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Year 2018 , Volume  50, Issue 1
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1

Influence of seed priming and nitrogen application on the growth and development of maize seedlings in saline conditions


Di Cao, Yi Zhang, Yutao Zhang, Moujian Guo and Bo Guan

Influence of seed priming and nitrogen application on the growth and development of maize seedlings in saline conditions


ABSTRACT:

Seed priming and nitrogen application can promote plant tolerance and resistance to salt stress. To explore the combined effects of these two factors on the growth of salt-stressed seedlings, four treatments (priming + nitrogen application, PN; priming + no nitrogen application, P; unprimed + nitrogen application, UPN; and control treatment unprimed + no nitrogen application, UP) were applied to evaluate the responses of plant morphology, antioxidase systems, physiological and biochemical parameters of the maize seedlings under different concentrations of salt stress (0, 100, 200, and 300 mM). The results indicated that under salt stress, the priming treatment facilitated the growth of seedlings of root and stems, increased the amount of osmoregulatory substances, and enhanced the antioxidase activity and resistance of the maize seedlings. After nitrogen application during the maize growth stage, the growth of young leaves was greatly promoted along with an increase in the soluble protein and chlorophyll content. The combination of seed priming and nitrogen application significantly improved the plant growth, antioxidase activities and physiological and biochemical parameters

1-8 Download
2

Physiological characteristics of three wild Sonchus species to prolonged drought tolerance in arid regions


Peng-Yan Jia, Li-Xia Zhang, Ze Huang, Fu-Ping Tian, Yu Hu and Gao-Lin Wu

Physiological characteristics of three wild Sonchus species to prolonged drought tolerance in arid regions


ABSTRACT:

Drought is one of the main abiotic factors determining plants growth and productivity in arid and semiarid regions. Understanding the physiological responses of wild plants to drought in different growth stages is essential to evaluate their ability of drought tolerance and allow identification and selection of valuable tolerant plants to be cultivated and introduced in arid and semiarid regions. Three wild Sonchus species, Sonchus oleraceus L., Sonchus wightianus DC. and Sonchus uliginosus M. B. were compared regarding some physiological indexes in leaves such as antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and peroxidase), malondialdehyde, osmotic solutes (proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein), photosynthetic pigments (total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid) under the natural condition at seeding stage, flowering stage and maturation stage respectively. Comparing to S. uliginosus and S. wightianus, S. oleraceus had the higher peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and total chlorophyll (Chla+b) and carotenoid (Car) content in three growth stages, and the higher proline content at flowering and maturation stage and the lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content at seeding stage and flowering stage. But the ratio of Chla/Chlb and Car/Chla+b in S. uliginosus were significantly higher than that in S. oleraceus and S. wightianus. These findings suggested that S. oleraceus had the higher tolerance to prolonged drought than S. wightianus and S. uliginosus due to the better capacity to prevent oxidative damage to cellular components and osmoregulation and photosynthetic ability and S. uliginosus were more photo-protected under drought. The research results were instructive for cultivation and introduction of S. oleraceus in arid and semiarid regions

9-17 Download
3

A wheat calreticulin gene (TaCRT1) contributes to drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis


Yang Xiang, Caifu Du, Haiyan Jia, Lei Lei, Min Song, Yun Wang and Zhengqiang Ma

A wheat calreticulin gene (TaCRT1) contributes to drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis


ABSTRACT:

The TaCRT1 gene is a member of calreticulin (CRT) family in wheat. In our previous study, we showed that transgenic tobacco lines over expressing wheat TaCRT1 showed enhanced tolerance to salt stress. This study aimed to determine whether TaCRT1 over expression would increase drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Over expression of TaCRT1 in Arabidopsis plants enhances tolerance to drought stress. However, the transgenic line was found to retard the growth. Moreover, the transgenic line showed decreased water loss but higher sensitivity to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) compared with the wild type (Col-0). Meanwhile, the transgenic line had the elevated endogenous ABA level. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqRT-PCR) analysis showed that transcription levels of ABA-biosynthesizing gene (NCED3) and ABA-responsive gene (ABF3) were higher in the transgenic line than that in the Col-0 under normal condition. The above results implied that the TaCRT1 might be able to used as a potential target to improve the drought tolerance in crops.

19-28 Download
4

Cloning and functional analysis of low nitrogen tolerance related gene CsMYB21 in cucumber


Chao Wang, Jiewei Wang, Chunyu Tian, Lianxue Fan and Tao Wu

Cloning and functional analysis of low nitrogen tolerance related gene CsMYB21 in cucumber


ABSTRACT:

To investigate the molecular mechanism of low nitrogen (N) tolerance in cucumber, a low N tolerance related gene, named CsMYB21 was cloned in the present study. qRT-PCR showed that CsMYB21 expression was significantly induced under low N condition. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the homology of the gene with the melon was the highest. Functional analysis results showed that root lengths and fresh weights of Col-0 plants were significantly reduced under low N condition, while reduction ratio of root lengths and fresh weights in transgenic line harboring 35S::CsMYB21 was less than Col-0, which revealed that transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed higher capacity for low N tolerance than Col-0. These results revealed that the cucumber CsMYB21 could improve low N tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants

29-34 Download
5

Lethal effects of Ni siderophore complex on enzymatic functions in Vigna radiata under biotic and abiotic stresses


Rafia Azmat and Sumeira Moin

Lethal effects of Ni siderophore complex on enzymatic functions in Vigna radiata under biotic and abiotic stresses


ABSTRACT:

Bioremediation was employed as an innovative emerging area in the field of biotechnology; detoxify metal via complex formation with the pigments. The impact of metal, siderophore and complex were monitored separately and simultaneously both in aqueous and nutrient medium. The strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was selected, on the basis of their, siderophore secretion for the binding the Ni (50 & 100 ppm) from solution culture while Ni, chosen as a micronutrient, necessary for plant survival and growth, however toxic when in excesses. Bacterial responses were observed on seeds of Vigna radiata in Petri dish experiment in relation to plant growth and enzymes activity.  In this regard, the enzymatic activity of roots of 4 d old seedling of Vigna radiata greatly influenced by the probable complex of Ni and siderophore of bacterial strain P. aeruginosa.  Results demonstrated that altered activities of enzymes due to the presence of nickel and P. aeruginosa created an effect on growth parameters in early stages.  The biomass of plant was found to be decreased in the presence of Ni and microbes when compared to uninoculated plants. The growth rate of seedling was more significant at a higher concentration of Ni which reduces in the presence of microbes that showed the apparent interaction of siderophore to that of Ni, due to which Ni was no more available for growth stimulation. The article highlights the other (biotic and abiotic) factors except for temperature and pH which influence the enzymatic functions of seedlings

35-39 Download
6

Ecology and species association of grass species in response to altitudinal gradient in the Potohar region.


Sana Fatima, Farooq Ahmad, Mansoor Hameed and Rashid Ahmad

Ecology and species association of grass species in response to altitudinal gradient in the Potohar region.


ABSTRACT:

An investigation was carried out to evaluate impact of altitudinal gradient on species composition and distributional pattern of individual grass species in the Potohar region. Vegetation was sampled by quadrat method, which were laid along a transect line at different selected sites. All ecological parameters like species composition, pair-wise association and distributional pattern, and community structure significantly changed with altitudinal gradient. Species with broad distributional range can be related to high degree of tolerance to a variety of environmental stresses. Species growing at low altitudes were different in their structure and contribution towards community structure. High altitude species are generally with restricted distributional range. Species richness was the maximum at moderate elevation because of better growth conditions. Chrysopogon serrulatus Trin., Cymbopogon jwarancusa (Jones) Schult. and Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. dominated the Potohar region, all showed significant association among themselves. Association usually existed between dominant species that shared similar resources. Species colonizing moister habitats, saline patches, drier hills. mountain slopes, low temperature ranges and sandy clayey soils, all have strong associations. Domination of species was similar up to 1200 m a.s.l., but species composition changed significantly along increasing elevation

41-49 Download
7

Evaluation of drought tolerant wheat genotypes using morpho-physiological indices as screening tools


S.M. Mujtaba, Summiya Faisal, Muhammad Ali Khan, M.U. Shirazi and M.A. Khan

Evaluation of drought tolerant wheat genotypes using morpho-physiological indices as screening tools


ABSTRACT:

As water is the major limiting factor for agricultural crop production in arid and semi-arid areas, hence, twenty six wheat genotypes were screened under terminal drought stress for assessing their desiccation tolerance potentials. Experiment was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replicates and two irrigation treatments (control and terminal drought). Water scarcity had significantly reduced growth and yield contributing attributes while six genotypes performed relatively better under drought stress. Highest germination potentials (62.66%) were observed in MAS-20/2014 at -1.0 MPa osmotic stress under control conditions. However, genotype MAS-3/2014 exhibited maximum grain yield (23.32 g plant-1) while MAS-20/2014 showed minimum reduction (15.70%) in grain yield under drought stress. Physiological studies highlighted that better yielding genotypes exhibited relatively less reduction in chlorophyll contents (5.93% ) in MAS-20/2014, nitrate reductase activity (6.70% )in MAS-11/2014 and osmotic potentials (0.769 MPa) in MAS-3/2014, while more relative increase in proline accumulation (83.35% ) in MAS-20/2014 , glycine-betaine (92.43%) in MAS-3/2014, total soluble sugars (36.65%) in MAS-23/2014  and potassium contents (3.66%) in MAS-6/2014 were analyzed under drought. These findings illustrated that wheat genotypes MAS-2/2014, MAS-3/2014, MAS-8/2014, MAS-12/2014, MAS-18/2014 and MAS-20/2014 exhibited better tolerance under drought conditions making them suitable for enhancing the productivity of rain fed and arid areas.

