, size of flower fresh and dry plant weight). It seems that GA3 and KNO3 can be replaced partly to improve seed germination of lisianthus seeds. Therefore, it is concluded that for best germination and plant growth parameters of Lisianthus seeds, harmonal (GA3) and halo priming (KNO3) can be used

2159-2165 Download
12

The application of exogenous gibberellic acid enhances wheat seedlings UV-B tolerance by ameliorating DNA damage and manipulating UV-absorbing compound biosynthesis in wheat seedling leaves


Limei Gao, Xiaofei Wang, Zhihua Shen and Yongfeng Li

The application of exogenous gibberellic acid enhances wheat seedlings UV-B tolerance by ameliorating DNA damage and manipulating UV-absorbing compound biosynthesis in wheat seedling leaves


ABSTRACT:

DNA damage is one of the key parameters to detect UV-B tolerance because DNA is one of the primary targets for UV-B light. Here, we evaluated UV-B stress-induced genomic DNA damages and its self-repair ability in wheat seedlings with or without gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment. The application of exogenous GA3 exhibited the better phenotypic development, less inhibition effects in biomass production and a lower accumulation level of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and (6-4) photoproducts (6-4PPs) in leaves of wheat seedlings under supplementary UV-B stress than those without GA3 treatment, indicating that GA3 ameliorated the detrimental effects and DNA damages induced by the enhanced UV-B stress, in which the 150mg L-1 of GA3 is the most effective treatment. After exogenous GA3 treatment, the UV-absorbing compounds (UACs) contents and DNA photolyase activity also significantly increased, whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were similar between two groups with or without GA3 application under UV-B stress. These results have demonstrated that GA3 enhanced wheat seedlings UV-B tolerance by initiating DNA damage repair pathway in leaves of wheat seedlings exposed to supplementary UV-B stress, which were mainly implemented through activating DNA photorepair capability and elevating UV-B absorbance amounts in vivo in plants.

2167-2172 Download
13

Effects of shading on some morphological and physiological characteristics of Begonia semperflorens


Yuanbing Zhang, Airong Liu, Xueping Zhang and Shoucheng Huang

Effects of shading on some morphological and physiological characteristics of Begonia semperflorens


ABSTRACT:

Potted Begonia semperflorens were exposed to different levels of shading (25%, 50%, 75%, 87%, and 93%) to investigate the response of the morphological and physiological characteristics of this plant. Results revealed that, as the level of shading increased, the leaf area, water content, superoxide anion (O2·-) production rate, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and plasma membrane permeability exhibited increasing trends when compared with natural light. By contrast, the relative contents of anthocyanin, soluble sugar, starch and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity displayed decreasing trends. However, number of flowers per plant, chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase (NR), and peroxidase (POD) activities initially increased but subsequently decreased. Comprehensive analysis indicated that different light intensities exerted different degrees of influence on the morphological characteristics, ornamental quality and physiological characteristics of B. semperflorens. This plant can adapt from full illumination to 87% shading, and the number of flowers increased under 25–75% shading, at which the best ornamental quality was also observed.

2173-2179 Download
14

Mitigating heat induced damages in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by HSP70 modulation


Muhammad Kazim Ali, Abid Azhar, Iram Us Salam, Syed Irtifaq Ali and Saddia Galani

Mitigating heat induced damages in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by HSP70 modulation


ABSTRACT:

Stress induced cell damages leading necrosis is considered as major challenges in sustainable agriculture production in times of climate change and can be prevented by various factors particularly remediate effect of HSP70. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) thermo-tolerance at molecular level are still enigmatic hence expression pattern of heat shock protein (HSP70) was determined in eight rice cultivars subjected to heat stress (42±2ºC) followed by recovery (28±2ºC) treatments at early growth stage. Growth characteristics along with free radicals (H2O2) accumulation and level of lipid peroxidation (MDA) were determined as stress damage indicators while expression pattern of HSP70 protein was used as stress tolerance scoring. Results revealed that expression level of HSP70 was increased with duration of thermal stress and declined upon recovery. Among all the cultivars relatively “Sada” Hayat had maximum malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 accumulation and late induction and fast decay of HSP70 showed susceptibility towards heat stress while such a damage was the least observed in K-95, having consistent and strong expression of HSP70 during heat stress and recovery treatments. This study concludes that prompt induction in expression of HSP70 during heat stress condition and slow decay during recovery for long-term memory is desirable trait for acquisition of thermo-tolerance in rice.

2181-2187 Download
15

Complete chloroplast genome of a valuable economic tree, Lindera glauca (Lauraceae) and comparison with its congeners


Biao Xiong, Limei Zhang, Lei Xie, Shubin Dong and Zhixiang Zhang

Complete chloroplast genome of a valuable economic tree, Lindera glauca (Lauraceae) and comparison with its congeners


ABSTRACT:

Lindera glauca (Lauraceae), widely distributed in the subtropical region, is a tree of economic and ecological significance. Its fruits are rich in oil and wild resources are abundant. Here, we assembled the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Lindera glauca and compared it to chloroplast genomes of seven other species in Lauraceae. Cleaned reads from paired-end Illumina sequencing were mapped to a published plastome (Litsea glutinosa) and mapped onto the chloroplast genome of L. glauca using the BLAT and Geneious programs successively. The complete chloroplast genome size was 152,780 bp with 39.16% GC content, containing a pair of inverted repeats of 20,059 bp, which were separated by a large and a small single copy region of 93,809 bp and 18,853 bp, respectively. The genome encoded 125 genes, including 81 protein-coding, 36 transfer RNA, and 8 ribosomal RNA genes. In addition, 67 microsatellite sites were found, and 5 primer pairs were developed that were polymorphic in 90 L. glauca individuals. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole chloroplast sequences demonstrated that L. glauca was closely related to Litsea glutinosa, and Cinnamomum micranthum was sister to the rest of the species sampled. The complete chloroplast genome presented here is the first for L. glauca is and is the first in the genus Lindera. These results have the potential to be a valuable genome resource for further studies of the phylogenetics, genetic variation, and population genetic structure of the important economic plant.

2189-2196 Download
16

Identification of GS1a, GS1b and GS1c genes from Eichhornia crassipes and their transcript analysis in response to different nitrogen sources


Minghui Fu, Lihua Jiang and Guohua Yan

Identification of GS1a, GS1b and GS1c genes from Eichhornia crassipes and their transcript analysis in response to different nitrogen sources


ABSTRACT:

Eichhornia crassipes was one of the fastest growing plants on earth. It can assimilate nitrogen very efficiently. Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism. Thus research of GS in Eichhornia crassipes could help to explain the mechanism of the ability of E. crassipes to assimilate nitrogen. In this study, we cloned three cytosolic GS cDNAs, GS1a, GS1b and GS1c from the roots of E. crassipes using the RACE method, studied the characterizations with the yeast complementation experiment and analyzed the expressions of GS1a, GS1b and GS1c with qRT-PCT in response to different nitrogen sources in roots and leaves. They were approximately 1400-1500 nucleotide encoding proteins with 354-356 amino acids that functionally complemented the mutant yeast ΔGln for growth on ammonium as the sole source of nitrogen. Their relative expression level was markedly up-regulated under the status of nitrate as the only nitrogen source except that of GS1b in roots, which was only up-regulated less than one fold, and GS1a in leaves, which was up-regulated under condition of nitrogen deprivation. All these results suggested that E. crassipes has at least three different cytosolic GS1 genes which have typical conserved domains of GS gene and can functionally complement the mutant yeast that is deprived of the GS gene. All these E. crassipes GS1 genes have different expression patterns in response to different nitrogen sources.

