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Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles ameliorate biotic stress in rice (Oryza sativa) by intricating biochemical and mineral profile

Muhammad Ejaz, Naveed Iqbal Raja, Said Akbar Khan, Zia-Ur-Rehman Mashwani, Asma Hanif, Muhammad Iqbal, Mubashir Hussain, Asad Syed, Rana Khalid Iqbal, Huma Qureshi, Tauseef Anwar and Abdul Rauf

Due to its cost-effectiveness and eco-friendliness, plant-mediated nanomaterial production has been gaining prominence. The current study aimed to determine how biosynthesized AgNPs affected rice under biotic stress in terms of its biochemical characteristics, aflatoxin B1 levels, and mineral profiling. By an extract from Moringa oleifera leaves, AgNPs were biosynthesized and then characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), zeta analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Before applying the Aspergillus flavus inoculum, different concentrations of biosynthesized AgNPs (25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg) were exogenously administered to rice plants at the heading stage. High activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (2.91 nmol/min/mg), peroxidase (POD) (2.84 nmol/, min/mg), and catalase (CAT) (2.79 nmol/min/mg), and enhanced levels of proline (2.75 µg/ mL FW) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (8.5 µmol/g FW) were observed in rice plants exposed to biotic stress alone. However, the application of biosynthesized AgNPs significantly reduced the production of antioxidative enzymes and non-enzymatic compounds by inhibiting the intensity of biotic stress. Likewise, the aflatoxin B1 level (25.1 µg/kg FW) was maximum in rice grains of those rice plants which were only subjected to biotic stress; however, the application of biosynthesized AgNP sunder biotic stress significantly reduced the aflatoxin B1 level (10.6 µg/kg) at 50 mg/kg AgNPs. The application of 50 mg/kg biosynthesized AgNPs under the biotic stress proved to be the most suitable concentration for the biochemical response, aflatoxin B1, in rice. The concentrations exceeding 50 mg/kg of biosynthesized AgNPs induced toxic effects, thus increasing the levels of biochemical attributes, aflatoxin B1, and Ag content. Additionally, Ca (0.6%), Fe (0.25%), and P (0.06%) content of rice grains also exhibited improvement at 50 mg/kg biosynthesized AgNPs under biotic stress. In conclusion, applying biosynthesized AgNPs may act as an anti-fungal agent, controlling the aflatoxin B1 level in rice grains and improving mineral profiling

To Cite this article: Ejaz, M., N.I. Raja, S.A. Khan, Z.R. Mashwani, A. Hanif, M. Iqbal, M. Hussain, A. Syed, R.K. Iqbal, H. Qureshi, T. Anwar and A. Rauf. 2023. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles ameliorate biotic stress in rice (Oryza sativa) by intricating biochemical and mineral profile. Pak. J. Bot., 55(6): DOI:  

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