51-58 Download
8

Seed germination responses to some environmental factors in the red feather (Trifolium rubens)


Jeremi Kołodziejek

Seed germination responses to some environmental factors in the red feather (Trifolium rubens)


ABSTRACT:

A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the effects of various environmental factors, such as temperature, light, planting depth, pH, osmotic and salt stress, on germination of Trifolium rubens. Water-impermeability of seed coats prevents germination of T. rubens, but the response of embryos to stratification may suggest some physiological dormancy. Thus, seed dormancy in this species is caused by a water-impermeable seed coat (physical dormancy, PY) and a (non-deep) physiologically dormant embryo (PD), i.e. combinational dormancy (PY + PD). It was also demonstrated that all concentrations of GA3 increased seed germination when compared with the control treatment. Compared with distilled water, NaCl solution of 10–60 mM significantly reduced germination (p<0.01). The germination was <20% at an osmotic stress of -0.4 MPa, and above that, no germination was observed. Germination was affected by pH levels, with pH 8 being the optimum, whereas above or below that level, it was significantly reduced. The highest emergence (68 and 85%) was observed at 1 and 2 cm depth. In conclusion these results suggest that the seeds of T. rubens can germinate during favorable spring weather conditions. 

59-65 Download
9

ITS1 locus: a major determınant of genetıc dıversıty of Plantago spp. (Plantagınaceae)


N.V. Ay, D.T. Khang, K. Altantsetseg O. Baatartsogt and V. Enkhchimeg

ITS1 locus: a major determınant of genetıc dıversıty of Plantago spp. (Plantagınaceae)


ABSTRACT:

By this study, ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) regions in the nuclear DNA of 10 Plantago samples collected from Mongolia (5 samples) and Viet Nam (5 samples) were sequenced and constructed Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Neighbor-Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees for establishing the genetic relationship. The results showed that 10 samples belonged to 2 species (7 Plantago major and 3 Plantago depressa). The length of sequences ranged from 632 to 644 bp (ITS1 ranged from 210-222 bp, 5.8S was 162 bp, and ITS2 259 - 261 bp). The ITS1 region was highly variable among the sequences whereas ITS2 and 5.8S regions were more conservative. The MP and NJ trees apparently separated P. major and P. depressa into 2 different groups, supported with high bootstrap values. P. depressa was first time reported in Mongolia. The results highlighted that ITS sequences could distinguish P. major and P. depressa, which is certainly important for pharmacist to use crude drugs derived from Plantago

67-71 Download
10

Enhancing glycyrrhizic acid accumulation by root-specifically over-expressing 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary coa reductase (HMGR), squalene synthase1 (SQS1), and β-amyrin synthase (β-AS) genes in Glycyrrhiza uralensis
Bo-Chuan Yuan, Rui Yang, Yong-Sheng Ma, Shan Zhou, Wen-Dong Li and Ying Liu

Enhancing glycyrrhizic acid accumulation by root-specifically over-expressing 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary coa reductase (HMGR), squalene synthase1 (SQS1), and β-amyrin synthase (β-AS) genes in Glycyrrhiza uralensis
ABSTRACT:

Glycyrrhizia uralensis is one of the most widely-used Chinese herbal medicines, and glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is its marker component. However, the GA content in G. uralensis cultivars is generally low. We selected three functional genes involved in GA biosynthetic pathway in G. uralensis, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary CoA reductase gene (GuHMGR), squalene synthase1 gene (GuSQS1), and β-amyrin synthase gene (GuBAS), and constructed three root-specific expression vectors by gene fusion, then transformed them into disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 cells using CaCl2 freeze-thaw method, which was used to infect G. uralensis explants. There were about 13% explants survived in infection and then dedifferentiated to resistant callus. The shoots differentiation rate was only about 7%, but they all successfully took root and finally, about 60% regenerated G. uralensis plantlets survived in transplantation. qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression level and calculate the copy number of GuHMGR, GuSQS1, and GuBAS genes in the regenerated transgenic G. uralensis plants. Root-specific over-expression of GuHMGR, GuSQS1, and GuBAS genes were respectively observed in the regenerated transgenic G. uralensis plants. Thirteen GuHMGR transgenic G. uralensis plants were obtained with the gene copy number of 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6, respectively, six GuSQS1 transgenic G. uralensis plants were obtained with the gene copy number of 2, 3, 4, or 6, respectively, and five GuBAS transgenic G. uralensis plants were obtained with the gene copy number of 3 and 5, respectively. HPLC was used to detect the contents of GA and isoglycyrrhizic acid (IGA) in regenerated G. uralensis plants. It was found that GA and IGA contents were both higher in transgenic plants than that in blank control, and with the increase of copy number of GuHMGR, GuSQS1, and GuBAS both contents were increased. Root-specific over-expression of GuHMGR, GuSQS1, and GuBAS genes enhances the accumulation of GA and IGA

73-84 Download
11

Molecular identification and functional analysis of BrbRI1 as brassinosteroid receptor gene in Brassica rapa


Shuhua Huang, Hao Wang, Sufu Gan, Mahmoud Abdalla Mahmoud Hussein, Qiannan Wang, Xin Wang, Yanfeng Zhang and Xiaofeng Wang

Molecular identification and functional analysis of BrbRI1 as brassinosteroid receptor gene in Brassica rapa


ABSTRACT:

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are crucial phytohormones that have diverse functions in regulating plant growth and development. Brassinosteroid-insensitive1 (BRI1), an important plasma membrane-located leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase (LRR-RK), perceives BRs to initiate BR signal transduction, and is involved in altering plant architecture and increasing crop production. Here, three BRI1 proteins (BrBRI1-1, BrBRI1-2, and BrBRI1-3) from Brassica rapa exhibiting striking sequence similarity to Arabidopsis BRI1 (AtBRI1) were identified and characterized. Analysis of full-length sequences of B. rapa BRI1 (BrBRI1) proteins indicated that they contain an extracellular LRR domain, transmembrane domain, a juxtamembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic kinase domain similar to AtBRI1. The ectopic expression of these genes in the Arabidopsis bri1-5-weak mutant resulted in the full recovery of the bri1 mutant to the wild-type. Furthermore, typical BR responsiveness including hypocotyl elongation, root growth, CPD expression, and BES1 dephosphorylation to exogenous BR treatment demonstrated a restored BR signaling pathway in transgenic lines. These data confirmed that BrBRI1 proteins function as BR receptors to mediate BR signaling. Our results provide a foundation for B. rapa molecular genetic breeding by regulating the BR signal transduction pathway through BrBRI1 proteins

85-95 Download
12

Rapid and efficient quality control of Radix method of 1h NMR and PCA


Zhixia Du, Caimei Gu, Weiguang Ren, Bashir Ahmad and Linfang Huang

Rapid and efficient quality control of Radix method of 1h NMR and PCA


ABSTRACT:

Radix Rheum is one of the most important herbal; and a serious problem of the adulteration or falsification has been discovered in the commercial market. In this study, 42 batches samples collected from different places were analyzed by 1H NMR metabolite profiles together with principal component analysis (PCA). Results showed that the method could distinguish Radix Rheum samples from adulterants, as well as the different species identification. 1H NMR-PCA was used in identification of Radix Rheum and its adulterants for the first time. The developed rapid and efficient method in this study can be used in quality control of Radix Rheum, and as a standard protocol for identification

97-102 Download
13

Molecular cloning and expression of  two genes encoding ACCase subunits of Camellia oleifera (Theaceae).


Baoming Wang, Xiaofeng Tan, Jao Jiang and Lin Zhang

Molecular cloning and expression of  two genes encoding ACCase subunits of Camellia oleifera (Theaceae).


ABSTRACT:

The heteromeric acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) in plant seeds catalyzes the formation of malonyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA, which is the rate-limiting step in de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we cloned biotin carboxylase (BC) and β-subunits of carboxyltransferase (β-CT) genes of ACCase subunits from Camellia oleifera, namely Co-accC and Co-accD, respectively. The full-length Co-accC (GeneBank accession no.FJ965288) was 1901 bp encoded 530 aa, and the coding regions of Co-accD was 1530 bp encoded 510 aa (accession no. FJ965289), which was in the 2574-bp fragments of rbcL, rbcL-accDintergenic spacer and accD. The comparison of genomic and cDNA sequences showed that they were all intronless. Structural analyses showed that their putative amino acid sequences shared high identity with those of other oil-plants, and that they possessed the ATP-binding site, biotin carboxylation site in the Co-accC protein, and zinc finger motif CX2CX15CX2C in the Co-accD protein. Moreover, transcript expressions of the two genes were carried out in cultivars as well as in tissues and fruit development stages of ‘Huashuo’, the former showed that their expression levels in cultivars were almost correlated with oil contentsof matured seed kernels, the higher expression levels, the higher oil content to some extent, suggesting that they could potentially be as molecular markers for selection of higher oil production cultivars. The latter revealed their expression rules in lipid synthesis and accumulation. Taken together, information from our study indicates that they may be significant in the fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis of seeds, thus be valuable for oil yield of C. oleifera.

103-110 Download
14

 Seed reserve utilization and hydrolytic enzyme activities in germinating seeds of sweet corn


Xinxin Cheng, Feng Xiong, Changjin Wang, Hong Xie, Song He, Guanghan Geng and Yi Zhou

 Seed reserve utilization and hydrolytic enzyme activities in germinating seeds of sweet corn


ABSTRACT:

In this study, two sh2 sweet corn cultivars (i.e., the initial seed dry weight for FT018 and TB010 was 0.16±0.02 g/grain and 0.09±0.01 g/grain, respectively) were used to determine the physiological characteristics of seed reserve utilization in germination. The data implied that the weight of mobilized seed reserve (WMSR) and seed reserve utilization efficiency (SRUE) increased with seed germination. FT018 exhibited higher SRUE than TB010 due to its sufficient energy production for growth. Sugar (sucrose and fructose) contents were at different levels in the germinating seed of sh2 sweet corn. The protein content and number of protein species were highest in the early stage of germination. Enzyme activity in the germinating seed indicated that enzymes for starch and sugar hydrolysis were important and that enzyme activities significantly differed at each germination stage and between the cultivars under dark conditions. Succinate dehydrogenase, sucrose synthase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase accumulated in the late germination stage. Thus, appropriate efforts should be focused on improving the seed reserve utilization in sweet corn by identifying the physiological mechanism of germinating seed. 