2197-2204 Download
17

QTL mapping of plant height, spike length, peduncle length and number of grains per plant in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using ‘Steptoe/Morex’ DH population grown in northwest of China


Farhana Kumbhar, Jianxin Bian, Tanveer Ali Sial, Altaf Hussain Lahori, Xi Chang, Xiaojun Nie, Siraj Ahmed Channa and Song Weining

QTL mapping of plant height, spike length, peduncle length and number of grains per plant in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using ‘Steptoe/Morex’ DH population grown in northwest of China


ABSTRACT:

In the present study, 120 out of 150 barley double haploid lines, obtained by crossing ‘Steptoe’ x ‘Morex’, were screened for the 4 traits including plant height, peduncle length, spike length and grains plant-1, during three crop years in the area of Northwestern China. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was performed from the available genotype datasets using the 4.1Version of QTL IciMapping. In total, 15 QTLs were mapped on six linkage groups (1H, 2H, 3H, 4H, 5H and 7H) which explained 5.42% to 47.27% phenotypic variation. Four QTLs were recognized in three years for plant height including two QTLs of major impact, one on chromosome 2H in 2014-15 and 2015-16, and the other was detected only in 2016-17 on chromosome 4. While for spike length, four QTLs were found. Six QTLs were identified underlying the trait peduncle length with three major QTLs, two on chromosome 2H in 2015-16 and 2016-17, and one on 3H in 2014-15 and 2015-16. One major QTL for the trait grains plant-1 was identified in 2015-16. Our study could lay the foundation for the fine mapping of agronomic traits studied and could increase the efficiency of marker assisted selection (MAS) in barley breeding programs aiming at improvement of these traits.

2205-2214 Download
18

Genetic mapping and QTL analysis associated with fusarium head blight resistance at different developmental stages in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using recombinant inbred lines


Le Chang, Zhiyuan Guo, Ximei Li and Ping Mu

Genetic mapping and QTL analysis associated with fusarium head blight resistance at different developmental stages in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using recombinant inbred lines


ABSTRACT:

In order to reveal the genetic basis of wheat FHB resistance of a recombinant inbreed line (RIL) population including 160 plants derived from a cross between PI277012 and Yumai 18 was used in this study. Wheat recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was inoculated in a suspension of Fusarium graminearum spores and cultured indoor, during which pathogenesis was observed. Disease index and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) were calculated based on the data that collected on days 5, 10, and 15, in order to analyze the dynamic changes in wheat FHB resistance at different developmental stages. During the first stage, no QTL (quantitative trait locus) was found, and disease resistance index of each strain was increased steadily and uniformly. We speculated that when Fusarium graminearum started to expand in wheat spikelet, the wheat plant has yet to respond to the infection, resulting in a minor difference in disease resistance between the different lines. During the second stage, four QTLs were found, which were mapped to chromosomes1A, 1D, 3B and 4D, respectively, with QTLs located between wmc777 and barc147on chromosome 3B, which was consistent with previous results. We speculated that the large differences in resistance index in this stage were attributed to the reaction of the FHB-resistant QTLs, leading to differences among different wheat strains. During the third stage, three QTLs were located on chromosomes1A, 5A and 7A, respectively. Compared with the traditional field cultured inoculation, field topsoil inoculation or natural breeding, the indoor experiment was highly controlled, facilitating annual comparison independent of variations in climate.

 

2215-2221 Download
19

An efficient transient assay for CRISPR CAS9 system delivering targeted mutation using synthetic oligo SgRNA in soybean (Glycine max)


Noor Al Amin, Naveed Ahmad, Wu Nan, Fu Xiuming, Wang Nan Bo Xiaoxue, Ma Tong and Wang Piwu

An efficient transient assay for CRISPR CAS9 system delivering targeted mutation using synthetic oligo SgRNA in soybean (Glycine max)


ABSTRACT:

In recent years CRISPR Cas9 system has been proved as a versatile genetic tool for efficient target mutation in a variety of plants.  (CRISPR)-associated Cas9 Nuclease system can efficiently incorporate high frequency targeted mutation wherein Cas9 act as endonuclease coupled with an oligosgRNA sequence. This RNA guided nuclease complex causes a Cas9-directed nick production in nuclear DNA in the form of double-strand breaks (DSBs). Importantly, our findings revealed various factors affecting the specificity and activity of small guide RNAs (sgRNAs), casting a new light on flexibility and efficiency of sgRNA encountering with targeted mutagenesis in various agronomical crops. We demonstrated an efficient protocol and online resources used for the optimization of best possible sgRNA designing and it’s (PAM) Protospacer Adjacent Motif to achieve targeted mutation in FAD2-1A. Collectively our findings confirmed an efficient transient expression assay of FAD2-1A gene in isolated protoplasts via PEG mediated transformation.  High throughput protein modeling revealed the successful integration of targeted mutation induced by Small guide RNA induced CRISPR Cas9 system. Preferably, these findings can be replicated in designing multiple novel genome models to facilitate efficient target mutagenesis and gene expression approaches in several other higher plants.

2223-2230 Download
20

Analysis of genetic difference within and between of wild relatives of sorghum in Sudan, using SSRs


Yasir Ahmed Gamar, Elfadil Ma Bashir, Wilson Kimani, Ibrahim A. Alaraidh, Hassan O. Shaikhaldein, Martina Kyallo, Inosters Nzuki and Robert Skilton

Analysis of genetic difference within and between of wild relatives of sorghum in Sudan, using SSRs


ABSTRACT:

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) originated in East Africa specifically Sudan and Ethiopia where wild relatives of sorghum are widely distributed. The wild relatives harbored important genes. However they are often ignored and orphaned. This study aimed to explore genetic diversity among the accessions, and the results will enhance the utilization of wild sorghum in Sudan. 59 wild and cultivated sorghum accessions, representing three sorghum growing regions in Sudan: Gezira state (central), North Kordofan (Western), and the Gadareff area (Eastern). The materials were assessed for genetic diversity and population structure using a panel of 32 SSR markers. A total of 255 allelic variations were detected with a mean of 0.6721. The Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) value averaged 0.6301 showing the polymorphic and discriminatory nature of the selected markers. The populations showed little external gene-flow. Variations calculated with AMOVA are lower among populations (4%), moderate within individuals (23%), and higher among individuals within population (73%). A rooted neighbor-joining tree of four sorghum cultivars and 55 wild relatives revealed three distinct groups independent on their geographical origins. The results will be useful for future collection and utilization in genetics and breeding program

2231-2236 Download
21

Effects of electromagnetic fields (created by high tension lines) on some indigenous plant species – V. Boraginaceae Juss., Brassicaceae Burnett and Caesalpiniaceae R. Br.


Sahar Zaidi, Surayya Khatoon, M. Imran and Sadaf Zohair

Effects of electromagnetic fields (created by high tension lines) on some indigenous plant species – V. Boraginaceae Juss., Brassicaceae Burnett and Caesalpiniaceae R. Br.


ABSTRACT:

The effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs, created by high tension wires) were studied on 34 plant specimens belonging to 9 species of 3 angiosperm families, i.e., Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae and Caesalpiniaceae. The specimens were collected from their natural ecosystems, growing in and around Karachi, under high tension wires of 132, 220 and 500 kilo volts. The same species were also collected as control specimens from areas free from high tension wires. The test and control specimens were studied for PMC meiosis, meiotic product and pollen fertility. A significantly higher frequency of meiotic abnormalities and pollen sterility was observed in the test over the control specimens. Besides, a considerable increase in the magnetic field strength was observed with the increase in voltage of high tension wires. Significantly higher percentages of meiotic abnormalities occurred in the test specimens compared to controls. These abnormalities included univalents and multivalent formation, stickiness, precocious chromosomes, laggards, bridges, multipolar division etc. The study of meiotic product showed the formation of diads and hypertetrads in addition to the normal tetrads. In addition, the percentage of sterile pollen grains was significantly higher in the high EMF exposed specimens.

 

2237-2244 Download
22

Cytogenetic biomonitoring of Almadinah Almunawarah municipal wastewater treatment plant using the Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay


Mohammad K. Alotaibi and Ibrahim O. Barnawi

Cytogenetic biomonitoring of Almadinah Almunawarah municipal wastewater treatment plant using the Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay


ABSTRACT:

This study aims to find out if the cytotoxic and genotoxic responses of Allium cepa are valuable biomarkers of the current conventional wastewater treatment protocols, used in the municipal wastewater plant located in Almadinah Almunawarah city (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia).  Wastewater samples were collected at two different times, winter (February 2016) and summer (July 2016) seasons from the municipal wastewater plant. Allium cepa bulbs were exposed to different concentrations (100, 50, 25, and 12.5%) of treated wastewater for 12 h. In addition, Allium cepa bulbs were exposed to tap water, which was used as a negative control. The Feulgen reaction was used to stain three root tips from each onion bulb. Subsequently the frequency of different types of chromosome aberrations (CA), percentage of aberrant cells (%Abc), and mitotic index (%MI) were determined and compared to tap water, treated wastewater induced CA and decreased MI in a dose dependent manner. In addition, the %MI and %Abc in winter and summer were similar. To conclude, the treated wastewater may contain toxic compounds leading to mutagenicity and CA. According to these ļ¬ndings, the biomonitoring studies and the treatment of wastewater in Almadinah Almunawarah are needed.

2245-2249 Download
23

Efficient micropropagation via somatic embryogenesis of potential cultivar Sagai of Phoenix dactylifera L.


Saleh Alansi, Fahad Al-Qurainy, Mohammad Nadeem, Salim Khan, Abdel-Rhman Z. Gaafar, Mohamed Tarroum and Aref Alshameri

Efficient micropropagation via somatic embryogenesis of potential cultivar Sagai of Phoenix dactylifera L.


ABSTRACT:

The plantlets of date palm were regenerated using somatic embryogenesis. The combination of phytohormones, 5 mg BA/L and 80 mg 2,4-D/L gave the highest percentage of callus induction (88%) as compared to the other combinations. Moreover, significant differences were found between the explants (shoot tip and leaf primordia) in the induction of callus. The first initial callus emergence was observed in a shortest period (25.5 days) with above combination. The highest mean values index for the formation of embryogenic callus was 4.75 on MS medium containing 5 mg NAA/L and 2.5 mg BA/L. The best result on somatic embryogenesis was observed on 1/3 of MS medium, and 13 weeks of culture duration. The highest percent germination of somatic embryos was found 100% on MS media with full salt strength supplemented with 0.7 mg IBA/L or MS media having half salt strength supplemented with 0.5 mg IBA/L. The highest number of roots with length were observed on MS medium supplemented with 60 g/L of sucrose or ¼ strength of MS medium. At the  acclimatization stage, the combination of peat moss and perlite (2:1 ratio) gave the maximum percentage of survival of plants (86.66%) with significant difference

2251-2258 Download
24

Heavy metal accumulation in plants of Atyrau region


Zarina Inelova, Svetlana Nesterova, Gulzhan Yerubayeva, Yessimsiitova Zura, Kalamkas Seitkadyr and Yelena Zaparina

Heavy metal accumulation in plants of Atyrau region


ABSTRACT:

This article represents data on determination of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, Ni) in the samples of dominant plants and soils of Atyrau region in Kazakhstan. High population density and enhanced agriculture and industrial activity are main reasons for pollution and degradation of vegetation in these areas. Accumulation of heavy metals in forage plants and subsequent transfer of metals along the food chain might have a negative impact on the health of the population. The areas for sample collection were as follows: Point 1 (Atyrau, farm, Ulan), Point 2 (Kulsary, v. Turgysba) and Point 3 (v. Inder, farm, Isayev). The ability for heavy metal accumulation was different in various plant species. It was revealed that Artemisia terrae-albae was able to accumulate the highest concentration of the heavy metals namely lead, zinc, nickel and manganese compared with the other species. Tamarix ramosissima and Ceratocarpus arenarius were distinctive as having the least amount of heavy metals compared with the other species growing in similar environmental conditions. In all the studied areas the content of heavy metals was within the maximum permissible level. However, it was observed that the insignificant evaluation of zinc and cobalt up to 1.09-1.72 MPC might be related to physiographic and geologic factors of the studied area.

2259-2263 Download
25

In silico profiling and characterization of conserved microRNAs in biofuel plant sorghum


Muhammad Din, Muhammad Younas Khan Barozai and Ahmad Naseer Aziz

In silico profiling and characterization of conserved microRNAs in biofuel plant sorghum


ABSTRACT:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNAs, noncoding and transcribed endogenously that directly involved in regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Majority of the miRNAs are highly conserved in plants that provide the rationality for identification of new conserved miRNAs in other species of plants through comparative genomics. In this research project, the reported known plant miRNAs were blasted against the Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) database of Sorghum, and following the series of stringent criteria of miRNAs profiling and characterization via homology search. Hence, a total of 25 miRNAs were identified in biofuel plant Sorghum. For them 4247 potential target genes were also predicted which belongs to the 142 Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment terms of biological processes, molecular functions and cellular components. These GO enrichment terms appear to be involved in transcription factors, growth and development, metabolism, stress related, disease related and other physiological processes. The findings of this research will enable the researchers for better devising of Sorghum plant for biofuel qualities and traits.