111-116 Download
15

 Depicting the role of organic amendments for bio available phosphorus release from different sources of rock phosphate and uptake by maize crop


Noor-Us-Sabah, Ghulam Sarwar, Mukkram Ali Tahir and Sher Muhammad

 Depicting the role of organic amendments for bio available phosphorus release from different sources of rock phosphate and uptake by maize crop


ABSTRACT:

A pot study was conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the effect of organic amendments on phosphorus release from imported and indigenous sources of rock phosphate and its impact on growth of maize. Seeds were sown in sand and soil (pHs pre study = 8.15, pHs post study = 8.02, ECe = 1.28 dSm-1, SAR = 4.77 (mmol L-1)1/2, saturation percentage = 29%, Available P = 7.1 mg kg-1, sandy clay loam texture) culture of 1:1 ratio. In this controlled conditions laboratory experiment, two sources of RP; A;. Alwaha rock phosphate (RPB-rock phosphate brown) and B- Hazara rock phosphate (RPB-rock phosphate brown) with 9 different combinations of organic amendments in a ratio of 1:2 were tested. The experiment comprised of 19 treatment replicated thrice using CRD design: T1: control(check P), T2:RPB, T3: RPB+CM, T4: RPB+FCP, T5: RPB+ WS, T6: RPB+FYM, T7: RPB+PM, T8: RPB+PSM, T9: RPB+CP+PGPR, T10: RPB+ ½ PM+ ½ FCP, T11: RPR, T12: RPR+CM, T13: RPR+FCP, T14: RPR+WS, T15: RPR+FYM, T16: RPR+ PM, T17: RPR+PSM, T18: RPR+CP+PGPR, and T19: RPB+ ½ PM+ ½ FCP. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis using R-software for windows and least significant difference among the treatments means. Results suggested that use of filter cake press mud (FCP) proved superior in terms of enhancing P release from RP and subsequent uptake by maize crop.

117-122 Download
16

Impact of biogas slurry fertilizer on growth, quality and biochemical characteristics of ornamental lettuce ‘Biscia Rossa’.


Juan Jiaxiang, Muhammad Khalid, Zhao Hong, Yang Leqi, Muhammad Bilal, Gao Zhaoliang, Tang Dongqin and Huang Danfeng

Impact of biogas slurry fertilizer on growth, quality and biochemical characteristics of ornamental lettuce ‘Biscia Rossa’.


ABSTRACT:

Biogas slurry is a good source of plant nutrients and substituting chemical fertilizers with biogas slurry not only achieve resource utilization of slurry, but also reduce the amount of fertilizer. The present study investigated the influence of different ratios of biogas slurry fertilizer (BSF) on the growth, yield and quality characteristics of ornamental lettuce ‘Biscia Rossa’. Results revealed that BSF significantly (p<0.05) improved the growth of ornamental lettuce on treatment with Z1 fertilizer; the plant height was increased by 12.66% and 16.75%, while leaf area was improved by 19.97% and 42.03%, in comparison with control group. The improvement in yield of ornamental lettuce was noted in varying degrees by BSF. The highest dry and fresh weights were observed in case of Z1 treated lettuce plants. The fresh weight was 33.52%, 44.77%, 43.96% and 49.04% higher than that of other 2 fertilizers and 2 control groups, respectively. Whereas the dry weight was 2.7 and 3.17-times greater than that of two control groups. The biogas slurry irrigation also considerably improved the quality of ornamental lettuce. Moreover, it was observed that vitamin C, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and protein were higher than that of control groups. Contrarily, the BSF led to decrease in nitrate-nitrogen content in ornamental lettuce

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17

Genotypic comparison of determinate and indeterminate soybean lines for yield and yield components


Ammar Khan, Farhatullah, Sania Begum and Naveedullah

Genotypic comparison of determinate and indeterminate soybean lines for yield and yield components


ABSTRACT:

This research was conducted to study the effect of growth habit on yield and yield components of indigenous soybean lines collected from Kurram Agency of Pakistan. Fifteen determinate lines and 15 indeterminate lines were selected and sown in Randomized Complete Block design with three replications for two years (2015-16). Data were recorded on various yield components. Analysis of variance showed highly significant differences among lines, determinate lines, indeterminate lines and determinate vs. indeterminate interactions for all the traits except seeds pod-1. The overall effect of years was non-significant. Lines × year interactions were highly significant. Only indeterminate soybean had significant interactions with years for plant height, yield plant-1, leaf area seed size and 100-seed weight. However, the average performance of indeterminate lines was better than determinate ones for pods plant-1, yield plant-1, plant height, yield plant-1 and seeds plant-1. Determinate lines had significant correlations of plant height with yield plant-1 (0.25), seeds plant-1 with seeds pod-1 (0.55) and 100-seed weight (0.46), pods plant-1 with seeds plant-1 (0.75) and 100-seed weight (0.46). Similarly significant correlations were observed for seeds plant-1 with seeds pod-1 (0.71) and pods plant-1 (0.70). Significant but negative correlations of pod length (-0.21), pods plant-1 (-0.22), days to maturity (-0.21) were observed with yield plant-1 and positive significant correlation with hundred seed weight (0.27) of indeterminate soybean lines. Similarly significant correlations were observed between days to maturity with seeds plant-1 (0.20), pods plant-1 (0.38), seed size (0.28) and had significant but negative correlations with yield plant-1 (-0.21). These results suggested that indeterminate lines had better performance for plant height, pods plant-1, seeds plant-1 and yield plant-1 as compared to determinate lines and can be used in breeding high yielding soybean varieties.

131-134 Download
18

Formulation of biochar based fertilizer for improving maize productivity and soil fertility


Kawsar Ali, Muhammad Arif, Badshah Islam, Zafar Hayat, Asad Ali, Khalid Naveed and Farooq Shah

Formulation of biochar based fertilizer for improving maize productivity and soil fertility


ABSTRACT:

Incorporation of biochar to agriculture field has the potential to be a primary factor in maintaining soil fertility and productivity particularly in nitrogen and organic matter limiting environments. Clear experimental evidences to support this view, however, are still lacking. Keeping in view the significance of biochar and limited information on its role in crop production, the current experiments were designed to evaluate the potential use of biochar in crop production for 2 years. The experiment consisted of three factors namely: (1) Biochar (0, 25 and 50 ton ha-1), (2) FYM (5 and 10 ton ha-1) and (3) nitrogen (75 and 150 kg ha-1). A control treatment (all at nil level) was included in the experiment for comparison. All the treatments were replicated three time in RCB design at New Developmental Farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar Pakistan. As per expectation inorganic N and FYM application increased maize yield in comparison to control. Furthermore, BC treatments increased maize grain ear-1 and grain yield by 21 and 11% over no BC treatments (where FYM and N was applied but no biochar) while caused 29 and 35% in comparison to control respectively. Similarly, maize biological yield was increased by 14 and 39% over no BC and control treatments respectively. Beside crop yield, soil properties like carbon content, N status, Phosphorus, crop N uptake and crop P uptake was significantly increased by BC treatment over no BC treatment.  Overall, application of BC showed convincing results as compared to sole application of N and FYM, however, problems associated with BC production in Pakistan are needed to be addressed in future research

135-141 Download
19

Comparative photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll content of four oil peony species from 11 provenances in China


Min Li, Wan Yi Li, Yan Long Zhang, Heng Zhang, Wen Li Ji, Meng Yang Du and Xuan Zhao

Comparative photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll content of four oil peony species from 11 provenances in China


ABSTRACT:

Present study showed the photosynthetic characteristics of 4 wild oil peony (Paeonia, Ranunculaceae) species from 11 provenances in different provinces in China and hereby predicted the seed yields of them. By investigating the leaf gas-exchange factors, light-response curves and Chlorophyll contents of the different peonies in April, 2015, several photosynthetic parameters were analyzed and compared. The daily photosynthesis variation curves of eight origins were bimodal while the rest three were unimodal. Results showed that Paeonia rockii from Lintao county and Paeonia delavayi from Wenbishan mountain had significantly higher net photosynthetic rate than the others, suggesting larger photosynthesis capacity. The analysis of net photosynthetic rate reduction showed that Paeonia rockii and Paeonia delavayi had larger photosynthetic abilities than the other two species. Paeonia rockii from Baokang county had the biggest apparent quantum yield and lowest light compensation point of the all, which enabled it to possess the largest radiation use efficiency and shade-endurance. Paeonia delavayi from Wenbishan mountain had the biggest light-saturated net photosynthetic rate coming with the largest photosynthesis potential. Furthermore, the total chlorophyll content comparison showed strong photosynthesis capacity in Paeonia rockii from Baokang county and Paeonia rockii from Lintao county. In summary, Paeonia rockii and Paeonia delavayi especially Paeonia rockii from Lintao county, Paeonia rockii from Baokang county, and Paeonia delavayi from Wenbishan mountain had advantages in photosynthetic capacity to synthesis organic matters and could be screened as superior provenances

143-150 Download
20

The role of chitosan to prolonge the fresh fruit quality during storage of grapefruit cv. Ray Ruby.


Wassem Ahmed, Rafia Azmat, Abdul Qayyum, Ayaz Mehmood, Shah Masaud Khan, M. Liaquat, Saeed Ahmed and Sumeira Moin

The role of chitosan to prolonge the fresh fruit quality during storage of grapefruit cv. Ray Ruby.