 

2265-2275 Download
26

Assessment of Lathyrus species accession variability using visual and statistical methods


Bogna Zawieja, Wojciech Rybinski, Kamila Nowosad and Jan Bocianowski

Assessment of Lathyrus species accession variability using visual and statistical methods


ABSTRACT:

Underestimated lesser-known species often prove to be a very attractive object of research. For example, they adapt very well to various marginal growing conditions, e.g. highlands, arid areas, salt-affected soils, etc. Some species of the genus Lathyrus may be examples of such crops. In this study the species and their accessions were compared as regards to coefficients of variation. A considerable degree of variability is important to breeders of new varieties, since the chance of obtaining new cultivars significantly different from established varieties is thus increased. Thus the coefficients of variation were compared using both visual and statistical methods, with those highest in value being of greatest interest. The highest variability of 100 seeds weight was noticed in species L. aphaca, L. clymenum, L. hirsutus

2277-2284 Download
27

Determination of some yield and quality characteristics among individual plants of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) populations grown under Mediterranean conditions in Turkey


Cigdem Sonmez, Ayse Ozse Simsek Soysal, Hulya Okkaoglu, Unal Karik, Amir Hasan Taghiloofar and Emine Bayram

Determination of some yield and quality characteristics among individual plants of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) populations grown under Mediterranean conditions in Turkey


ABSTRACT:

This research was carried out on the individual plants of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.). In this research, the main aim was to find out the characteristics of the individual plants; to determine the existence of promising plants to continue the study under Mediterranean condition, and lastly to determine the genotypes which are able to supply the  highest yield with better quality. In the study, the characteristics such as the plant height (cm), the flower height (cm), fresh plant yield (g/plant) and the essential oil rate (%) of 260 plants in the first year and 256 plants in the second year were measured. In the individual plants, the highest drug flower yields were 84.70 and 113.30 g/plant in first and second years of study respectively. The essential oil content varied between 0.07% and 4.58% in 2015, 0.05% and 3.55% in 2016 respectively. The results indicated that there was great variation among the individual plants in intrapopulation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. The seeds of population as palnt material obtained from Pharmasaat GmbH (Germany). Thus the superior genotypes in terms of drug flower yield and essential oil contents can be used in plant breeding programs to develop useful variations for enhancing the oil yield.

2285-2290 Download
28

Anatomical structures of Reaumuria soongorica in Alashan Desert


Ruixiang Liu, Yingmei Ma, Xinghua Zhao, Shichao Chen, Yanjie Mi and Tiange Wang

Anatomical structures of Reaumuria soongorica in Alashan Desert


ABSTRACT:

Reaumuria soongorica endemic to Alashan desert, Inner Mongolia, China is tolerant to extreme arid and saline soil environment that plays a vital role in maintaining environmental sustainability. It possessed unique anatomical structures capable of adaptation to desert environment. In order to understand the relationship between the anatomical structures and its abiotic stress tolerances, this study was designed to examine leaf, stem, and root anatomical structures of R. soongorica from ‘Luanjingtan’, ‘Changliushui’, and ‘Wuliji’ within Alashan desert using paraffin section and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Extreme arid and saline soil profiles of three sampling sites revealed by low soil moisture content and high salt content with negative soil water potential.  Extreme arid and saline soil conditions enabled R. soongorica to have more leaf mesophyll cells and in return with more stem cortex cell shrinkage and cellular osmotic adjustment compounds using paraffin section method. Thick leaf epicuticle and small mesophyll cell size were also found which is involved in preventing leaf water loss. Low leaf stomata density (213.68 ± 71.72 mm-2), high amount of salt glands (24.5±0.5 mm-2), and abundant salt crystals on leaf and stem surface as well as xylem vessels were observed under scanning electron microscopy. Specialized multicellular salt gland was structurally formed by five to seven specialized epidermal cells as an ‘opened flower’ shape to secret extra salt out of leaf. In summary, arid and saline soil in Alashan desert enabled R. soongorica to form succulent leaf with thick cuticles, subsidized stomata with low density, and salt glands to decrease leaf transpiration and reduce salt toxicity to maintain active growth

2291-2299 Download
29

First report on the flora of dams and water breakers in an arid desert of the United Arab Emirates


Tamer Mahmoud, Hatem A. Shabana and Sanjay Gairola

First report on the flora of dams and water breakers in an arid desert of the United Arab Emirates


ABSTRACT:

This paper provides the first comprehensive checklist of vascular plant flora of dams and water breakers in hyper-arid desert habitats of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Surveys in 66 dams and water breakers were conducted to explore flora of these areas. A total of 248 plant species belonging 170 genera distributed in 50 families were recorded. Among these, two regionally endemic species Pulicaria edmondsonii and Schweinfurthia imbricata, in addition to 34 rare species, were recorded from the study area. The chorological analysis showed that the floristic composition is dominated by Saharo-Arabian elements, with 149 species. The life form spectrum indicated that therophytes were the most represented (46%) and Helophytes was the least represented life form group. Analysis of plant growth form shows that the occurrence of annual plants was high, followed by the perennials.

2301-2310 Download
30

Pollen morphology of some Fritillaria L. species (Liliaceae) from Iran


Shahla Hosseini

Pollen morphology of some Fritillaria L. species (Liliaceae) from Iran


ABSTRACT:

Pollen grains of 5 taxa from the genus Fritillaria L. in Iran were studied by scanning electron microscopy. Detailed pollen morphological features are given for these taxa. Pollens were monosulcate and ellipsoidal. Sulcus extends from distal to proximal in all studied taxa. Results shows that the sculpturing of the exine, pollen membrane ornamentation and lumina shape provides valuable characters for separating species. Based on these characters, 3 main pollen types were determined with three different exine sculpturing: reticulate, reticulate-perforate and suprareticulate

2311-2315 Download
31

Plant alpha and beta diversity in relation to spatial distribution patterns in different plant community types


Naghmeh Piroozi, Asghar Kohandel, Mohammad Jafari, Ali Tavili and Ghasem Mortezaii Farizhendi

Plant alpha and beta diversity in relation to spatial distribution patterns in different plant community types


ABSTRACT:

While β-diversity is shaped by spatial turnover and nestedness, research on the effects of spatial patterns of plants on these components of β-diversity is limited. Therefore, to determine how spatial pattern in different vegetation types may be related to plant α- and β-diversity as well as turnover and nestedness components of β-diversity, we assessed plant spatial patterns in three communities dominated by shrubs, woody and trees species in the semi-arid regions of central parts of Zagros mountain, Iran. In order to determine the spatial patterns of dominant plant, the Morisita index was used. Additive partitioning diversity was used to partitioning the total diversity (γ-diversity) into α-and β-diversity and partitioning β-diversity into spatial turnover and nestedness. The observed Morisita indices indicated that dominant species in forest and shrubland were aggregated (Id = 1.445; Id = 1.258, respectively) while, in woodland regular patterns observed (Id = 0.94). The positive and negative effects of aggregated patterns were related to increase and decrease of diversity within and among samples, respectively, that reflected the role of disturbances filters on vegetation heterogeneity. Partitioning β-diversity into its components revealed that spatial turnover was the main contributor to β-diversity that revealed the overall patterns of multiple-sites dissimilarity of our plant communities were driven by the spatial turnover (species replacement) component and not by the nestedness component. We demonstrated that disturbance types affected the importance and interactions within plants in these communities, and caused different spatial patterns of the plant taxa resulted in variation on diversity components and turnover.

2317-2323 Download
32

Eco-taxonomic distribution of some colonial cyanophycota from north-east Punjab, Pakistan


Nadeem-Ullah and Ghazala Yasmeen Butt

Eco-taxonomic distribution of some colonial cyanophycota from north-east Punjab, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

This study was carried out in four districts of Punjab i.e. Gujranwala, Gujrat, Narowal and Sialkot, which represents the north-east region of Pakistan. The sampling was performed randomly in different seasons of the year and 35 colonial species of cyanophycota belonging to 9 genera were identified. Most of the species were found abundantly in summer season and at alkaline pH greater than 7, which indicate that warmer conditions are required for optimal growth of colonial cyanophycota. Among 35 colonial cyanophycotes, Largest genus was found to be Aphanocapsa with its 8 species having variable pH and EC ranging from 7.68-8.9 and 75.3-144, followed by Merismopedia (7 spp.) having pH and EC ranging from 7.66-8.7 and 92.8-161, Chroococcus (5 spp.) having pH and EC ranging from 7.87-9.8 and 93.67-150.5, Gloeocapsa (4 spp.) having pH and EC ranging from 8.12-8.82 and 130.8-149.2,  Synechoccus (3 spp.) having pH and EC ranging from 8.5-8.88 and 102.8-135 and Microcystis (3 spp.) having pH and EC ranging from 7.85-8.7 and 122.3-126, Gloeothece (2 spp.) having pH and EC ranging from 8.12-8.36 and 109.5-118.7, Aphanothece (2 spp.) having pH and EC ranging from 8.07-9.21 and 116.8-122.7 and Eucapsis (1 sp.) with pH and EC i.e., 8.3 and 12.02 respectively. 

2325-2330 Download
33

Ring width characteristics of 4 pine tree species from highly disturbed areas around Murree, Pakistan 


Afsheen Khan, Moinuddin Ahmed, Adam Khan and Muhammad Faheem Siddiqui

Ring width characteristics of 4 pine tree species from highly disturbed areas around Murree, Pakistan 


ABSTRACT:

Observational and quantitative ring width characteristics of 4 pine species i.e., 1. Abies pindrow, 2. Cedrus deodara, 3. Pinus wallichiana, 4. Pinus roxburghii from highly disturbed sites of Murree Hills were studied. From each pine tree species wood (cores) samples were collected, prepared in the laboratory, studied under microscope and measured by Velmex measuring machine attached with the computer. Dendrochronological techniques were followed in the study. All four species showed clear ring boundaries, distinct rings without any missing or locally missing rings while double or false rings were recorded in Pinus roxburghii and Pinus wallichiana only. Wide or complacent rings were common in each species. Ring width pattern was cross dateable within species with some common narrow rings were also recorded among the species. Cores show poor correlation with master chronology of each species. Highest mean ring width (3.40mm) was recorded in Cedrus deodara while lowest (1.3mm) was observed in Pinus roxburghii. Unfiltered Autocorrelation was from 0.515 to 0.585 and mean sensitivity ranged from 0.37 (Cedrus deodara) to 0.433 (Abies pindrow). It was shown that observational characteristics were similar to undisturbed sites while correlation with master chronology was extremely poor if compared with trees of undisturbed site. It is concluded that besides poor correlation among the samples of a tree species and between species there is no difference between the trees of disturbed and non-disturbed areas

2331-2337 Download
34

Comparative population ecology of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. subspecies Caffra (Sond) in two rural villages of Limpopo province, South Africa


Tebogo Alison Mocheki, Maanda Hadzhi Ligavha-Mbelengwa, Milingoni Peter Tshisikhawe, Nonkululeko Swelankomo, Thivhilaeli Robert Tshivhandekano, Mokgaetji Georgina Mokganya, Luvhimba Isaac Ramovha and Ndivhaleni Anox Masevhe

Comparative population ecology of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. subspecies Caffra (Sond) in two rural villages of Limpopo province, South Africa


ABSTRACT:

Sclerocarya birrea (A Rich.) Hochst. subspecies caffra (Sond) is a plant species belonging to the Anacardiaceae family. In South Africa, it is dominant in the Baphalaborwa area in the Limpopo Province. Throughout its distribution range, S. birrea is a keystone species that is highly utilized by herbivores and people. Understanding the utilization pattern assist in determing if the population is not negatively affected. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the distribution patterns and population status of S. birrea in Ga-Makhushane and Tshivhongweni villages in the Limpopo Province. The study will investigate the influence of culture in utilization of S. birrea resources since the study area are made up of communities of people from different cultures. Nearest-neighbour method of sampling individuals within a population of plants was used to collect data on S. birrea populations which was analyzed using Analysis of Variance. It was found that the populations were regularly distributed meaning there is an antagonistic relationship of the species with the users in both villages, and there was also a significant difference in distribution patterns between the two villages. It was concluded that although S. birrea is regularly distributed in both villages, there are differences in terms of interplant distances, heights, stem circumferences and canopy covers. It means that the two culturally different communities have different preferences when they harvest resources form S. birrea species.

2339-2345 Download
35

Biochemical characterization and allergenic potential of Cenchrus pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. ex Steud. pollen grains


Shaista Zeb, Anjum Perveen and Muneeba Khan

Biochemical characterization and allergenic potential of Cenchrus pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. ex Steud. pollen grains


ABSTRACT:

Pollen of grasses have been recognized as major aeroallergens. It is reported that grass pollen may trigger respiratory allergies particularly allergic rhinitis and asthma in approximately 40% of allergy patients worldwide. In most of the aerobiological surveys, Grasses pollen were observed in highest concentration in various parts of the world. The present study was designed to analyze the biochemical properties of Cenchrus pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. ex Steud. pollen grains. The pollen were subjected to quantitative estimation of proteins, carbohydrates, amino acids, phenols and reducing sugars. Protein qualitative analysis was also done by SDS-PAGE in order to identify the allergenic properties of Cenchrus pennisetiformis pollen. The study results showed that Cenchrus pennisetiformis pollen contained 19.66mg/g proteins, 71.29mg/g carbohydrates, amino acid 12.23 mg/g, phenols 1.47 mg/g and reducing sugars 8.29 mg/g. SDS-PAGE analysis showed 13 protein bands with a range of molecular weight 28-110kDa. The pollen grains of this grass contained low molecular weight protein bands which might cause allergic rhinitis or elicit other allergy symptoms on the exposure to this grass. Thus Cenchrus pennisetiformis can be characterized as pollen allergy causing grass

2347-2350 Download
36

GC-MS chemical composition of volatile oil and mineral element content of Allium ursinum and Nectaroscordum siculum


Aneta Popova, Dasha Mihaylova and Iordanka Alexieva

GC-MS chemical composition of volatile oil and mineral element content of Allium ursinum and Nectaroscordum siculum


ABSTRACT:

Since ancient times, essential oils are recognized for their medicinal value and are very interesting and powerful natural plant products. The present study aimed at investigating and comparing the micro- and macro- element content and volatile oil constituents of Allium ursinum L. and Nectaroscordum siculum ssp. Bulgaricum (Janka) Stearn. These two plant species were traditionally used in folk medicine, and since N. siculum is barely investigated, it is interesting to compare to A. ursinum. The current research represents a first detailed investigation report on the mineral element content and chemical composition of N. siculum. The ramsons essential oil yield was established to be 0.37 %, while the N. siculum – 0.24 %. The main constituents of A. ursinum leaves essential oil as detected by GC-MS were disulphides (44 %), trisulphides (41 %), and tetrasulphides (5 %). In comparison the GC-MS analysis of the N. siculum leaves oil extract revealed mainly the presence of ethyl benzoate (1.3 %) and lipoic acid (1.1 %). Both examined plants were rich in calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Based on the results A. ursinum and N. siculum leaves could be recommended as a daily source of biologically active substances of natural origin and could serve as health contributing agents