ABSTRACT:

Grapefruit is one of the vital citrus fruit which cultivated in many countries including Pakistan. Conversely, the shelf life of this fruit is rather short under ambient condition. The objective of this study was to extend the fresh fruit quality of grapefruit by using a natural wax coating substance like chitosan. The  coating of chitosan in extending the postharvest life of grapefruit was investigated in relation with the phytochemicals like total phenolic compounds (TPC), total antioxidants (TA), total carotenoids (TC), total flavonoids (TF), etc., and physiological changes including chilling injury (Cl), weight loss (WL), and gases exchanges. The experiment was intended in a completely randomized design, composed of coating with chitosan at three levels, and stored at 8°C with relative humidity is 95.5%. The results indicated that chitosan application @ 140 mg per fruit maintained the highest fruit quality parameters such as, TPC (172.32 mg GAE/100g), TA (72.09%), TC (17.09 mg/100g), TF contents (52.27 mg CEQ/100g), total limonin contents (15.08 µg/mL) with minimum chilling injuries (1.58 %), and fruit rots (0.66%) were also measured. Overall, fruits coated with chitosan had greater external adequacy than untreated ones. The application of the chitosan @ 140 mg per fruit could be used to reduce deteriorative processes, maintain quality and increase the storage life of grapefruit at 8°C.

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21

Suitability of vetch (Vicia sativa L. and V. villosa Roth) cultivars for organic farming conditions


Natalia Georgieva

Suitability of vetch (Vicia sativa L. and V. villosa Roth) cultivars for organic farming conditions


ABSTRACT:

Cultivars suitable for organic agriculture are distinguished in many terms from ones cultivated in conventional agriculture. The suitability of vetch (Vicia satival. and v. villosa Roth)cultivars (Obrazets 666, Liya, Lorina, Vilena, Moldovskaya, Violeta, Viola) to organic farming conditions was determined on the basis of a complex of traits during a three-year experimental period (2012-2014). The block design method was used, at sowing rate of 220 seeds m-2. The seeds were sown in the third decade of March after predecessor oat. The results revealed that cultivar Liya was appropriate for organic production of forage. The cultivar was characterized by high average daily growth rate, greater height, increased branching and amount of formed biomass (aboveground and root mass, by 55.0 and 36.9% over the averages of studied cultivars) - parameters which ensured a higher competitiveness against weeds, as well as uptake and use of nutrients. In addition, Liya was ecologically stable (bi=0.77) and despite the manifested susceptibility to rust (IT = 4, DS = 30.5%), it had high productiveness (4588.2 kg DM ha-1 or by 58% over the average productivity). Suitability for growing in organic farming on certain of the traits (biomass per plant, forage yield, rust resistance) showed and cultivar Moldovskaya, but it had low ecological stability. Violeta and Viola were low-productive cultivars, but with high quality of the biomass and increasing to the greatest extent the content of soil mineral nitrogen because of that they can be used to improve the soil fertility in organic production. Cultivar Obrazets 666 was suitable as a donor for immunity to rust (IT = 0). Cultivars characterized by increased lignin content of the cell walls demonstrated immunity or resistance to Uromyces viciae-fabae

161-167 Download
22

Cloning and characterization of an aux/iaa gene in Populus davidiana × P. alba var. Pyramidalis and the correlation between its time-course expression and the levels of indole-3-acetic in s
Zhihong Yao, Abdul Majeed Baloch, Zhihua Liu, Tongtong Zhai, Chuanying Jiang, Zhaoying Liu and Rongshu Zhang

Cloning and characterization of an aux/iaa gene in Populus davidiana × P. alba var. Pyramidalis and the correlation between its time-course expression and the levels of indole-3-acetic in s
ABSTRACT:

PodaAUX/IAA gene, encoding an early-stage responsive protein to auxin in Populus davidiana × P. alba var. pyramidalis (Shanxin poplar), was cloned. The length of mRNA transcript of Poda AUX/IAA was 741bp, encoding a 248-amino-acid protein product, Poda AUX/IAA ORF analysis suggested that Poda AUX/IAA contained one conserved domain (pfam02309). Predicted molecular weight of Poda AUX/IAA was found to be 27kDa and its theoretical isoelectric point was determined as 8.21. Poda AUX/IAA was predicted to be a hydrophilic nucleoprotein and its multi-sequence alignment analysis showed that it shares high identity in four conserved domains with eight AUX/IAA proteins in other Populus species and these sequences of Poda AUX/IAA shared highest similarity with Pt-IAA14.1 in P. trichocarpa. In this study, we found that Poda AUX/IAA was expressed in both leaves and roots of Shanxin poplar. Three strains of Trichoderma asperellum were used to inoculate Shanxin poplar saplings. Inoculated saplings were cultured for 72 h. It was then found that IAA levels in both leaves and roots of inoculated saplings gradually increased and time-course expression patterns of PodaAUX/IAA was changed along with IAA levels. Results of Pearson correlation analysis demonstrated a negative correlation between expression levels of Poda AUX/IAA and IAA levels in both leaves and roots of Shanxin poplar saplings when compared with control. Negative correlation in inoculated saplings were less significant, probably as a result of Trichoderma inducing.

169-177 Download
23

Effects of nitrogen deficiency on physiology and growth of Fraxinus mandshurica


Yuzhu Zhou, Yongping He, Jiayao Sun, Jiawei Zhang and Yaguang Zhan

Effects of nitrogen deficiency on physiology and growth of Fraxinus mandshurica


ABSTRACT:

This study was to investigate expression changes in biochemical molecules and physiology of Fraxinus mandshurica seedlings under nitrogen deficiency stress. The biochemical and physiological parameters together with gene expression levels undernitrogen deficiency stress were investigated. Differences in nitrogen metabolism key enzymes, ROS-scavenging genes, circadian rhythm genes, and endogenous hormones between nitrogen deficiency treatment and adequate nitrogen treatment were compared. Resistance to stress of the two groups was determined. The results showed that under the nitrogen deficiency condition, biomass and relative growth rate markedly decreased, and Fraxinus mandshurica had greater biochemical and physiological changes in nitrogen metabolism key enzymes and endogenous hormones. Additionally, expression of genes involved in biological clock and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in nitrogen deficiency treatment were greatly changed while compared with that of total nitrogen treatment. In order to resist stress and maintain basic life activities, Fraxinus mandshurica increased its metabolic control, regulated oxidative stress and antioxidant systems, delayed aging, and inhibited their growth viachanging expression of circadian rhythm genes, reactive oxygen species scavenging genes, nitrogen metabolism, and endogenous hormones.

179-187 Download
24

The size of the Nmin soil pool as a factor impacting nitrogen utilization efficiency in maize (Zea mays L.)


Piotr Szulc, Hubert Waligóra, Tadeusz Michalski, Jan Bocianowski, Magdalena Rybus-Zając and Wioletta Wilczewska

The size of the Nmin soil pool as a factor impacting nitrogen utilization efficiency in maize (Zea mays L.)


ABSTRACT:

The article presents the results of 3-year field tests aimed at evaluating the effect of the nitrogen dose balance based on the Nmin content. Nmin was evaluated in the context of the distribution in the soil profile and the effect of the type of nitrogen fertilizer on production efficiency indicators and the use of nitrogen in maize grain. In order to verify the assumptions, we determined the amount of nitrogen collected with grain yield, Nmin percentage in total nitrogen uptake with grain yield, agricultural and physiological efficiency and utilization of nitrogen and nitrogen Nmin content in the autumn after maize harvest. It has been shown that developing maize accumulates mineral nitrogen (Nmin) present in the soil in the rooting zone, especially during dry years. Incorporating nitrogen dose in the algorithm of the soil component pool significantly improves the performance indicators of the component application. It is possible for a fertilizer to exceed 100% of nitrogen utilization when nitrogen contained in the whole profile of maize rooting in the N pool is included. A significant increase in nitrogen accumulation in maize grain in the sulfur variant indicates that this element is a factor limiting the use of maize production potential in the test plot. Including the use of nitrogen-sulfur (N+S) fertilizer in maize and balancing the N dose based on Nmin reduces nitrogen eutrophication of the environment.

189-198 Download
25

Anthropogenic disturbances affect population size and biomass allocation of two alpine species from the headwater area of the Urumqi River, China


Ruiming Zhao, Hua Zhang and Lizhe An

Anthropogenic disturbances affect population size and biomass allocation of two alpine species from the headwater area of the Urumqi River, China


ABSTRACT:

The survival of alpine plants are seriously threatened by increasing anthropogenic activity. Saussurea involucrata and Rhodiola quadrifida are particularly affected because of their high medicinal value. To assess the impact of anthropogenic disturbance on the two species, their population size and biomass allocation were examined at three levels of disturbance at low and high altitudes. Anthropogenic disturbance was the most serious threat to the populations and changed the population density, biomass, and biomass allocation of both species significantly (p<0.05). The changes differed with the species and the altitude, and were also affected by the interaction between these two factors. Population density and biomass of the two species decreased with an increase in the level of anthropogenic disturbance. These results imply that the decrease in population size and in biomass allocation to reproductive organs due to anthropogenic disturbances may make the plant populations even smaller and scarce. Meanwhile, change of making their survival dependent on the extent of anthropogenic disturbance: unless such disturbance is checked and the species are protected, they will probably disappear from the headwater area of the Urumqi River. This influence of anthropogenic disturbances may be potential threats to population ability of survival and reproduction

199-209 Download
26

Anthropogenic sites maintain the last individuals during the rapid decline of the lowland refugium of the alpine-arctic plant Pulsatilla vernalis (L.) Mill


Katarzyna Maria Zielińska, Marcin Kiedrzyński, Andrzej Grzyl and Przemysław Piotr Tomczyk

Anthropogenic sites maintain the last individuals during the rapid decline of the lowland refugium of the alpine-arctic plant Pulsatilla vernalis (L.) Mill


ABSTRACT:

The Tuchola Forest (UNESCO MaB Biosphere Reserve) in Central European Lowlands is an area where the relict populations of the alpine-arctic plant Pulsatilla vernalis (L.) Mill. have survived since glacial periods. However, during the last several years rapid extinction of the species has been observed in this area. The aim of the study was the estimation of Pulsatilla vernalis extinction rate in the Tuchola Forest as well as the description of current refugial habitats. The results show that in approximately last 10 years (from 2004-2008 to 2015) 31% of the previously noted localities became extinct. The decrease in the species abundance (measured by the number of rosettes) affected almost all of still existing populations. The total decrease in the number of rosettes for the whole study area was 70%. In 2015, 88% rosettes grew within or at a distance smaller than ten meters from the anthropogenic habitats such as roads and slopes of railway embankments or lining them ditches. Based on the estimation of P. vernalis extinction rate we concluded that the analysed refugium is disappearing and if the trend will continue for the next few years, the species will probably vanish from the majority of the known localities.