2351-2354 Download
37

Antibacterial potential of a medicinally important plant Calamus aromaticus


Bilal Muhammad Khan, Jehan Bakht and Wajid Khan

Antibacterial potential of a medicinally important plant Calamus aromaticus


ABSTRACT:

The potential of Gallic acid as a broad-spectrum antibiotic was established by evaluating five solvent extracted samples (crude extract and its four fractions) from the shade-dried (S-D) rhizomes of Calamus aromaticus through disc diffusion assay wherein 0.05 mg Ciprofloxacin was used as control. The results of the study indicated that Staphylococcus aureus and Citrobacter freundii were more susceptible to crude methanol extract from the shade-dried rhizome at 2 mg.disc-1 (53.3% and 47.0% respectively), Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae to hexane extracted fraction (50.3% and 43.0% respectively) while Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Xanthomonas campestris were more susceptible to ethyl acetate fraction at the same concentration (86.5%, 48.5% and 64.9% respectively). Staphylococcus aureus was most susceptible gram positive bacterium and Bacillus subtilis was comparatively more resistant. Among Gram negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed maximum susceptibility while Klebsiella pneumoniae revealed more resistivity in comparison to others. HPLC analysis of the extracts revealed that Gallic acid, an illustrative affiliate of phenols, was present in higher quantity in the organic solvents-extracted samples (38.4 mg.g-1 and 11.3 mg.g-1 in ethyl acetate and butanol fractions respectively) than in the aqueous fraction which provided a justification for its role in antibacterial activities.

2355-2362 Download
38

Pharmacological studies of isolated compounds from Adhatoda vasica and Calotropis procera as an antioxidant and antimicrobial bioactive sources


Waseem Ahmed, Rafia Azmat, Sami Ullah Khan, Shah Masaud Khan, M. Liaquat, Abdul Qayyum and Ayaz Mehmood

Pharmacological studies of isolated compounds from Adhatoda vasica and Calotropis procera as an antioxidant and antimicrobial bioactive sources


ABSTRACT:

Adhatoda vasica and Calotropis procera species are worldwide available but poorly investigated as an important resource of bioactive compounds and antimicrobial activities for controlling of many infectious diseases. This article explores the activities of isolated compounds using advanced technology in context of bacterial diseases and suppression of infectious diseases through stictic acid and usnic acid content isolated first time from these species. The estimation of different compounds was carried out in leaves samples of both plants while various compounds like usnic acid, stictic acid and p-hydroxy-benzoic contents isolated through high performance liquid chromatography. The total antioxidant activities of 2, 2’-azino-bis (3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and some active compounds evaluated via different extraction methods such as methanol, ether, acetone and crude extraction with the quantity of these compounds. The Broth microdilution method was performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for both species. The obtained data for each parameter was interpreted by applying Complete Randomized Design (CRD) along with factorial arrangements. Mean comparison was performed using LSD test at 5% probability level.  The efficiency of extraction of the solvents for the usnic acid, stictic acid and p-hydroxy-benzoic contents found to be methanol > ether > acetone > crude extraction. The MIC values of all extracted compounds showed maximum level of bacterial control. The MIC of methanol extracts of Adhatoda vasica is E-coli E1 (516) μg/mL while Calotropis procera plant’s extract showed higher antimicrobial activity for E-coli E1 511 μg/mL. All bacterial strain showed maximum resistance especially the kidney failure strain E. coli O157:H7. It was concluded that isolation of usnic acid, stictic acid first time from these two species recommended that both species can act as the best resources of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in controlling of various bacterial diseases

2363-2367 Download
39

Diversity analysis of main agronomic characters of different Swida wilsoniana clones


J.Z. CHEN, L.J. JIANG, Q. LIU, L. XIA, X.Y. YI, Y.Z. CHEN, P.W. LI and C.Z. LI

Diversity analysis of main agronomic characters of different Swida wilsoniana clones


ABSTRACT:

In order to produce high-yield and oil content Swida wilsoniana species, 28 agronomic traits in 7 Swida wilsoniana clones were measured and analyzed from variance, principle components, cluster, and correlation. Variance analysis results showed that the variation coefficients of the 28 agronomic traits ranged from 8.04% to 94.30%, and the largest variation was from leaf pattern, such as leaf shape, color, and leaf margin character. And the phenotypic differentiation coefficients ranged from 45.27% to 96.40%, which indicated that the characters were relatively genetically stable. Main inheritance was represented by 4 principal components, which were inflorescence, fruit, oil content, and fruit quantity per cluster. Principal components analysis clustered the 7 clones into 4 groups. High-yield and high-oil target species can be produced by hybridizing groups 2 and 3.

2369-2375 Download
40

A semi-pilot-scale study to produce citric acid from hydrol using a mutant of Aspergillus niger


Muhammad Ibrahim Rajoka, Muhammad Nawaz, Muhammad Aamer Mehmood, Chen-Guang Liu, Sawsan Abdulaziz Rahimuddin and Tehreema Iftikhar

A semi-pilot-scale study to produce citric acid from hydrol using a mutant of Aspergillus niger


ABSTRACT:

Citric acid is an edible acid with the current global demand of 1.7x106 tons/annum. It is required to improve the industrial production of citric acid to satisfy the exponentially growing demands, using low-cost and renewable sources. Hydrol is a by-product of starch industry which contains approximately 70% fermentable sugars and can be exploited to produce citric acid. Here, the hydrol was subjected to fermentation in 23-L and 150-L fermenter to produce citric acid. Medium containing reducing sugar (S0= 80-180 gL-1) from hydrol was used as the basal fermentation medium using a derepressed mutant derivative of MUNAR 120 Aspergillus niger. Different process variables for the accumulation of citric acid were optimised. At optimum substrate concentration (150 gL-1) citric acid titer of 130 gL-1, the product yield of 0.86 gg-1, the maximum volumetric productivity of 3.45 gL-1h-1, and specific productivity of 2.47 gg-1h-1 were achieved. In 23-L fermenter studies, 90-100% sugars were consumed at temperatures ranging from 22-38°C. Where, in a 150-L pilot-scale fermenter 80% of the theoretical yield was achieved. The experimental data and kinetic parameters have shown that the mutation has a dramatic impact on the metabolic activities. Enzymes inactivation phenomena implied a little increase in entropy during the activated state and suggested an improved protection conferred by mutant cell system. Overall metabolic activity of the mutant was significantly improved when compared to its wild-type parent.

2377-2383 Download
41

Molecular identification of noteworthy lignicolous fungus, Neolentinus lepedius (Fr.) Redhead & Ginns: a new genus for Pakistan using phenotypical and phylogenetic approaches


Abdul Razaq, Sobia Ilyas and Abdul Nasir khalid

Molecular identification of noteworthy lignicolous fungus, Neolentinus lepedius (Fr.) Redhead & Ginns: a new genus for Pakistan using phenotypical and phylogenetic approaches


ABSTRACT:

Neolentinus lepedius (Fr.) Redhead & Ginns is a lignicolous/saprophytic macrofungus found on the dead logs of pine vegetation of Himalayan forests, not previously reported from Pakistan. The purpose of this work is to report the occurrence of a European genus from pine forests of Pakistan, using morphological and molecular characterization. For species recognition, the phenotypic features like size, shape, colour of basidiocarps and scales on pileus, length, width and texture of stipe and spores have been compared with available literature. Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA of all local collections has been amplified using universal fungal primers. Local species sequences were confirmed by using BLAST analysis and construction of Phylogenetic tree. All the data analysed was found consistent with morpho-anatomical and molecular characters of N. lepideus. Morphological description, photographs, line drawings and phylogenetic tree of Pakistani collections have also been provided.

2385-2388 Download
42

Effect of microwave radiation on plants infected with root rot pathogens


Shamsa Kanwal, Marium Tariq and Shahnaz Dawar

Effect of microwave radiation on plants infected with root rot pathogens


ABSTRACT:

Microwaves are non-ionizing radiations known to stimulate seed germination and growth. A complete randomized design screen house experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of microwave radiation on fungal survival and plant growth.Seeds of mash bean (Vigna mungo L.), chick pea (Cicer arietinum L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were irradiated with microwave radiations for 10, 20, 30 and 40 seconds. We demonstrated that exposure of seeds to microwave radiations for 20 and 30 seconds significantly suppressed root rot fungi like Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Rhizoctonia solani (kühn) and Fusarium spp. We also showed that by exposing seeds to radiations for 10 and 30 seconds the growth of chickpea, sunflower and mash bean plants was increased. These data collectively demonstrate that microwave radiations can potentially control fungal pathogens and thereby improve plant health

2389-2393 Download
43

Effects of simulated acid rain on physiological characteristics and active ingredient content of Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.). Merr.


Juan Liang, Yi Ye, Yi Peng and Miaohua Quan

Effects of simulated acid rain on physiological characteristics and active ingredient content of Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.). Merr.


ABSTRACT:

The effects of simulated acid rain at pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.6 and 6.8(control) on the morphological characteristics, chlorophyll content, resistance physiology and active ingredient content of A. cochinchinensis cultured in pots were studied so as to explore the sensitivity and tolerability of A. cochinchinensis to acid rain with the hope to provide the theoretical basis for the cultivation of A. cochinchinensis. The results showed that 1) compared to the control, acid rain with pH 5.6 did not significantly affect the shape and color of the leaves as well as the contents of amino acids and soluble sugar in tuber roots of A. cochinchinensis, but significantly enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), and 2) with the increase of acid rain stress (pH≤3), the damage degree of leaves and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in leaves gradually increased, but the photosynthetic pigment content, stem length, root weight increment, POD and SOD activities, as well as contents of amino acids, soluble sugar and saponin in tuber roots all decreased. The experiments indicated that 1) acid rain significantly affected the physiological characteristics and active ingredients accumulation of A. cochinchinensis, 2) A. cochinchinensis showed a certain resistance to acid rain, 3) pH ≤ 3 is the critical point (threshold) for acid rain to damage A. cochinchinensis, and 4) artificial cultivation of A. cochinchinensis should avoid medium and strong acid rain pollution

2395-2399 Download
44

Infestation of Nectria haematococca in soil, a clue for the replant disease of Panax notoginseng revealed by 454 Pyrosequencing


Ling Yang, Wei Fan, Guang-Qiang Long, Ming Zhao, Guang-Hui Zhang, Sheng-Chao Yang, Zhen-Gui Meng, Long-Gen Li and Jun-Wen Chen

Infestation of Nectria haematococca in soil, a clue for the replant disease of Panax notoginseng revealed by 454 Pyrosequencing


ABSTRACT:

Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen (Sanchi or Sanqi in Chinese) is a well-known and valuable traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which is currently planted over 20 000 hm2 with an output value of more than 10 billion RMB per year. However, the replant disease characterized by severe root rot has been becoming a serious problem for the P. notoginseng industry, and the etiology of replant disease in P. notoginseng remains unclear. The microbial communities in the rhizosphere and bulk soils of P. notoginseng that had been planted 1, 2 and 3 years previously were investigated using deep amplicon pyrosequencing and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). The microbial communities in the rhizosphere and bulk soils represented 94 253, 18 871 and 15 116 reads that were obtained from archaeal, bacterial and fungal PCR amplicons, respectively. A principal component analysis showed that rhizosphere and bulk soils shared similar archaeal and bacterial communities. While fungal communities were greatly different between bulk and rhizosphere soils, and the fungi in the rhizosphere soils had a high diversity level. Nectria haematococca (asexual name Fusarium solani), the cause of root rot, was found to accumulate as a consequence of the continuous cultivation of P. notoginseng. The accumulation and long-time survival of N. haematococca provides a new clue to investigate the mechanism underling replant disease in P. notoginseng.

 

2401-2408 Download
45

Seaweed bio-fertilizer for the management of root rotting fungi and root knot nematodes affecting cotton crop


Viqar Sultana, Samrah Tariq, Khan Hira, Amna Tariq, Jehan Ara, R.M. Tariq and Syed Ehteshamul-Haque

Seaweed bio-fertilizer for the management of root rotting fungi and root knot nematodes affecting cotton crop


ABSTRACT:

Seaweed can promote plant growth and also enable them to tolerate drought, disease or frost. In this study, eight seaweeds Stokeyiaindica, Stoechospermum marginatum, Sargassum binderi, Spatoglossum variabile (brown), Melanothamnus afaqhusainii, Solieriarobusta (red), Rhizocloni umimplexum and Halimeda tuna (green) collected from Buleji beach, Karachi were evaluated for their role in protecting the cotton from soilborne pathogenic fungi Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani and Meloidogyne javanica, a root knot nematode. Both in screen house and in field experiments application of seaweed as soil amendment caused marked reduction of pathogenic fungi and root knot nematode on cotton roots. Suppressive effect of seaweed on root pathogens is comparable with commercial fungicide and nematicide in reducing the fungal root infection, nematode’s galls on roots and nematode’s population in soil around roots.  For plant growth and suppression of root pathogens of cotton seaweeds offer a non-chemical means in agriculture in the replacement of chemical fungicides and nematicides

2409-2412 Download
46

Production and characterization of endoglucanase from an indigenous yeast strain


Maria Shariq, Faiz Muhammad, Aqeel Ahmad, Shakeel Ahmed Khan, Syed Faraz Moin and Muhammad Sohail

Production and characterization of endoglucanase from an indigenous yeast strain


ABSTRACT:

Cellulases, group of industrially important enzymes, are commercially obtained from mold or bacterial strains. Yeasts strains have scarcely been reported for their cellulolytic potential and are not applied on industrial scale. This study was aimed at the isolation of a promising cellulolytic yeast strain with the possible biotechnological application. The strain, MK-157, was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae on traditional and molecular basis. The gene encoding 1,3-endoglucanase was also amplified by Nested PCR and sequenced. The activity of endoglucanase (EG) band corresponding to 30 kDa was observed in zymogram. The data showed that at 30oC and pH 7.0, in presence of 1% Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), the strain produced more than 15 IU/ml of EG. The activity of EG was also characterized in crude preparation. The strain was able to tolerate up to 12% alcohol and produced 5.45 % ethanol when cultivated in a complex medium. The potential of the strain to grow and produce EG on untreated and alkali-treated wheat-bran (WB) and sugarcane-bagasse (SCB) was also evaluated. The results showed the ability of the strain MK-157 to produce EG in presence of CMC, SCB and WB. The study provides some insights on less explored cellulolytic yeasts. The strain MK-157 can find its application in consolidated bioprocessing of cellulosic mass