211-215 Download
27

Floristic diversity and vegetation structure of the remnant subtropical broad leaved forests from Kabal valley, Swat, Pakistan


Mohammad Ilyas, Rahmat Ullah Qureshi, Naveed Akhtar, Ziaul-Haq and Arshad Mahmood Khan

Floristic diversity and vegetation structure of the remnant subtropical broad leaved forests from Kabal valley, Swat, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Under the prevailing anthropogenic and deteriorating environmental conditions, subtropical broad leaved forests in Pakistan are vanishing at a rapid pace. Muslim communities living in rural areas pay great respect and sanctity to the graveyards and avoid interference with the natural vegetation in these sites. The relics of the natural climax plant communities can be seen in the Muslim graveyards of almost every village of Kabal valley, Swat. Little attention has been given to the significance of cultural norms and religious beliefs in conserving phytodiversity. The present endeavor was undertaken to quantify the existing phytodiversity from the studied area during 2010 to 2014. Species and environmental data from 40 relevés measuring 10 x 10 m size laid in different Muslim graveyards was stored in TURBOVEG and exported to JUICE for analysis through Two Way Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). The vegetation comprised of an association dominated by Olea ferruginea and Celtis eriocarpa with five distinct communities based on floristic components and environmental variables. Soil moisture, pH, phosphorus, organic matter content and altitude were the main determining factors in establishing these plant communities. The vegetation was stratified with the highest tree layer (17.48±2.94m), shrub layer (1.85±0.28m) and herb layer (65.25±17.79cm). The canopy covered the area about 84.38±11.83%, of which tree layer shared 69.25±16.15%, shrub layer 37.63±11.43% and herb layer56.50±11.72%. In all, 229 vascular plant species were recorded from the sampled area. Mean species richness was 28.83±6.69, followed by Shannon index (2.59±0.32), Simpson index (0.85±0.06) and evenness index (0.78±0.07). The significance of indigenous peoples’ beliefs and taboos in biodiversity conservation has been discussed in the paper

217-230 Download
28

β-amyrin synthase, one of the most important key enzymes for triterpene skeleton formation in higher plants


Yong-Sheng Ma, Rui Yang, Shan Zhou, Yan-Chao Yin, Xiao-Dong Zhang and Ying Liu

β-amyrin synthase, one of the most important key enzymes for triterpene skeleton formation in higher plants


ABSTRACT:

β-amyrin synthase (β-AS) is one of the most important key enzymes involved in mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway. It is a cyclase responsible for cyclization of 2, 3-oxidosqualene into β-amyrin, which is defined as an important branch point between primary and secondary metabolism. It has been found in 37higher plant species. In this paper, we obtained 475 DNA sequences, 220 mRNA sequences, and 99 amino acid sequences of β-AS registered in NCBI by Oct, 2016, andanalyzed conserved domains and the evolutionary relationships between different species with DNAMAN 6.0.3.99 and MEGA 5.0. In order to get the latest and comprehensive information of β-AS, more than 300 papers were searched and 80 of them were reviewed. Pub Med, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Research Gate, were information sources through the search terms of “β-amyrin synthase”, “biosynthesis”, “oxidosqualene cyclases” and their combinations, mainly from year 2010 to 2016. Studies were selected from Science Citation Index journals. All of the references linked to the registered DNA and mRNA sequences in NCBI database were also reviewed. The full-length of β-AS DNA sequence ranges from 3900 bp to 8800 bp, and β-AS mRNA sequence ranges from 2100 bp to 2900 bp. The bioinformatic analysis and a lot of papers show that Gln-Trp (QW) motifs, Asp-Cys-Thr-Ala-Glu (DCTAE) motif, and Met-Trp-Cys-Tyr-Cys-Arg (MWCYCR) motif, are mainly responsible for its catalytic function. So far, the function of β-AS has been verified in 30 species. This paper will lay a foundation for further studies of β-AS and other oxidosqualene cyclases for triterpene skeleton formation in higher plants.

231-243 Download
29

Characterization of grape seed extracts of native to Georgia varieties of Vitis vinifera L


Tamar Goloshvili, Maia Akhalkatsi and Gulnara Badridze

Characterization of grape seed extracts of native to Georgia varieties of Vitis vinifera L


ABSTRACT:

To establish the possibility of application in cosmetology, industry of biologically active additives (BAA) or for other reasonscontent of tocopherol, total phenols, anthocyanins, proline, total proteins, soluble carbohydrates and also total antioxidant activity was studied both in unfermented and fermented seeds of two species of grape vine –Vitis vinifera L. (Georgian varieties Rkatsiteli, and Saperavi) and V. labrusca var. izabella, and in fermented and unfermented berry skin of Rkatsiteli, and Saperavi as well using spectrophotometrical methods. It was revealed that some amount of the studied substances remained in residues of wine making industry (both in seeds and berry skin).Thus there is a possibility of their further processing and application

245-250 Download
30

Physico-mechanical impact on yield of pectin extracted from relatively three new sources


Nausheen Hameed Siddiqui, Iqbal Azhar, Muhammad Shaiq Ali and Zafar Alam Mahmood

Physico-mechanical impact on yield of pectin extracted from relatively three new sources


ABSTRACT:

In the present study the influence of various physic-mechanical factors was taken into consideration to achieve the maximum yield from three new sources of pectin. Three different fruit peels obtained from sapodilla, banana, and muskmelon were included in the study. Among the three fruits investigated in the study, banana recorded highest (10.5%), while sapodilla (4.7%) and muskmelon (4.4%), subsequently. The detailed extraction study with major influencing factors on pectin yield provided comprehensive data for the three new sources, which could become an effective raw material for low-cost pectin manufacturing. The variation in yield occurred due to the different physic-mechanical procedures used to extract pectin from these fruits. The study elaborates the effect of major influencing factors and their collaborative effect on yield of pectin from three new sources while confirming the effects through already two known sources (Apple and orange). The study was evaluated through statistical method to fully comprehend the commutative and individual effects of variables. The results indicated that different variables (Mechanical procedures (MP), pH level, and boiling method (BM)) have significant impacts on the yield of all five fruits. Hence it was concluded from the study that pectin can be extracted from these new sources effectively by applying desired variables of extraction procedure

251-257 Download
31

Micromorphology and histochemistry of trichomes of endemic Nepeta rtanjensis (Lamiaceae)


Jasna Bošnjak-Neumüller, Dragana Rančić, Ilinka Pećinar, Ninoslav Djelić and Zora Dajić Stevanović

Micromorphology and histochemistry of trichomes of endemic Nepeta rtanjensis (Lamiaceae)


ABSTRACT:

Micromorphological and anatomical analyses of the indumentum of Nepeta rtanjensis, a Serbian/local endemic species, were performed by means of light and electron microscopy and described in detail. The leaves and stems bear numerous glandular trichomes, both peltate and capitate, as well as non-glandular unbranched trichomes. A basal epidermal cell, a short stalk cell and a large round head of four secretory cells constitute one peltate trichome. Capitate trichomes are short- and long-stalked and can be divided into two types, based on the number of glandular head cells, and further into a few subtypes according to the length and number of cells in stalk. Capitate trichomes of smaller length with one-cellular or with a bicellular head have been previously reported in different Nepeta species; however, according to our best knowledge, no existing study has reported the presence of long capitate trichomes on vegetative organs in any other species of this genus. 

259-269 Download
32

Significance of seed micromorphological characters and seed coat elements for the taxonomic delimitation of the genus Cleome L. (Cleomaceae) from Pakistan


Sana Riaz and Rubina Abid

Significance of seed micromorphological characters and seed coat elements for the taxonomic delimitation of the genus Cleome L. (Cleomaceae) from Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Seed micromorphology and seed coat elements were studied in 10 species of the genus Cleome L. from Pakistan. Seed micromorphological characters such as shapes, colours, surfaces and seed coat elements were found to be significant to provide the strength to the taxonomic delimitation of the genus Cleome. The genus is characterized by the presence of cleft on the seeds and presence of carbon and oxygen in seed coats. Regarding to the seed shapes and surfaces a variety was observed but reniform and pyriform shapes and reticulate surface pattern were most frequent within the genus. While, on the other hand, seed micromorphological data could also be well correlated with qualitative and quantitative values of seed coat elements to strengthen the taxonomic decisions for the genus Cleome

271-277 Download
33

Phytochemical and antioxidant potential of crude methanolic extract and fractions of Celtis eriocarpa Decne. leaves from lesser Himalaya Region of Pakistan