2413-2421 Download
47

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of ergot alkaloids produced by Aspergillus niger through surface culture fermentation process


Memuna Ghafoor Shahid, Shahjahan Baig, Muhammad Saleem, Rabia Arif, Gul Zareen Ghafoor and Ayesha Liaqat

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of ergot alkaloids produced by Aspergillus niger through surface culture fermentation process


ABSTRACT:

The present study deals with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of ergot alkaloids produced by Aspergillus niger using surface culture fermentation technique. Two different fermentation media (A and B) were prepared for the production of extracellular and intracellular extracts of Aspergillus niger. The fermentation media A and B were further modified as A1, A2, A3, A4, B1, B2, B3 and B4 respectively. After maintaining the pH of the media at 5.0 using 0.1N HCl and 0.1N NaOH, these flasks were incubated at 25ºC for 10 days. After 10 days of incubation, the ergot alkaloids determination was done using spectrophotometry and thin layer chromatography (TLC) techniques. Maximum ergot alkaloids yield was obtained from extracellular and intracellular extracts of fermentation medium A4 (3.04  0.1 mg/ml) and A2 (0.93 0.01 mg/ml) respectively. Likewise, maximum ergot alkaloids yield was achieved from extracellular (2.45 0.03 mg/ml) and intracellular (1.33 0.01 mg/ml) extracts of fermentation medium B3. For thin layer chromatographic studies, various mobile phases were screened and TLC plates of mobile phase G (chloroform 140: propanediol 55: water 15) revealed Van Urk reagent positive spots that produced remarkable pinkish purple color on silica gel plates. Maximum Rf value was measured from extracellular extracts of sample A3EE (Rf= 0.95) and intracellular extract of B3EE (Rf = 1.21) in mobile phase G which confirmed the presence of ergocryptine and ergotamine in the samples. After modification in the mobile phase G, maximum Rfvalue was obtained from extracellular extract of sample A3EE (Rf= 1.32) intracellular extract of B4ME (Rf =1.12) that also indicated the presence of ergocryptine and ergotamine in the extracts of Aspergillus niger

2423-2428 Download
48

The Cyanobacterium hemoglobin (CHb) promotes the growth of bacteria, yeast and Brassica napus, and enhances submergence resistance of Brassica napus


Zhu Keming, Li Kaixia, Li Juan, Xu Shuo, Sundus Zafar and Tan Xiaoli

The Cyanobacterium hemoglobin (CHb) promotes the growth of bacteria, yeast and Brassica napus, and enhances submergence resistance of Brassica napus


ABSTRACT:

The coding sequence of Cyanobacterium hemoglobin (CHb) gene, from Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, was inserted into vectors pET-30a, pYES2 and pCAMBIA1300. The expression of CHb in E. coli (BL21) and yeast (pep4) could enhance the growth rate of bacteria and yeast. Constitutive CHb over-expression in Brassica napus induced earlier germination of transgenic seeds and increased chlorophyll content in transgenic seedlings. Under submergence conditions, the bioassays revealed that CHb over-expression protected transgenic plants against prolonged waterlogging. These results suggested that CHb gene could promote the growth rate of microbes and Brassica napus, and resistance to submergence for Brassica napus.

2429-2434 Download
49

Variation in some nutritional qualities (proteins, amino acids, phycocyanin) of Spirulina platensis (Cyanobacteria) as influenced by sampling sites in Chad


Wague Ridine, Mbaiguinam Mbailao and Ngakou Albert

Variation in some nutritional qualities (proteins, amino acids, phycocyanin) of Spirulina platensis (Cyanobacteria) as influenced by sampling sites in Chad


ABSTRACT:

This study was conducted in Chad to reveal changes in the nutritional composition of Spirulina platensis from different sampling sites. For each assessed parameter, the experimental design was a complete randomized block in which the sampling sites were considered as treatments, each one of which was replicated three times. As the outcomes of this research, samples from Kwa, CST1 and Artomissi sites displayed the greatest total protein concentrations with 64.26, 60.35 and 58.61 g/100g dry weight of Spirulina respectively. Madjorio site was the poorest of all amino acids assessed. Essential amino acids were present at variable concentrations, the highest accounting for Spirulina was from Kwa site. Tryptophan and cysteine were absent in all samples, while glutamic acid was the most represented amino acid in all samples with 10.78 g/100g dry weight of protein in sample from Kwa site. Histidine was the less concentrated amino acid (0.24 g/100g dry weight) in sample from Madjorio site. Phycocyanin was present in samples with concentrations ranging from 6.6-34.02 mg/100 g dry weight of Spirulina at Madjorio and Kwa sites. These findings reveal the nutritional value of this important microalgae, thus suggesting its use as dietary food supplement.

2435-2441 Download
50

A biosynthesis method to produce resveratrol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with secretion expression of grape anti-oxidant resveratrol synthase gene during wine fermentation


Yangbo Song, Li Feng, Dongqing Ye, Yuyang Song, Yi Qin, Yanlin Liu and Shuwen Liu

A biosynthesis method to produce resveratrol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with secretion expression of grape anti-oxidant resveratrol synthase gene during wine fermentation


ABSTRACT:

Resveratrol (Res), a stilbenic compound, recently has become the focus of a number of studies in medicine and plant physiology, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) has become a popular host for production of non-native compounds. As the last and key enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway, the amount and expression level of Resveratrol Synthase (RS) positive correlation on the production of Res. In this study, a signal peptide sequence, secreted by α-factor of S. cerevisiae, was connected with the RS gene, resulting a pYCα secretory plasmid construction. The RS gene was secretory expressed in S. cerevisiae successfully. Subsequently, a white wine fermentation was carried out by the recombinant strain. The Res concentration of the white wine fermented by the recombinant strain was 36% higher than the control. This has great interests for establishing a controllable way to produce RS and lays the foundation for exploring the Res biosynthesis method.

2443-2448 Download
51

Gamma irradiation I: effect on germination and general growth characteristics of plants –a review 


Abdul Majeed, Zahir Muhammad, Rehman Ullah and Hazrat Ali

Gamma irradiation I: effect on germination and general growth characteristics of plants –a review 


ABSTRACT:

Qualitative and quantitative improvement of economically important plant species has remained a prime priority of mankind for decades. These improvements are generally correlated with successes in germination and the growth attributes of plants which are controlled by genes. To attain the desirable growth characters in plants of interest, selective screening is carried out in their predecessors followed by successive evaluation, which imposes the cost of time and labor. In order to manage time and labor and to obtain high-quality progenies, gamma irradiation may prove a suitable alternative method to selective screening for bringing mutational changes in plants in short period of time. Exposure of plants’ propagating organs to gamma irradiation can either result in genomic damages corresponding to growth abnormalities or gene reshuffling after DNA repair with consequent healthy results. This paper reviews up to dated literature on the effect of gamma irradiation on germination and growth attributes of economically important plants.

2449-2453 Download
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