Ejaz Ahmed, Muhammad Arshad, Yamin Bibi and Muhammad Sheeraz Ahmed

Phytochemical and antioxidant potential of crude methanolic extract and fractions of Celtis eriocarpa Decne. leaves from lesser Himalaya Region of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Celtis eriocarpa Decne. belongs to family cannabaceae. It is commonly found in Indo-Pak subcontinent and is used in healthcare practices. Decoction of leaves is used against amenorrhoea, fruits are used against colic. Powdered bark is used to treat pimples, sprain, contusions and joint pain. Leaves of Celtis eriocarpa were collected from lesser Himalayan region of Pakistan (Murree and Galliyat) in April 2014, and subjected to proximate analysis, qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals and DPPH antioxidant determination after fractionation. Quantitative determination of total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC) and DPPH antioxidant activity was carried out through spectrophotometric methods. Proximate analysis revealed low moisture content, higher protein, carbohydrate and nutritive values. Qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed presence of phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and saponins while absence of alkaloids. Higher TPC was found in Crude methanolic extract (79.96±0.32 mg GAE /g) followed by ethyl acetate fraction (59.62±1.00 mg GAE /g) and lowest TPC was found in n-Hexane fraction (24.97±0.67 mg GAE/g) at p<0.05. Higher TFC was found in Crude methanolic extract (63.88±0.40 mg QE/g) followed by ethyl acetate fraction (55.49±1.22 mg QE /g) and lowest TFC was found in n-Hexane fraction (6.01±0.66mg QE /g) at p<0.05. Ethyl acetate fraction showed higher DPPH EC50 value (324.81µg/ml) while n-hexane fraction showed lowest EC50 value (2981µg/ml) at p<0.05. The mean EC50 value of ascorbic acid at p<0.05 was 10.86µg/ml. As DPPH EC50 value, total phenolic content and total flavonoid content in the leaves of C. eriocarpa is considerably high therefore this plant could be a source of bioactive compounds. This study will be a benchmark for detailed evaluation of therapeutic potential of Celtis eriocarpa

279-285 Download
34

Nutritional potential of Pakistani medicinal plants and their contribution to human health in times of climate change and food insecurity.


Ali Rehman and Muhammad Adnan

Nutritional potential of Pakistani medicinal plants and their contribution to human health in times of climate change and food insecurity.


ABSTRACT:

Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and water are the nutrients that are essential for life and contribute to the caloric content of the body. Due to rapid population growth and climate change, the demand on conventional plants based food would increase in future. It is therefore, necessary to search for the alternatives in order to meet the growing demand for food. As an example, many medicinal plants are being used as vegetables and fruits in Pakistan. These medicinal plants are low in protein and fat, however rich in carbohydrates. Moreover, they are energy’s high source, as 100 g of plants can give approximately 258 kcal energy. In addition, 100 g plants consumption provide over 10-12% of the daily allowance recommended. Similarly, medicinal plants are a valuable source of insoluble dietary fiber and micronutrients. The amount of iron ranges from 0.043 to 422.5 mg/g while the zinc value ranges from 0.04 to 14.8 mg/g. The ascorbic acid ranges from 0.31 to 2035.7 mg/g. Most of these plants are good source of antioxidant and showing high medicinal value against different ailments. However, certain non-nutritional and anti-nutritional compounds are also being part of such medicinal plants. Hence, detailed information on the nutritional status and traditional uses of the documented medicinal plants is of utmost importance in upcoming era of climate change and food insecurities because it will play a significant role in the overall benefits to the health of people. 

287-300 Download
35

Molecular analysis in medicinally important species Carum carvi and Bunium persicum (family Apiaceae) from District Astore


Munam Zehra, Abdul Razaq and Imtiaz Ahmed Khan

Molecular analysis in medicinally important species Carum carvi and Bunium persicum (family Apiaceae) from District Astore


ABSTRACT:

Mountain areas of Gilgit Baltistan (GB) is especially rich in medicinal plant species but unfortunately not much genetic analysis work has been conducted on various medicinally important species native to the area. Two plant species of family Apiaceae viz., Bunium persicum (black cumin or kala zeera) and Carum carvi (cumin or zeera)  are medicinally important species of Gilgit Baltistan and have been used by local communities as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic / antimutagenic, to treat heart problems, thatching and Roofing, spice, condiments and perfumes / breath freshener / lotions industries etc.  Plant material was collected from two locations viz., (i) district Astore (considered as low altitude approximately; 2500 (m.a.s.l.) and (ii) Deosai plateau (considered as high altitude; approximately 4000 (m.a.s.l.). Morphological, biochemical and DNA based markers were used for the first time to estimate genetic diversity in the two species. Two species collected from low and high altitudes showed significant differences for the morphological characters such as plant height, number of branches, canopy area and seed weight. Total seed protein concentration was estimated using UV spectrophotometry. Average seed protein in the two species ranged from 5.59 to 13.05%. Seed protein banding pattern was studied using SDS-PAGE. Seeds of Carum carvi collected from high altitude  showed an extra band which could be used as species specific protein band in furhter charactrization and better understanding of txonomic classification of the species.  Twenty two Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA primers were used for the estimation of genetic distances among the two species.  Minimum genetic distance among Bunium persicum and Carum carvi estimated was 34% (GLD03 and GLK03) while maximum genetic distance among the two species was 100% revealed by 9 RAPD primers viz., GL -A02, -B06, -C01, -D04, -E02, -G07, H09, -K04 and -K09.  On an average the two species from the family Apiaceae showed 81% genetic distance

301-305 Download
36

Pharamcognostical and physicochemical characterization of Amaranthus graecizans subsp. Silvestris: an anatomical perspective


Saiqa Ishtiaq, Uzma Hanif, Muhammad Ajaib, Shabnum Shaheen, Muhammad Shaharyar Khan Afridi and Muhammad Faheem Siddiqui

Pharamcognostical and physicochemical characterization of Amaranthus graecizans subsp. Silvestris: an anatomical perspective


ABSTRACT:

Amaranthus graecizans subsp. silvestris (Vill.) Brenan, a medicinal herb belongs to family Amranthaceae. Pharamcognostical and physicochemical characterization of A. graecizans subsp. silvestris which included; macro and microscopic evaluation, phytochemical and physicochemical analysis of leaf, stem, root, fruit and seeds was investigated. Transverse sections of leaf, stem and root showed the arrangement of different cells, certain tissues that will serve as diagnostic characters to standardize this plant. The powder microscopy of leaf, stem, root, fruit and seed depicted various microscopic structures including; fibres, vessels, tracheids, oil cells, starch granules, cortical cells, cork cells, phloem, collenchyma and parenchyma tissues etc. In fluorescence analysis different colors were seen when extracts were exposed to ordinary and UV light. Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of whole herb exhibited the occurrence of saponins, tannins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, sterols, lipids and alkaloids. Physicochemical analysis i.e. extractive values and ash values were calculated to strengthen standardization process. These findings and estimations will help in characterization, verification and quality maintenance of A. graecizans subsp. silvestris

307-312 Download
37

Impact of arid climate on sex distribution, morphological and anatomical organization of a medicinal herb Aerva javanica (Burm. f.) Juss. ex Schult (Amaranthaceae) in Southern Algerian Sahara


Faiza Mouhoub*, Djamila Chabane, Saida Ouafi And Nadia Bouguedoura

Impact of arid climate on sex distribution, morphological and anatomical organization of a medicinal herb Aerva javanica (Burm. f.) Juss. ex Schult (Amaranthaceae) in Southern Algerian Sahara


ABSTRACT:

“Ahaggar”, is the most arid land of North African regions which faces serious challenges due to the lack of sufficient water and the increase of drought state (prolonged dry-spells or delayed). These arid conditions have substantial negative impact on the harvest yield of agriculture and affect the morphology, anatomy and biodiversity development of many plant species.

This study conducted on Aerva javanica in situ (in its natural setting) should help to analyze how increased temperatures might affect some morphological, anatomical and physiological characters of this Saharan medicinal herb. The effects of climate changes appear to be impacting this plant in its male and female specimen’s distribution, morphology (vegetative and reproductive systems), and anatomic organization in cross-sections taken from the root, stem and leaf.

The anatomical results have also provided the evidence of the photosynthetic mechanism in C4 of this plant. For the first time, we have shown the difference of resistance of this plant by sex distribution, which is really different of other countries of Africa and the presence of two types of assimilatory parenchyma in both leaves and stems. This anatomical adaptation known “kranz anatomy” confers to the plant a high performance in water deficit conditions, salt stress and high exposure to the temperature and to the intense light.

313-320 Download
38

Pharmacological evaluation of Taverniera nummularia DC.


Yar Muhammad Khan, Saleem Jan, Rahmat Ali Khan, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Faizan Ullah, Hizb Ullah and Sultan Mehmood

Pharmacological evaluation of Taverniera nummularia DC.


ABSTRACT:

The current study was focused on the phytochemical investigation and pharmacological activities of the various solvent fractions (methanolic, n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and water) of Taverniera nummularia (T. nummularia). The various solvent fractions were screened for phytochemicals, antibacterial assay, antifungal assay, DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification effects on human blood lymphocytes under H2O2 induced stress. Methanolic extract of T. nummularia showed significantly higher antibacterial activity against S. aureus as compared to other fractions (p<0.05). The ethyl acetate, n-hexane and chloroform fractions exhibited significantly higher antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. The ranking of various fractions for antibacterial activity against E. coli was methanolic = ethyl acetate = aqueous > n-hexane = chloroform. Maximum antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigates (59.25%), Aspergillus flavus (62.02%) and Aspergillus niger (64%) was shown by chloroform fraction. Antioxidant activity was higher for n-hexane, aqueous, methanolic and ethyl acetate fractions. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities of the human blood lymphocytes were significantly decreased under H2O2 induced oxidative stress (p<0.05). The activities of the antioxidant enzymes were significantly improved by the various leaf fractions of T. nummularia at 50 µg/ml under H2O2 stress; methanol and aqueous fractions being the most effective ones. The increase in antioxidant enzymes activities resulted in a significant decrease in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) content

321-328 Download
39

 Male and female gametophyte development of flue-cured tobacco Nanjiang 3


Yinan Zhang, Kaiyue Gao, Zuren Li, Zhichao Ji and Haimin Liao

 Male and female gametophyte development of flue-cured tobacco Nanjiang 3


ABSTRACT:

Flue-cured Tobacco Nanjiang 3 was a kind of main cultivated varieties in Guizhou province. Its anatomical structure of microsporogenesis, megasporogenesis and development of male and female gametophyte were observed by paraffin section method. The results showed that, the anther wall is defined as basic development type with glandular tapetum. Microspore mother cell undergoes simultaneous division with two kinds of tetrad arrangements: tetrahedral or decussate type. The mature pollens belong to 2 cells type and have three or four apertures. The ovule of Flue-cured Tobacco Nanjiang 3 is anatropous and thin nucellus. The archesporial cell develops to megaspore mother cell directly and has larger volume. Four megaspore cells form a linear tetrad. The development pattern of embryo sac is Polygonum type, finally forms 7-celled and 8-nucleate mature embryo sac. Stamens develop earlier than gynoecium and the period of microsporogenesis, megasporogenesis and development of male and female gametophyte can be judged by appearance of the flower bud

329-335 Download
40

 A comparative analysis of medicinal and aromatic plants used in the traditional medicine of Iğdir (Turkey), Nakhchivan (Azerbaijan) and Tabriz (Iran)


Munir Ozturk, Ernaz Altundağ, Sayyara Jamshid, Volkan Altay and Behnaz Aslanipour

 A comparative analysis of medicinal and aromatic plants used in the traditional medicine of Iğdir (Turkey), Nakhchivan (Azerbaijan) and Tabriz (Iran)


ABSTRACT:

A total of 341 naturally distributed taxa belonging to 65 families are used in the traditional medicine in Iğdır (Turkey), Nakhchivan (Azerbaijan), and Tabriz (Iran). Local people in three different regions generally use herbal remedies for digestive, respiratory, urogenital systems, as well as dermal, neurological and psyschological diseases. On the basis of localities three highly prevelant usesin Iğdır are colds (32 taxa), stomach disorders (28 taxa), and cough (24 taxa); in Nakhchivan rheumatism (24 taxa), gastrointestinal disorders (24 taxa), and anthelmintic (20 taxa), and in Tabriz diuretic (24 taxa), fever (22 taxa), and cough (20 taxa). Our findings reveal that in these three areas belonging to three neighbouring countries 4 taxa are widely distributed and used almost forthe same applications; Glycyrrhiza glabra (for digestive and respiratory systems), Malus sylvestris ssp. orientalis (for respiratory system), Rosa canina (for digestive and urinogenital systems), and Urtica dioica (for digestive system). The studied areas show several resemblances from cultural and other aspects. 

337-343 Download
41

Micropropagation of nucellar embryos and their histological comparative study for regeneration ability with other explants of kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco)


Syeda Kahkashan Kazmi, Saifullah Khan, Ameer Ahmed Mirbahar and Nurul Kabir

Micropropagation of nucellar embryos and their histological comparative study for regeneration ability with other explants of kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco)


ABSTRACT:

Polyembryony is the most beneficial and distinct character in citrus seeds. This characteristic can be beneficial in citrus improvement programs. Nucellar embryos developed from nucellar wall in citrus seeds along with zygotic embryo are found to have high plants regeneration ability in comparison to zygotic embryos. Under In vitro culture conditions, nucellar embryos were detected and multiplied on MT media with 0.5ml of coconut water along with 50g/L sucrose. These nucellar embryonic tissues were also regenerated on MT media supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L kinetin. Many shoots were regenerated from nucellar embryonic tissue; these shoots were rooted on MT media supplemented with IBA 0.5mg/L and NAA 0.1 mg/L in addition to activated charcoal 0.5gm/L. The resulting plantlets were acclimatized in the green house. After micropropagation, histological studies of nucellar embryonic tissues were carried out under fluorescence microscope to examine their high regeneration ability in comparison with usual plant parts, like seeds, shoots as well as with tissue culture stages including embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus. It was found that nucellar embryos have more regeneration ability as compared to usual plant parts and other tissue culture stages

345-353 Download
42

Weed control measures for controlling the density of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)


Muhammad Ramzan Anser, Ijaz Ahmad, Sabir Hussain Shah, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar, Muhammad Sohail Raza and Muhammad Azim Malik

Weed control measures for controlling the density of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)


ABSTRACT:

Canada thistle [Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.] is a major weed in semi-arid areas of Punjab, Pakistan. studies were conducted during 2010-11 and 2011-12 at University Research Farm, Chakwal road, Rawalpindi to study Canada thistle control and density dynamics in wheat grown under contrasting environments and diverse cultural, mechanical and chemical thistle control measures. Experiments were carried out in randomized complete block design with four replications. Canada thistle density was monitored at five stages during wheat growing season. The results revealed during wet winter season, Canada thistle was effectively controlled (90-97%) when dry-season tillage was integrated with fertilizer placement in a strip along crop row and with single application of full dose of clopyralid. The drier winter season witnessed significant thistle control (91%) with half dose of clopyralid when integrated with dry-season tillage, fertilizer placement followed by inter-row cultivation and remained at par with experimental treatment where full dose of clopyralid was applied. The thistle dynamics data showed that higher thistle re-sprouting during wetter environment decreased efficiency of thistle control in cultural and mechanical control measures applied either in integrated or sole fashion

355-363 Download
43

 Dendrochronological potential of Abies pindrow Royle from Indus Kohistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Pakistan


Adam Khan, Moinuddin Ahmed, Muhammad Faheem Siddiqui, Javed Iqbal and Narayan Prasad Gaire

 Dendrochronological potential of Abies pindrow Royle from Indus Kohistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The study was conducted to evaluate the dendrochronological potential of Abies pindrow Royle from Indus Kohistan, KPK, Pakistan. Forty wood samples in the form of cores were obtained from twenty healthy trees. The results of quality control programs COFECHA showed that the all cores exhibited high correlation with master chronology i.e.0.411 to 0.763, high mean sensitivity 0.186 and mean ring width 1.42 mm. The present study explored the first dated 394 years (1620-2014AD) chronology from Indus Kohistan. On the basis of this investigation, it is suggested that this species show high dendrochronological potential and can be used for the determination of past climatic fluctuations. However, for better results the sample size should be increased, since from year 1620 to year 1700 sample size was small

365-369 Download
44

 Bioassay evaluation of the potential allelopathic effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) root exudates on lettuce and cucumber


Haiyan Ding, Imran Ahmad, Ahmad Ali, Abdul Rehman Khan and Zhihui Cheng

 Bioassay evaluation of the potential allelopathic effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) root exudates on lettuce and cucumber


ABSTRACT:

Two experiments were carried out to assay the allelopathic effects of garlic root exudates on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce and cucumber. In the first experiment, a hydroponic method was adopted to collect garlic root exudates to simulate the natural secretion. Both the primary aqueous solution and different concentrations (10%, 12.5%, 25%, 50% and 100%) of the three different organic extracts of petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EA) and methanol (MA) were tested for lettuce. The results indicated that the primary aqueous solution showed a significant suppressive effect on germination and root length, but a stimulative effect on antioxidant enzyme activities in lettuce. The three organic extracts showed dose-dependent effects, and the frequency of inhibition amplified with increasing concentration of exudate extract. During comparative intensity evaluation of three different organic extracts, the activity of PE extract demonstrated the highest allelopathic reaction for seed germination and root morphology. The second experiment was conducted to eliminate the microbial effects, which might degrade the allelochemicals in the root exudates. Then, a biological test under an aseptic condition was directed to verify the allelopathic effect of garlic root exudates on cucumber. The results exhibited that garlic root exudates had a significant inhibitory effect on the germination of cucumber, but a dose-dependent effect on the growth of cucumber seedlings, thus confirming the results of the first experiment. These results provided a theoretical basis for further research into the identification of putative allelochemicals in garlic root exudates. 

371-380 Download
45

Sequence analysis of microbial community integrating metagenome sequence data obtained from Poa alpigena grassland in the Sanjiangyuan


Ping Fan, Yaou Zhang and Ruiqiang Zhang

Sequence analysis of microbial community integrating metagenome sequence data obtained from Poa alpigena grassland in the Sanjiangyuan


ABSTRACT:

A metagenomic analysis was performed on the soil samples from Poa alpigena grassland in the Sanjiangyuan region of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. The metagenomic results were studied to understand the effect of vegetation change on microbes in Poa alpigena grassland soil. A total of 62,724 ORFs with an average length of 188.9 bp were identified. The sequences were divided into different groups of NCBI taxonomy database and SSUrRNA database. Moreover, unigenes highly enriched in “translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis functions” (115, 18.7 %), “Transcription” (61, 0.10 %), “Amino acid transport and metabolism (51, 0.08 %)” and “Signal transduction mechanisms” (34, 0.06 %). Using KEGG analysis, we found that a large amount of genes were involved in “Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites”, “Microbial metabolism in diverse environments”, “Bacterial secretion system”, Carbon metabolism and Amino acid metabolism, indicating that annotated unigenes might involve in the metabolic pathways in the response in soil restoration.

381-387 Download
46

Transcriptomic characterization of soybean (Glycıne max) roots ın response to rhizobium infection by RNA sequencıng


Qingyuan He, Hongyan Yang, Zhengpeng Li, Songhua Wang, Changwei Zhu and Shoucheng Huang

Transcriptomic characterization of soybean (Glycıne max) roots ın response to rhizobium infection by RNA sequencıng


ABSTRACT:

Legumes interacting with rhizobium to convert N2 into ammonia for plant use has attracted worldwide interest. However, the plant basal nitrogen fixation mechanisms induced in response to Rhizobium, giving differential gene expression of plants, have not yet been fully realized. The differential expressed genes of soybean between inoculated and mock-inoculated were analyzed by a RNA-Seq. The results of the sequencing were aligned against the Williams 82 genome sequence, which contain 55787 transcripts; 280 and 316 transcripts were found to be up- and down-regulated, respectively, for inoculated and mock-inoculated soybean roots at stage V1. Gene ontology (GO) analyses detected 104, 182 and 178 genes associated with the cell component category, molecular function category and biological process category, respectively. Pathway analysis revealed that 98 differentially expressed genes (115 transcripts) were involved in 169 biological pathways. We selected 19 differentially expressed genes and analyzed their expressions in mock-inoculated, inoculated USDA110 and CCBAU45436 using qRT-PCR. The results were in accordance with those obtained from rhizobia infected RNA-Seq data. These showed that the results of RNA-Seq had reliability and universality. Additionally, this study showed some novel genes associated with the nitrogen fixation process in comparison to previously identified QTLs.

389-398 Download
47

Prediction of a candidate resistance gene and development of the LSdCAP8 marker related to head smut resistance in maize


Hong Di, Yanxue Deng, Xinhai Guo, Tao Yu, Shuaishuai Kan, Xianjun Liu, Lin Zhang and Zhenhua Wang

Prediction of a candidate resistance gene and development of the LSdCAP8 marker related to head smut resistance in maize


ABSTRACT:

R proteins, which are encoded by plant disease resistance (R) genes, are involved in many plant-pathogen interactions and thereby regulate plant resistance to numerous pathogens. Some R proteins genes contain a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain and are therefore known as NBS-LRR proteins. In the present study, a SNP was identified within an exon of the candidate resistance NBS-LRR-containing gene ZmNL, which is located on maize chromosome 2. This SNP could distinguish inbred maize lines that are resistant to head smut from those that are susceptible. Therefore, we developed the Derived Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence marker LSdCAP8 from this SNP to efficiently distinguish resistant genotypes among 62 maize inbred lines belonging to six heterotic groups. The correlation between the LSdCAP8 marker genotype and field phenotype was 96.8% and 100% in inbred lines with disease incidences less than 10% and greater than 40%, respectively. This dCAPS marker could be used for highly sensitive selection of germplasm to use for breeding improved resistance to maize head smut.

399-406 Download
48

The scenario of lentil anthracnose in the Punjab, Pakistan


Rubab Altaf, Farah Naz, Chaudhary Abdul Rauf and Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah

The scenario of lentil anthracnose in the Punjab, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Lentil anthracnose disease incited by Colletotrichum lentis Damm is one of the most significant fungal threats to lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) cultivation worldwide. No detailed data on lentil anthracnose presence and its impact with reference to Pakistan is available. Thus an extensive two years (2014, 2015) disease survey was carried to figure out the scenario of lentil anthracnose in thirteen major lentil growing districts of the Punjab province namely Rawalpindi, Chakwal, Attock, Jhelum, Gujrat, Sialkot, Narowal, Mianwali, Khushab, Jhang, Bhakkar, Layyah and Muzaffargarh. Consequently, 162 samples (80 during 2014; 82 during 2015 crop season) were collected from private lentil farms and the government research institutes. Two-three random samples depending on farm size were taken. Districts mean disease incidence (DI) and disease severity (DS) was calculated. Disease was found in 100% areas/locations visited. At individual locations, the maximum mean DI 85 % and DS 9 was found at Noorpur Thal (2014), whereas the minimum DI 5 and DS 3 was observed at Bhadder (2014). Year-wise, the maximum districts mean DI of 69 % and DS 7 was noted in Khushab (2014), while the minimum districts mean DI 19% and DS 3 was observed in Gujrat (2014). Based on two years data, the highest districts mean DI 68% & DS 7 was recorded in Khushab followed by Sialkot DI 63% and DS 7, however the lowest  DI 21% and DS 3 was observed in Jhang. Locations/districts with the highest disease intensity require appropriate support for lentil anthracnose management.

407-413 Download
49

Molecular identification and characterization of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 isolates causing black scurf of potato


MOHAMED EL-ZAIDY, MOHAMED A. MAHMOUD, MONIRA R. Al-OTHMAN AND NAHLA SH. ABDELAZIM

Molecular identification and characterization of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 isolates causing black scurf of potato


ABSTRACT:

Twenty-six isolates of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 were collected from four potato growing area of Saudi Arabia. Yield damages due to this infection is reported to range from 7-64% (average of 35%), depending on many factors. Molecular identification of R. solani AG-3 isolates by ITS-regions and characterization was done by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Twenty-six isolates of R. solani used in the current study were isolated from potato fields in four major potato-producing regions of Saudi Arabia. All isolates were inoculated on potato and observations on the percentage of disease incidence were recorded. Genomic DNA extraction of R. solani AG-3 isolates was used by A specific and sensitive PCR and ISSR primers. A single splinter of nearly 500 bp was only amplified once genomic DNA from R. solani AG-3 isolates. Amplicon size of three ISSR primers ranged from 0.3 to 2.8 Kb in isolates. Using the three primers, the tested isolates were separated on the basis of genetic similarity coefficients (GSC).  The range of the GSC was beginning at 0.62 and ending at 1.00. In unweighted pair-group method arithmetic averages (UPGMA) analysis, the R. solani isolates grouped into five clusters. The present method provided rapid and reliable detection of R. solani AG-3 isolates. Molecular characterization have great genetic variation in the R. solani AG-3 population, without any correlation between aggressiveness, geographical regions and genetic variation based on ISSR markers.

415-420 Download
50

Use of lichens as bioindicators for determining atmospheric heavy metal concentration in Malaysia


Norela Sulaiman, Sophia Fuzya Faezah Mohd Fuzy, Shah Indra Nasution Abdul Muis, Nusaibah Sulaiman and B.S. Ismail

Use of lichens as bioindicators for determining atmospheric heavy metal concentration in Malaysia


ABSTRACT:

Twenty-six isolates of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 were collected from four potato growing area of Saudi Arabia. Yield damages due to this infection is reported to range from 7-64% (average of 35%), depending on many factors. Molecular identification of R. solani AG-3 isolates by ITS-regions and characterization was done by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Twenty-six isolates of R. solani used in the current study were isolated from potato fields in four major potato-producing regions of Saudi Arabia. All isolates were inoculated on potato and observations on the percentage of disease incidence were recorded. Genomic DNA extraction of R. solani AG-3 isolates was used by A specific and sensitive PCR and ISSR primers. A single splinter of nearly 500 bp was only amplified once genomic DNA from R. solani AG-3 isolates. Amplicon size of three ISSR primers ranged from 0.3 to 2.8 Kb in isolates. Using the three primers, the tested isolates were separated on the basis of genetic similarity coefficients (GSC).  The range of the GSC was beginning at 0.62 and ending at 1.00. In unweighted pair-group method arithmetic averages (UPGMA) analysis, the R. solani isolates grouped into five clusters. The present method provided rapid and reliable detection of R. solani AG-3 isolates. Molecular characterization have great genetic variation in the R. solani AG-3 population, without any correlation between aggressiveness, geographical regions and genetic variation based on ISSR markers

421-428 Download
51

Diversity and vertical distribution of lichens on the bark of roadside poplars in Podlaskie Vovoideship (North Eastern Poland)


Anna Matwiejuk

Diversity and vertical distribution of lichens on the bark of roadside poplars in Podlaskie Vovoideship (North Eastern Poland)


ABSTRACT:

A list of 65 species of lichens including interesting and rare lichen species recorded on the bark of poplar in Podlaskie Voivodeship (NE Poland) is given. Herbal data and the results of field studies conducted on roadsides in Podlaskie Voivodeship between 2010 and 2015 are used in the report. Sixteen species of lichens are threatened facing extinction in Poland, e.g., Hypogymnia farinacea, Physconia persidiosa, Pleurosticta acetabulum, Ramalina fastigiata, Usnea hirta. An analysis of the occurrence of lichens in different parts of the tree is presented.

429-432 Download
52

An overview of genetic and hormonal control of cotton fiber development.


Mukhtar Ahmed, Ahmad Ali Shahid, Salah Ud Din, Sidra Akhtar Ammara Ahad, Abdul Qayyum Rao, Kamran Shehzad Bajwa, Muhammad Azmat Ullah Khan, Muhammad Bilal Sarwar and Tayyab Husnain

An overview of genetic and hormonal control of cotton fiber development.


ABSTRACT:

Cotton being white gold for textile industry faces a severe problem of low fiber quality. Pakistan imports about 55,000 tons of long length cotton fiber for which 157 million USD is spent every year. Cotton fiber is a seed trichome that originates as an extension from epidermal layers of the seed coat and elongates to 2.5 – 3.0 cm in about 16 days post anthesis (DPA).Conventional approaches like breeding have not proven to be of much success in fulfilling the requirement of fiber quality. Current approach in molecular studies have helped to describe genes involved in fiber elongation such as CEL, CelA1, CelA1, Exp1, ACT 1, BG, Pel, SuS1, LPT3, GhE6, pGhEX1, GhCESA1, and aquaporins in addition to transcription factors like MYB, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, C2H2 and bHLH families, which might have vital role in fiber cell initiation.

Besides these different genes, phytohormones also have a progressive role in fiber development. Among other factors, the temperature is one of the limiting factors that directly influence cotton boll maturation and fiber elongation. The optimum temperature required for fiber elongation is slightly lower than that required for boll maturation. Cotton fiber is pure cellulose, a type of carbohydrates, which are influenced by inactivation of invertase enzyme at high temperature. Denaturation of Invertase results in poor fiber characteristics. Modern trends in molecular mechanisms that govern fiber development focus on elongation processes by regulating redox levels. Moreover GAST1-like, Cop1/BONZAI and Pex1, highly contribute to the regulation of fiber cell elongation by controlling H2O2 levels under cell stress. Over expression of one or multiple fiber-related traits through genetic modification could be an excellent strategy to overcome the problem of low fiber quality in cotton.

433-443 Download
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